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mass is 310 in 50 g of water. The freezing point was found to be 0. 762 oC.

How many moles of solute particles are formed from each mole of solute.

Given kf of water = 1.86K kg mol-1 .

Tf = i Kf m

Or i = Tf

Kf m

eq.(1)

Kilogram of solvent

= 1.27 g x mol x 1000 Kg-1

310 g x 50

= 0.819 mol Kg-1 or 0.819 m

i = 0.762 K x m

1.86 K x 0.819m

=5

Ans = 5 moles / mole of solute

20- In a mountainous location, the boiling point of pure water is 95 oC. How many

grams of NaCl must be added to 2 kg of water so that the boiling point of

100oC is realized?

Tb = i Kb m

Tb = Tsolution Tsolvent

Tb = 100 C 95 C

= 5 C or 5 K

For NaCl i= 2

Tb = m

i Kb

or m = 5 K x m

2 x 0.52 K

= 4.807m

1

2000 g of water contains moles of NaCl = 4.807 mol x 2000 g

1000 g

= 9.614 mol

or mass of NaCl added = 9.614 mol x 58.5 g mol -1 = 562.419g

Ans = 562.42 g

21- 3.33 kg of ethylene glycol is mixed with1.0 L of water is used as an

antifreeze in car radiators up to what temperature the solution shall not

freeze?

( density of water = 1.0 gm/ml

Kf for water

= 1.86 K/)

Tf = i Kf m

= 1.86 K x Kg x mol x 3.33 x 10 3 g x 10 3

mol x 62 g x 10 3 x Kg

= 99.9 K or 99.9C

= Tf ( solvent ) Tf ( solution )

Tf

or 99.9C

0C

Tf ( solution )

or Tf ( solution ) = 99.9C

Ans =- 99.9oC.

22- When a certain amount of solute is added to 100g of water, the vapour

pressure reduces to one half of that of pure water ( 23.76 mm of Hg). Find

the amount of solute added.

As per Raoults Law

PA

PA

XB

23.7 cm 11.8 cm

23.7 cm

XB

or 0.5

PA

XB

XB = nB moles of solute

nA moles of solvent

1.5

nB

100/18

0.5 x 5.55 = nB

2.77 mol = nB

Ans = 2.77 mol.

23- Two elements X & Y form compounds having molecular formulae XY2 and

XY4 respectively . When dissolved in 20g of benzene, 1.0 g of XY2 lowers

the freezing by 2.3oC where as 1.0g of XY4 lowers the freezing point by

1.3oC . Calculate the molar masses of X & Y .Given kf benzene = 5.1 k/m

Let the molar mass of compound XY2 = M1

the molar mass of compound XY4 = M2

1.0 g of XY2 lowers the freezing by 2.3oC

Tf = Kf m

or Tf = m

Kf

or

2.3 K X m

5.1 K

= m

or 0.451 m

Molality of solution =Number of moles of solute

Mass of solvent in Kilogram

0.451 mol Kg-1 = Number of moles of solute

0.02 Kg

0.451 mol Kg-1 x 0.02 Kg = Number of moles of solute

Number of moles of solute = Mass of solute in grams

Molar mass of solute

Molar mass of solute

( M1 )

Number of moles of solute

M1 = 1 g

0.451 x 0.02 mol

M1 = 110.86 g mol-1

3

Tf = Kf m

or Tf = m

Kf

or

1.3 K X m

5.1 K

= m

or 0.255 m

Molality of solution =Number of moles of solute

Mass of solvent in Kilogram

0.255 mol Kg-1 = Number of moles of solute

0.02 Kg

0.255 mol Kg-1 x 0.02 Kg = Number of moles of solute

Number of moles of solute = Mass of solute in grams

Molar mass of solute

Molar mass of solute

( M2 )

Number of moles of solute

M2 = 1 g

0.255 x 0.02 mol

M2 = 196.078 g mol-1

Ans. = M1 = 110.86 g mol-1, M2 = 196.078 g mol 1

24- The osmotic pressure of a dilute solution of KNO 3 in water is 0.47 atm at

298 K.What would be the vapour pressure of the solution, freezing point

and boiling point?The vapour pressure of water is 0.31 atm.

Assume molarity to be equal to molality.

Kb & kf for water = 0.52 K kg mol 1 & 1.86 K kg mol 1 respectively

= iCRT

Or = C

iRT

or

0.47 atm

= C

2 x 0.082atm L K-1 x mol-1 x 298 K

4

Since M = m 0.0096 mol of KNO3 are present in 1000 g of water

Thus , nB moles of solute KNO3 = 0.0096

nA moles of water

= 1000 g

18 g mol-1

= 55.56 mol

PA

PA

PA

XB

nA moles of solvent

0.47atm x

0.47atm

0.0096

55.56

2) Tf = i Kf m

= 2 x 1.86 K x 0.0096 m

m

= 0.0357 K

Tf

or

0.0357C

= Tf ( solvent ) Tf ( solution )

Or 0.0357 C

0C

or Tf ( solution ) = 0.0357C

Tf ( solution )

or

272.982 K

3) Tb = i Kb m

= 2 x 0.52 K x 0.0096 m

m

= 0.00998 K

Tb

Or 0. 00998 C

or Tb ( solution ) =

or

0. 00998C

= Tb (solution ) Tb (( solvent )

=

100C

100C

Tb ( solution )

+ 0. 00998 C

5

or Tb ( solution)

100. 00998 C

25 A 0.0140g sample of an ionic compound with formula [ Cr(NH 3)5Cl3] was

dissolved in water to give 25 ml of solution at 298 k. The osmotic pressure

was determined to be 119 mm Hg. How many ions are obtained when the

compound is dissolved in water? Suggest the formula of the complex.

= iCRT

or = i

CRT

but C = nB

V

V = i

nBRT

or

= i

760 x 1000 x 0.0140 x 0.0820atmxLx298K

2.79

=i 3

[ Cr (NH3)5 Cl]Cl2 [ Cr (NH3)5 Cl]2+ + 2Cl

Ans 3, [ Cr NH3)5Cl]Cl2.

26-The freezing point of a 0.08 m solution of NaHSO 4 is 0.372 C. Calculate the

dissociation constant for the reaction:

HSO4 H+ + SO42

NaHSO4 dissociates as :

NaHSO4 Na+ + HSO4

Since the concentration of NaHSO4 is 0.08 m

[Na+] = [HSO4 ] = 0.08m

Now , HSO4 also dissociates as : HSO4 H+ + SO42If is the degree of dissociation, then after dissociation at equilibrium

[ HSO4] = 0.08 (1 ) , [H+] = 0.08 , [ SO42-] =0.08

= 0.08 +0.08 (1 ) + 0.08 + 0.08

= 0.16 +0.08

Vant Hoff Factor i = 0.16 +0.08 = 2 +

0.08

Now ,

Tf = i Kf m

0.372 = i x 1.86 x 0.08

=

i x 0.1488

0.372 = i

0.1488

Thus, 2 + = 2.5

= 2.5

= 0.5

or

K = [H+] [ SO42-]

[HSO4]

[H+] = 0.08x 0.5 = 0.04

K = (0.04) x (0.04)

(0.04)

4.0 x 10 -2

Ans. 4.0 x 10 -2

benzene .The boiling point of the solution in acetone increases by 0.17C

while that in benzene increases by 0.13C .Calculate the molar mass of

of benzoic acid in both the cases and justify your result. [K b

Kg mol -1 and Kb

Tb = Kb m

or

( benzene )

( acetone )

= 1.7 K

= 2.6 K Kg mol -1 ]

Tb = Kb x WB x 1000

GMMB x WA

7

Or GMMB = Kb x WB x 1000

Tb x WA

In the first case Kb

( acetone )

Tb = 0.17

GMMB = 1.7 K Kg mol -1 x 1.22 g x 1000 Kg-1

0.17K x 100

In the first case Kb

( benzene )

= 122 g mol -1

Tb = 0.13

GMMB = 2.6 K Kg mol -1 x 1.22 g x 1000 Kg-1

0.13K x 100

= 244 g mol -1

Actual molar mass of C6H5COOH = 122 g mol -1 which means that C6H5COOH

Exist as monomer in acetone and dimer in benzene.Dimeric nature is due to

intermolecular H bonding .

28.To 500 ml of water , 3 x 10 -3Kg of acetic acid is added.If 23% of acetic acid

is dissociated , what will be the depression in freezing point ?

Kf (water ) = 1.86 K Kg mol -1 and density of water is 0.997 g ml -1.

Volume of water = 500 mL

-1

or mass of water = 500 mL x 0.997 g ml -1 = 498.5 mL

Number of moles of solute = Mass of solute in grams

Molar mass of solute

moles of acetic acid

Molality of solution =

= 3 x 10 -3 x 103g

60 g mol -1

= 0.05 mol

Mass of solvent in Kilogram

0.05 mol x 1000 Kg -1 = 0.10003m

498.5

8

CH3COOH CH3COO- + H +

Degree of dissociation = i -1

()

n-1

or (n-1)

= i -1

or (n-1) +1

= i

or 0.23 (2-1) +1

= i

Now ,

Tf =

or

i = 1.23

i Kf m

Ans. Depression in freezing point = 0.229 K

29- Phenol associates in benzene to a certain extent to form a dimer. A

solution containing 20 x10 -3 kg of phenol in 1.0 kg of benzene has

freezing point depressed by 0.69 K. Calculate the fraction of phenol that

has dimerised. Given Kf ( benzene ) = 5.12 K Kg mol -1

=i1

11

n

n = no. particles associated

Tf = i Kf m

Or i = Tf

Kf m

Or i = Tf x GMMB x WA

Kf x WBx 1000

Or i = 0.69 K x 94 g mol-1 x 1000 Kg

5.12 K x Kg mol -1 x 20gx 1000

Or i = 0.633

Substituting the value of i in eq(1)

= 0.633 -1

0.5 - 1

Or = 0.366

0.5

= 0.732

Ans.0.73

9

30-A solution containing 8.6 g per litre of urea was found to isotonic with a 5% of

an organic non-volatile solute (A).Calculate the molecular mass of the organic

non-volatile solute (A).

Isotonic solutions have the same osmotic pressure and hence have same

number of solute particles.

= CRT

1 = 2

C = nB

V

or

nB1RT

V1

= nB RT

V

or

nB2RT

V2

when V1 = V2

w1 =

M1

w2

M2

where w1 and w2 are the masses of the solutes per litre of the

solution.

w1 =

w2 =

= 5 g x1000 mL = 50g

100 mL

w1 =

M1

w2

M2

M2

w2 x w1

M1

or

M2

8.6 g

Ans.348.8 g mol-1

10

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