‫ﻓﻴﺰﻳﺎﺀ ﻃﻨﺠﺔ‬

‫‪www.elghzizal.sup.fr‬‬

‫‪Ö†bä©a@óÜÇ@ÐÔÛa@À@ï¾bÈÛa@ïŽbîÔÛa@áÓ‹Ûa@áîĐ¥‬‬
‫‪@ïÛìĐÛa@ÐÔÛa@À@ï—ƒ“Ûa@ï¾bÈÛa@ïŽbîÔÛa@éàÓŠ@áîĐzni@@@@Robie Maddison @ @ïÛaŽüa@ÒŒba@âbÓ@‘Šbß31@À‬‬
‫‪@ò—äß@¶g@Ý—í@sîy@òÇŠbnß@ò׋¨a@bèîÏ@æìØm@òÜy‹ß@‡Èi@@NæŠìjÜîß@òäí‡ß@À@Honda CR 500 òíŠbäÛa@énuaŠ†@@òЎaìi‬‬
‫‪@ @N@@@@107 m @bça‡ß@@HÞbjÔnŽüa@ò—äßI@‹‚Ła@kãb§a@¶g@ñÐÓ@@väîÛ@160Km.h-1 @òÇ‹i@ÖýĐãüa‬‬

‫ﻧﺪﺭﺱ ﺧﻼﻝ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺮﻳﻦ ﺛﻼﺙ ﻣﺮﺍﺣﻞ ) ﺃﻧﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻞ ‪(1‬‬

 ا ل‬
‫‪D‬‬

‫‪C‬‬


 اق‬
‫‪B‬‬

‫‪E‬‬

‫‪O‬‬

‫‪A‬‬

‫ا‪1‬‬

‫ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺣﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺴﺎﺭﻋﺔ ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺣﻠﺔ )‪(A,B‬‬
‫ ﺻﻌﻮﺩ ﻣﻨﺼﺔ ﺍﻻﻧﻄﻼﻕ )‪(B,C‬‬
‫ ﻣﺮﺣﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﻔﺰ ) ﻣﺎ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﻄﺔ ‪C‬‬
‫ﺧﻼﻝ ﻛﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺮﻳﻦ ﻧﻌﺘﺒﺮ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﺭﻭﺳﺔ ) ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺎﺯﻑ ‪ +‬ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺟﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺭﻳﺔ ( ﻣﻜﺎﻓﺌﺔ ﻟﻨﻘﻄﺔ ﻣﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺗﻨﻄﺒﻖ ﻣﻊ ﻣﺮﻛﺰ‬
‫ﻗﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ ‪ G‬ﻭﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺗﺒﻂ ﺑﺎﻷﺭﺽ ﻣﻌﻠﻤﺎ ﻏﺎﻟﻴﻠﻴﺎ ‪.‬‬
‫ﻧﻌﻄﻲ ‪ OC =ED =h :‬ﻭﺷﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺜﻘﺎﻟﺔ ‪ g = 8,81m.s-2‬ﻭ ﻛﺘﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ ‪ m = 180 Kg‬ﻭ ‪. BC = L = 7,86 m‬‬
‫ﺍﻷﺟﺰﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﺜﻼﺙ ﻟﻠﺘﻤﺮﻳﻦ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻠﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ :@òÇŠbn¾a@òÜy‹¾a (1‬ﻧﻌﺒﺮ ﺃﻥ ﺣﺮﻛﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺟﻲ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻴﻤﻴﺔ@ ﻭﺗﺘﻢ ﺑﺘﺴﺎﺭﻉ ﺛﺎﺑﺖ ‪.‬ﻣﻌﺎﻟﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻳﻂ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﻮﺭ ﺑﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‬
‫ﺭﻗﻤﻴﺔ ﺑﺒﺮﻧﺎﻡ ﻣﻜﹼﻦ ﻣﻦ ﺍ ﻟﺤﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻮﺛﻴﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ )ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻞ ﺟﺎﻧﺒﻪ(‬
‫ﻧﻌﻄﻲ ‪ τ = 0,08s :‬ﻭﻧﺄﺧﺬ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﻄﺔ ‪ G0‬ﺃﺻﻼ ﻟﻸﻓﺎﺻﻴﻞ ﻭﻟﺤﻈﺔ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻠﻬﺎ ﺃﺻﻼ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺍﺭﻳﺦ‬
‫) ﺍﻟﻨﻘﻄﺔ ‪ G0‬ﺗﺘﻄﺎﺑﻖ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﻄﺔ ‪( A‬‬

‫ﻓﻴﺰﻳﺎﺀ ﻃﻨﺠﺔ‬
‫‪v‬‬

‫‪www.elghzizal.sup.fr‬‬

‫‪r‬‬

‫‪ (11‬ﺃﻋﻂ ﺗﻌﺒﻴﺮ ‪ V2‬ﻭ ‪ V4‬ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﻣﺮﻛﺰ ﺍﻟﻘﺼﻮﺭ ‪ G‬ﻋﻨﺪ ‪ G2‬ﻭ ‪ G4‬ﺛﻢ ﺣﺪﺩ ﻗﻴﻤﺘﻬﻤﺎ ‪.‬‬
‫‪r‬‬
‫‪r r‬‬
‫‪ (12‬ﻣﺜﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺠﻬﺘﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺘﻴﻦ ﺛﻢ ﻣﺜﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﻔﺲ ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻞ ‪∆V3 = V4 − V2‬‬

‫) ﻳﻤﺜﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻞ ‪ 1‬ﻭﻧﺄﺧﺬ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻢ ‪( 1cm ↔ 2m.s −1‬‬

‫‪r‬‬
‫‪a‬‬
‫‪ (13‬ﺃﻛﺘﺐ ﺗﻌﺒﻴﺮ ﻣﺘﺠﻬﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﺎﺭﻉ ‪ 4‬ﻋﻨﺪ ‪ G3‬ﺛﻢ ﺍﺣﺴﺐ ﻣﻨﻈﻤﻬﺎ ‪.‬‬
‫‪ (14‬ﻳﻌﻄﻲ ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻞ ‪ 2‬ﻭﺍﻟﺸﻜﻞ ‪ 3‬ﺗﻐﻴﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﻄﻮﻋﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﺮﻋﺔ ﻟﻤﺮﻛﺰ ﻗﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﺭﻭﺳﺔ‪.‬‬

‫‪ (114‬ﺑﻴ‪‬ﻦ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﻛﺔ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﻣﺘﻐﻴﺮﺓ ﺑﺎﻧﺘﻈﺎﻡ‬
‫‪ (214‬ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺘﺞ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﺎﺭﻉ ﻭﺑﻴ‪‬ﻦ ﺃﻧﻬﺎ ﺗﻮﺍﻓﻖ ﻧﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺆﺍﻝ ‪(13‬‬
‫‪ (314‬ﺑﺎﻋﺘﻤﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻞ ‪ 2‬ﻭﺍﻟﺸﻜﻞ ‪ 3‬ﺃﻭﺟﺪ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﻄﻮﻋﺔ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﺗﺼﺒﺢ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺟﻲ ‪160Km.h-1‬‬

‫‪.‬‬

‫‪ (2‬ﻣﺮﺣﻠﺔ ﺻﻌﻮﺩ ﻣﻨﺼﺔ ﺍﻻﻧﻄﻼﻕ ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﺼﻞ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺟﻲ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﻄﺔ ‪ B‬ﺑﺴﺮﻋﺔ ‪ VB = 160Km.h-1‬ﻭﻳﺤﺎﻓﻆ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﻔﺲ ﺍﻟﺴﺮﻋﺔ‬
‫ﺇﻟﻰ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺼﻞ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﻄﺔ ‪. C‬ﻧﻠﺤﻖ ﺑﺎﻟﺸﻜﻞ ‪ 4‬ﻣﻌﻠﻤﺎ ﻧﻌﺘﺒﺮﻩ ﻏﺎﻟﻴﻠﻴﺎ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺼﺔ ﻣﺎﺋﻠﺔ ﺑﺰﺍﻭﻳﺔ ‪ α = 27°‬ﻭﻧﺨﺘﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻷﻓﻘﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺭ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﻄﺔ ‪ B‬ﻛﺤﺎﻟﺔ ﻣﺮﺟﻌﻴﺔ‬
‫‪ (21‬ﻋﺒ‪‬ﺮ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﻜﺎﻧﻴﻜﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﺑﺪﻻﻟﺔ ‪ m‬ﻭ‪ g‬ﻭ‪) V‬ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﻣﺮﻛﺰ ﺍﻟﻘﺼﻮﺭ (ﻭ‪ Z‬ﺃﻓﺼﻮﻝ ﻣﺮﻛﺰ ﺍﻟﻘﺼﻮﺭ ﻋﻨﺪ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻠﺤﻈﺔ ‪t‬‬
‫‪ (22‬ﺃﻭﺟﺪ ﺗﻌﺒﻴﺮ ﺗﻐﻴ‪‬ﺮ ﻃﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺜﻘﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﻄﺘﻴﻦ ‪ B‬ﻭ ‪ C‬ﺑﺪﻻﻟﺔ ‪ m‬ﻭ‪ g‬ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻓﺔ‪ BC‬ﻭ‪α‬‬
‫ﺛﻢ ﺍﺣﺴﺐ ﻗﻴﻤﺘﻬﺎ ‪.‬‬
‫‪ (32‬ﺑﻴ‪‬ﻦ ﻛﻴﻒ ﺗﺘﻐﻴ‪‬ﺮ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﻜﺎﻧﻴﻜﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﺑﻴﻦ ‪ B‬ﻭ ‪. C‬‬
‫‪ (3‬ﻣﺮﺣﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﻔﺰ ‪ :‬ﻳﻐﺎﺩﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺎﺯﻑ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﻄﺔ ‪ C‬ﺑﺴﺮﻋﺔ ‪. V0= 160Km.h-1‬ﻧﻌﺘﺐ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﺛﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻮﺣﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﻤﻄﺒﻖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ‬
‫ﻫﻮ ﺗﺄﺛﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻮﺯﻥ ‪.‬‬
‫‪ (13‬ﺑﺘﻄﺒﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻲ ﻟﻨﻴﻮﺗﻦ ﺃﺛﺒﺖ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﺩﻟﺘﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺰﻣﻨﻴﺘﻴﻦ ﻟﺤﺮﻛﺔ ﻣﺮﻛﺰ ﺍﻟﻘﺼﻮﺭ ‪G‬‬
‫)‪ X(t‬ﻭ )‪z(t‬‬
‫‪ (23‬ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺘﺞ ﺃﻥ ﻣﻌﺎﺩﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﺭ ﺗﻜﺘﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻲ ‪:‬‬
‫‪g‬‬
‫‪. x² + (tanα) . x + h‬‬
‫‪2.v .cos ²α‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪0‬‬

‫‪: z(x) = -‬‬

‫‪ (33‬ﺣﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺼﻮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻔﺼﻞ ‪ D‬ﻋﻦ ‪ C‬ﻟﻜﻲ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﻨﺰﻭﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻨﺼﺔ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻘﺒﺎﻝ ‪ .‬ﻗﺎﺭﻥ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻓﺔ ﻣﻊ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺣﻘﻘﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺎﺯﻑ ‪.‬ﻋﻠﻞ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻕ ‪.‬‬

‫ﻓﻴﺰﻳﺎﺀ ﻃﻨﺠﺔ‬

www.elghzizal.sup.fr 

‫ل ا‬%& G ‫
 "ف‬#‫ا‬d 
‫ر ا‬
3 ‫ا‬
d (m)

@@
@@
@@
@@
@@
@@
@@
@@
@@
@@
@@

25
0
20
0
15
0
10
0
5
0
0

@@
@@
@@
@@
@@
@@
@@

60

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

1
0

t
(s)

‫ ر 
آ ر ا
ارو‬:2‫ا‬ 
‫
ا‬
v (m.s-1)

50
40
30
20
10

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

t (s)

‫ﻓﻴﺰﻳﺎﺀ ﻃﻨﺠﺔ‬

‫‪www.elghzizal.sup.fr‬‬

‫‬
‫‪@ @òÇŠbn¾a@òÜy‹¾a@(1‬‬
‫‪G1G3 G1G3‬‬
‫‪6,4 × 2‬‬
‫ﺑﺎﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻢ ‪ 1cm ↔ 2m‬ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻮﺭﻗﺔ ﻧﻜﺘﺐ ‪= 8,0m.s −1‬‬
‫=‬
‫=‬
‫‪2τ‬‬
‫‪2 × 0,800‬‬
‫‪t3 − t1‬‬
‫‪GG‬‬
‫‪GG‬‬
‫‪12,8 × 2‬‬
‫ﺑﻨﻔﺲ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻳﻘﺔ ‪= 16,0m.s −1 :‬‬
‫= ‪v4 = 3 5 = 3 5‬‬
‫‪2τ‬‬
‫‪2 × 0,800‬‬
‫‪t5 − t3‬‬

‫‪G5‬‬

‫‪ (11‬ﺍﻧﻄﻼﻗﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺗﻌﺒﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﺴﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﺤﻈﻴﺔ ‪:‬‬
‫= ‪v2‬‬

‫‪r‬‬
‫‪v4‬‬

‫‪(12‬‬
‫‪r‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺠﻬﺔ ‪ v 2‬ﻣﻤﺜﻠﺔ ﺑﺴﻬﻢ ﻗﻴﺎﺳﻪ‬

‫‪8,0 × 1/2 = 4,0 cm‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺠﻬﺔ ‪ v 4‬ﻣﻤﺜﻠﺔ ﺑﺴﻬﻢ ﻗﻴﺎﺳﻪ‬

‫‪16,0 × 1/2 = 8,0 cm‬‬

‫‪r‬‬

‫‪ (13‬ﻟﺪﻳﻨﺎ‬

‫‪r‬‬
‫‪r‬‬
‫‪r‬‬
‫‪∆v 3 = v 4 – v 2‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺜﻴﻞ) ﺃﻧﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻞ ﺟﺎﻧﺒﻪ(‬

‫ﻧﺠﺪ ‪∆v3 = 4,0 × 2‬‬

‫‪.‬‬

‫‪G4‬‬

‫‪d v3 ∆v3 ∆v3 4,0 × 2‬‬
‫≈‬
‫=‬
‫ﻟﺪﻳﻨﺎ ﺗﻌﺒﻴﺮ ﻣﺘﺠﻬﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﺎﺭﻉ ‪= 5,0m.s − 2 : :‬‬
‫‪dt‬‬
‫‪∆t‬‬
‫‪2τ 2 × 0,800‬‬
‫‪r‬‬
‫‪-1‬‬
‫ﻋﻠﻤﺎ ﺃﻥ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ‪ ∆v 3‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻮﺭﻗﺔ ‪ 4 cm‬ﻭﺑﺎﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻢ ﻟﻠﺴﺮﻋﺔ ‪1 cm ⇔ 2 m.s‬‬
‫= ‪a3‬‬

‫‪r‬‬
‫‪−v 2‬‬

‫‪r‬‬
‫‪v4‬‬

‫‪(14‬‬

‫‪r‬‬
‫‪∆v 3‬‬

‫‪ (114‬ﻟﻨﺒﻴﺖ ﻃﺒﻴﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﻛﺔ ‪ :‬ﺑﻤﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺩﺍﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺮﻋﺔ ﺩﺍﻟﺔ ﺧﻄﻴﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﺰﻣﻦ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﻛﺔ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﻣﻨﺘﻈﻤﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻞ ‪ :‬ﻟﺪﻳﻨﺎ‬

‫‪dv‬‬
‫‪dt‬‬

‫= ‪ a‬ﻭﺑﻤﺎ ﺃﻥ ‪v = kt‬‬

‫ﺇﺫﻥ‬

‫)‪d(k.t‬‬
‫‪= k = Cte‬‬
‫‪dt‬‬

‫=‪a‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻨﻘﻄﺘﺎﻥ )‪ (50 ; 10‬و )‪(0 ; 0‬‬

‫‪50 − 0‬‬
‫‪= 5,0 m.s-2‬‬
‫‪10 − 0‬‬

‫‪G3‬‬

‫‪ (214‬ﺑﺤﺴﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻣﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻪ ﻟﻠﻤﺴﺘﻘﻴﻢ ﺑﺎﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻧﻘﻄﺘﻴﻦ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻘﻴﻢ‬
‫=‪a‬‬

‫‪r‬‬
‫‪v2‬‬

‫ﻭﻫﻲ ﻧﻔﺲ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺼﻞ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺳﺎﺑﻘﺎ ) ﺍﻟﺴﺆﺍﻝ ‪((13‬‬
‫‪ (314‬ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﻄﻮﻋﺔ‬
‫ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺎ ‪ :‬ﻧﻘﺮﺃ ﺍﻟﻠﺤﻈﺔ ﺍﻟﺰﻣﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺎﺑﻠﺔ ﻟﻬﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺴﺮﻋﺔ ﺛﻢ ﻧﻨﻘﻠﻬﺎ ﻟﻤﺨﻄﻂ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻓﺎﺕ ) ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﺃﺳﻔﻠﺔ(‬

‫‪G2‬‬

‫ﺃﻭﻻ ‪ :‬ﻧﺤﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺴﺮﻋﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻮﺣﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻤﻴﺔ ﺑﺤﻴﺚ‪160 km.h-1 = (160/3,6) = 44,4 m.s-1‬‬

‫‪G0 G1‬‬

‫ﻓﻴﺰﻳﺎﺀ ﻃﻨﺠﺔ‬

‫‪www.elghzizal.sup.fr‬‬

‫@‪ÖýĐãüa@ò—äß@†ìÈ–@òÜy‹ß@H2‬‬
‫‪ (21‬ﺑﻤﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻢ )‪ (O ;Z‬ﻣﻮﺟﻪ ﻧﺤﻮ ﺍﻷﻋﻠﻰ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺗﻌﺒﻴﺮ ‪ Em‬ﻫﻮ‬

‫‪EM = EC + EPP = ½.m.v² + m.g.z‬‬

‫‪ (22‬ﺗﻐﻴﺮ ﻃﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﻄﺘﻴﻦ ‪ A‬ﻭ‪ C‬ﻳﺴﺎﻭﻱ ﻣﻘﺎﺑﻞ ﺷﻐﻞ ﻭﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﺑﻴﻦ ﻫﺎﺗﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻠﺤﻈﺘﻴﻦ ‪:‬‬
‫‪r‬‬
‫) ‪∆E pp = E pp (C ) − E pp ( B ) = −WB →C ( P‬‬
‫‪r‬‬
‫‪WB →C ( P ) = −mg.BC. sin α = −180.9,81.7,86. sin(27) = −6,3.10 3‬‬
‫‪⇒ ∆E pp = +6,3.10 3 J‬‬

‫‪ (32‬ﻧﻌﻠﻢ ﺃﻥ ﻃﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺜﻘﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺗﺰﺩﺍﺩ ﺑﺎﺯﺩﻳﺎﺩ ﺍﻷﻧﺴﻮﺏ ‪ ) z‬ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺻﻌﻮﺩ ( ﻭﺑﻤﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺎﺯﻑ ﻳﺤﺎﻓﻆ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﻔﺲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺴﺮﻋﺔ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﻜﺎﻧﻴﻜﻴﺔ ﺳﺘﺰﺩﺍﺩ‬

‫‪r‬‬
‫‪r‬‬
‫‪r‬‬
‫‪ (31 (3‬ﺑﺘﻄﺒﻴﻖ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﻧﻴﻮﺗﻦ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺨﻀﻊ ﻟﻮﺯﻧﻬﺎ ﻓﻘﻂ ‪∑ Fi = maG = P‬‬

‫ﺑﺈﺳﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻢ‬
‫ﻟﺪﻳﻨﺎ‬

‫‪r‬‬
‫‪r dv‬‬
‫=‪a‬‬
‫‪dt‬‬

‫ﻭﻣﻨﻪ ‪:‬‬

‫)‪(O,z,x‬‬

‫‪dv‬‬
‫‪‬‬
‫‪a = x =0‬‬
‫‪r  x‬‬
‫‪dt‬‬
‫‪a‬‬
‫‪dv‬‬
‫‪y‬‬
‫= ‪a‬‬
‫‪= −g‬‬
‫‪ z‬‬
‫‪dt‬‬

‫‪r a = 0‬‬
‫‪a x‬‬
‫‪a z = −g‬‬

‫ﻧﺴﺘﻨﺘﺞ ‪:‬‬

‫ﻭ‬

‫‪r v = Cte1‬‬
‫‪v x‬‬
‫‪v z = −g.t + Cte2‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻭﻁ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﺋﻴﺔ‬

‫‪v x (0) = v 0 .cos α = Cte1‬‬
‫‪‬‬
‫‪v z (0) = v 0 .sin α = 0 + Cte2‬‬

‫ﻓﻴﺰﻳﺎﺀ ﻃﻨﺠﺔ‬

‫‪www.elghzizal.sup.fr‬‬

‫‪r  v = v 0 .cos α‬‬
‫‪v x‬‬
‫ﺇﺣﺪﺍﺛﻴﺎﺕ ﻣﺘﺠﻬﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺮﻋﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻧﻔﺲ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻢ ‪:‬‬
‫‪ v z = −g.t + v 0 .sin α‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﺩﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﺰﻣﻨﻴﺔ ‪:‬‬

‫ﻟﺪﻳﻨﺎ‬

‫‪uuur‬‬
‫‪r dOG‬‬
‫=‪v‬‬
‫‪dt‬‬

‫ﻭ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻭﻁ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﺋﻴﺔ‬

‫‪dx‬‬
‫‪‬‬
‫= ‪v‬‬
‫‪= v 0 .cos α‬‬
‫‪r  x dt‬‬
‫‪v‬‬
‫‪v = dz = −g.t + v .sin α‬‬
‫‪0‬‬
‫‪ z dt‬‬
‫‪ x(0) = 0 = Cte '1‬‬
‫‪‬‬
‫‪ z(0) = h = Cte ' 2‬‬

‫ﻭﻣﻨﻪ ‪:‬‬

‫ﺇﺫﻥ ‪:‬‬

‫‪uuur  x = ( v 0 .cos α.) t + Cte '1‬‬
‫‪OG ‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪z = − g.t² + ( v 0 .sin α ) .t + Cte ' 2‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪‬‬

‫‪uuur  x(t) = ( v 0 .cos α ) .t‬‬
‫‪OG ‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪ z(t) = − g.t² + ( v 0 .sin α ) t + h‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪‬‬

‫‪ (32‬ﺍﻧﻄﻼﻗﺎ ﻣﻦ )‪ x(t‬ﻭ )‪ z(t‬ﻧﺴﺘﻨﺘﺞ‬
‫‪+ (tanα).x + h‬‬

‫‪g‬‬
‫‪.x²‬‬
‫‪2.v 02 .cos ²α‬‬

‫‪2‬‬

‫–‬

‫‪‬‬
‫‪‬‬
‫‪‬‬
‫‪1 ‬‬
‫‪x‬‬
‫‪x‬‬
‫‪ + ( v 0 .sin α ) . ‬‬
‫=‪+h‬‬
‫‪2  v 0 .cos α ‬‬
‫‪v‬‬
‫‪.cos‬‬
‫‪α‬‬
‫‪ 0‬‬
‫‪‬‬

‫‪⇒ z(x) = − g ‬‬

‫‪x‬‬
‫‪v 0 .cos α‬‬

‫=‪t‬‬

‫‪ (33‬ﻟﺪﻳﻨﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻄﻴﺎﺕ ‪ zD = h‬ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻌﺘﺒﺮ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻘﻮﻁ ﻭﺑﺎﻟﺘﺎﻟﻲ ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻓﺔ ﺑﻴﻦ ‪ C‬ﻭ ‪ D‬ﻳﻌﻮﺩ ﻟﺘﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﺃﻓﺼﻮﻝ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﻘﻄﺔ ‪ D‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﻣﻌﺎﺩﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﺭ ﻧﻜﺘﺐ ‪:‬‬
‫‪0‬‬

‫‪‬‬
‫‪g.xD‬‬
‫=‪‬‬
‫‪2.v 02 .cos2 α ‬‬

‫‪‬‬

‫‪+ (tanα).xD + h = h ⇔ xD.  tan α −‬‬
‫‪‬‬

‫‪g‬‬
‫‪.xD²‬‬
‫‪2.v 20 .cos ²α‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺤﻞ ﺍﻟﻮﺣﻴﺪ ﻫﻮ ) ﺑﻌﺪ ﺇﺑﻌﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﺤﻞ ‪( x =0‬‬
‫‪0‬‬

‫‪2.v 02 .sin α.cos α‬‬
‫‪g‬‬

‫= ‪; xD‬‬

‫‪‬‬
‫‪‬‬
‫‪g.xD‬‬
‫‪ tan α −‬‬
‫=‪‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪2.v‬‬
‫‪.cos‬‬
‫‪α‬‬
‫‪0‬‬
‫‪‬‬
‫‪‬‬

‫‪sin α‬‬
‫‪.cos2 α‬‬
‫‪cos α‬‬
‫‪g‬‬

‫‪2.v 02 .‬‬

‫= ‪; xD‬‬

‫‪2.v 02 .tan α.cos2 α‬‬
‫= ‪xD‬‬
‫‪g‬‬

‫ﺑﺎﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ ‪sin(a+b) = sin a . cos b + cos a . sin b, donc 2 sin α . cos α = sin 2α :‬‬
‫‪2‬‬

‫ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻖ ﻋﺪﺩﻱ‪:‬‬

‫‪ 160 ‬‬
‫‪‬‬
‫) ‪ × sin (2 × 27‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪v 0 .sin(2α )  3,6 ‬‬
‫= ‪: xD‬‬
‫=‬
‫‪= 1,6 × 102 m .‬‬
‫‪g‬‬
‫‪9,81‬‬

‫ﻫﻲ ﻣﺴﺎﻓﺔ ﺃﻛﺒﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺣﻘﻘﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺎﺯﻑ ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﻟﻌﺪﻡ ﺍﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﻗﻮﻯ ﺍﻻﺣﺘﻜﺎﻙ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺧﻀﻌﺖ ﻟﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﺧﻼﻝ‬
‫ﺣﺮﻛﺘﻬﺎ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻣﻦ ﺗﺄﺛﻴﺮﻫﺎ ﺗﺨﻔﺾ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺪﻯ ﺍﻟﻘﻔﺰ ‪.‬‬
‫ﻟﻜﻞ ﻣﻼﺣﻈﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺐ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺟﻮ ﺍﻻﺗﺼﺎﻝ ﻋﺒﺮ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻳﺪ ﺍﻻﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﻧﻲ‬
‫‪elghzizal@live.fr‬‬
‫‪h_elghzizal@hotmail.com‬‬
‫ﻭﺷﻜﺮﺍ ) ﻣﻊ ﺗﺤﻴﺎﺕ ﻓﻴﺰﻳﺎﺀ ﻃﻨﺠﺔ(‬

‫–‬