- Fiber optics Founded the wave theory of light

a. Francesco Grimaldi
b. Edward Appleton
c. James Clerk Maxwell
d. Christian Huygens
ans: d
Proposed the use of a clad glass fiber as dielectric
a. Karpon and Keck
b. Karpon and Bockham
c. Bockham and Kao
d. Kao and Keck
ans: c
Developed the first laser.
a. Charles Townes
b. Theodore Maiman
c. Gordon McKenzie
d. Albert Einstein
ans: b


The band of light wavelengths that are too long to
be seen by the human eye.
a. amber
b. visible
c. infrared
d. ultraviolet
ans: c
The band of light wavelengths that are too short to
be seen by the human eye.
a. amber
b. visible
c. infrared
d. ultraviolet
ans: d
Which color has the shortest wavelength of light?
a. Red
b. Yellow
c. Blue

d. Green
ans: c
What generates a light beam at a specific visible
a. laser
b. maser
c. infrared
d. flashlight
ans: a
Which of the following materials is sensitive to light?
a. photoresist
b. photosensitive
c. light sensitive
d. maser
ans: a
The core of an optical fiber has a
a. lower refractive index than air
b. lower refractive index than the cladding
c. higher refractive index than the cladding
d. similar refractive index with the cladding

ans: c
Is the different angle of entry of light into an optical fiber
when the diameter of the core is many times the wavelength
of the light transmitted.
a. acceptance angle
b. modes
c. sensors
d. aperture
ans: b
The loss in signal power as length travels down a fiber is
a. dispersion
b. scattering
c. absorption
d. attenuation
ans: d
The bandwidth of optical fiber.
a. 900 MHz
b. 900 PHz
c. 900 THz
d. 900 EHz

ans: c
If a mirror is used to reflect light, the reflected light angle is
_____ as the incident angle.
a. smaller
b. larger
c. the same
d. independent
ans: c
What is the specific path the light takes in an optical fiber,
corresponding to a certain angle and number of reflection?
a. mode
b. grade
c. numerical aperture
d. dispersion
ans: a
Is the width of the range of wavelengths emitted by the
light source.
a. bandwidth
b. chromatic dispersion
c. spectral width
d. beamwidth

Quantum theory ans: d Fiber optic cables operate at frequencies near a. 200 MHz c. wavelength . 2 GHz d. Huygen's theory b. speed c. 20 MHz b. direction b. Nyquist theory d. frequency d. 800 THz ans: d When a beam of light enters one medium from another.ans: c Which theory states that light wave behaves as if it consists of many tiny particles? a. Wave theory of light c. which quantity will not change? a.

inverted b. virtual d. a. bending of a beam when it goes from one medium to another d. low wattage light bulb ans: d An object farther from a converging lens than its focal point always has a/an _____ image. fluorescent tube b. splitting of white light into its component colors b. mercury vapor lamp d.ans: c Dispersion is used to describe the a. smaller size . high wattage light bulb c. the same in size c. bending of beam light when it strikes a mirror ans: a Luminance efficiency is minimum for a a. propagation of light in straight lines c.

inverted b.ans: a An object nearer to a converging lens than its focal point always has a/an _____ image. erect b. the same in size c. larger ans: d The wavelength of light has no role in a. virtual ans: d The real image formed by a spherical mirror is _____ relative to its object. a. reflection . a. smaller d. interference c. smaller d. inverted c. polarization d. diffraction b.

19 dB d.009 dB . wavelength dispersion c. modal dispersion d.09 dB b. material dispersion b. refraction c. 0. a. polarization b.ans: c Longitudinal waves do not exhibit a.9 dB c. delay dispersion ans: c What is the average insertion loss of fusion splice in fiber optics? a. diffraction ans: a ______ dispersion is caused by the difference in the propagation times of light rays that take different paths down a fiber. reflection d. 0. 0. 0.

51 dB b.000 hours ans: a .38 dB ans: d What is the lifetime of LEDs? a.49 dB d. 100. 125.000 hours c.000 hours d. 75.000 minutes b.000 hours b. 0. 0. 200. 0.31 dB c.000 hours c.000 minutes d. 150.000 hours ans: b What is the lifetime of ILDs? a. 0. 150. 200.ans: a What is the insertion loss of connector-type splices for a single mode fiber optics? a. 50.

step-index single mode d. coherent and stimulated ans: d - . thermoelectrically cooled ans: c What type of fiber has the highest modal dispersion? a. graded index mode ans: a Laser light is _____ emission. stimulated c. reversed bias d. graded index multimode c. spontaneous d.Photodiodes used as fiber optic detectors are a. a. forward bias c. unbiased to generate a voltage same as a solar cell b. step-index multimode b. coherent b.

LED c.A dielectric waveguide for the propagation of electromagnetic energy at light frequencies. ILD b. microstrip c. fiber optics ans: d Is a non-coherent light source for optical communications system. stripline b. PIN diode ans: b Which type of laser is the simplest to modulate directly by changing its excitation? a. laser beam d. APD d. a. a. ruby c. helium-neon d. semiconductor b. neodymium-YAG ans: a - .

pulse energy / repetition rate d. 400 to 700 nm? a. 10.63 x 10^-22 joules d. peak power x pulse length ans: b What is the photon energy for an infrared wave with frequency of 10^12 Hz? a. pulse energy x repetition rate c.6 x 10^34 joules b.63 x 10^-34 joules c.Which laser emits light in visible range. energy x time b.6 x 10^22 joules ans: c - . 10. argon-ion b. carbon-dioxide d. nitrogen c. 6. neodymium-YAG ans: a Which is the proper measurement of average power emitted by a pulsed laser? a. 6.

inefficiency in populating the upper laser level ans: a Which of the following contributes to the broadening of laser emission bandwidth? a. 5 cm b. 10 cm c. 20 cm ans: d Which of the following does not harm laser efficiency? a. optical pumping of the laser transition ans: a - . coherence of the laser light d. amplification within the laser medium c. atmospheric absorption b. problems in populating the lower laser level d. Doppler shift of moving atoms and molecules b. How far is the real image from the lens? a.A positive lens with a focal length of 10 cm forms a real image of an object 20 cm away from the lens. 15 cm d. excitation energy not absorbed c.

LED ans: d . LSA diode c. molten d.The first laser emitted a. a continuous red beam c. pulses of 694-nm red light b. APD b. pulses of white light from a helical flashlamp d. liquid b. PIN diode d. spontaneous emission ans: a What is the stage of the sand becoming a silicon? a. hot ans: c Which of the following is used as an optical transmitter in the Fiber Optical Communications? a. gas c.

Laser diode d. inner conductor d. core ans: d . 0.17 b. is a. 0. cladding b.75 ans: b The inner portion of the fiber cable is called a. coating c. APD b.50 d. 0. LED ans: a The numerical aperture of a fiber if the angle of acceptance is 15 degrees. Tunnel diode c. 0.Which of the following is used as an optical receiver in fiber optics communications? a.26 c.

semiconductor b. consumer TV ans: d . ruby c. 375 x 10^18 Hz ans: a Which of the following is not a common application of fiberoptic cable? a. 375 x 10^9 Hz d.Which type of laser is the simplest to modulate directly by changing its excitation? a. helium-neon d. 375 x 10^12 Hz b. neodymium-YAG ans: a The laser frequency when the light has the wavelength 800 nm is a. long-distance telephone systems c. 475 x 10^15 Hz c. closed circuit TV d. computer networks b.

refraction b. reflection c. multimode step-index . zero ans: b The operation of a fiber-optic cable is based on the principle of a. dispersion d. less than b. equal to d.Total internal reflection takes place if the light ray strikes the interface at an angle with what relationship to the crucial angle? a. multimode graded-index c. absorption ans: b Which of the following is not a common type of the fiberoptic cable? a. single-mode graded-index d. single-mode step-index b. greater than c.

pulse shortening b.ans: c Cable attenuation is usually expressed in terms of a. modal dispersion ans: d . voltage drop per inch ans: b Which cable has the highest attenuation? a. 95 ft d. 5500 ft ans: b The upper pulse rate and information-carrying capacity of a cable is limited by a. attenuation c. 1 km b. loss per foot b. intensity per mile d. dB/km c. light leakage d. 2 km c.

plastic insulation ans: c The speed of light in a plastic component to the speed of light in air is a. wire braid shield b. the same d.The core of a fiber-optic cable is made of a. air b. Kevlar c. slower b. cladding d. either lower or faster ans: a - . glass c. quartz ans: b The core of a fiber optic is surrounded by a. diamond d. faster c.

immunity from interference b. freedom from interference ans: c Which of the following is not part of the optical spectrum? a. infrared b. ultraviolet c. wider bandwidth d. lower cost ans: b The main benefit of light-wave communications over microwave or any other communications media is a. lower cost b. no electrical safety problems c.Which of the following is not a major benefit of fiber-optic cable? a. visible color d. better security c. excellent data security d. X-rays ans: d - .

700 to 1.000.6 µm b. 186. 0. diffusion of light waves ans: a The ratio of the speed of light in air to the speed of light in another substance is called the .200 nm ans: b The speed of light is a.8 to 1. distortion of light waves d.The wavelength of visible light extends from a. reflection of light waves c. 300.000 m/s ans: d Refraction is the a.000 mi/h b. bending of light waves b. 400 to 750 nm c.000 m/s d. 200 to 660 nm d. 300. 300 mi/h c.

5 µm d. single-mode step-index . dielectric constant ans: c A popular light wavelength in fiber-optic cable is a.a. single-mode step-index b. index of refraction d.7 µm b.8 µm ans: b Which type of fiber optic cable is the most widely used? a. multimode graded-index ans: a Which type of fiber-optic cable is best for very high speed data? a. index of reflection c. multimode step-index c. single-mode graded-index d. 1.3 µm c. 0. 1. 1. speed factor b.

single-mode step-index b. scattering d. 5 mi . dispersion ans: a A distance of 8 km is the same as a. multimode step-index c.b.5 mi b. multimode graded-index ans: a Which of the following is not a factor in cable light loss? a. multimode step-index c. absorption c. multimode graded-index ans: a Which type of fiber-optic cable has the least modal dispersion? a. reflection b. single-mode graded-index d. 2. single-mode graded-index d.

8 dB c. 650 dB ans: c Which light emitter is preferred for high-speed data in a fiber-optic system? a.3 dB c.5 dB b.9 mi ans: b A fiber-optic has a loss of 15 dB/km.9. 9. 8 mi d. The total loss is a. 24 dB d. 5.2 dB ans: a Fiber-optic cables with attenuations of 1. The attenuation in a cable 1.000 ft long is a. 12. and 18 dB are linked together. 3. incandescent b. 49. 7. 4.4.57 dB b.c. LED . 19.8. 29.1 dB d.

either a or b ans: a Single-frequency light is called a. X-ray ans: b Both LEDs and ILDs operate correctly with a. reverse bias c. forward bias b. coherent d. monochromatic . visible b. pure b. intense c. ultraviolet d.c. laser ans: d Most fiber-optic light sources emit light in which spectrum? a. neon d. neither a or b d. infrared c.

phototransistor d. coherent d. pure b.ans: d Laser light is very bright because it is a. white c. photovoltaic diode c. PIN photodiode b. photovoltaic diode c. monochromatic ans: c Which of the following is NOT a common light detector? a. photodiode d. avalanche photodiode ans: d - . avalanche photodiode ans: b Which of the following is the fastest light sensor? a. PIN photodiode b.

400 Mbits/s d. 20 repeaters ans: a - . 3 repeaters b. 1000 Mbits/s ans: c Which fiber-optic system is better? a. reverse bias c. 11 repeaters d. forward bias b. neither A or B d.Photodiodes operate properly with a. What is the maximum rate at 5 km? a. 100 Mbits/s b. either A or B ans: b The product of the bit rate and distance of a fiber-optic system is 2 Gbits km/s. 200 Mbits/s c. 8 repeaters c.

An important requirement for successful transmission system using light. spatial ans: c ______ is a light that can be coherent. reliable. monochromatic and in-phase c. monochromatic ans: b - . interference d. color c. high cost transmission medium d. powerful. strong glass c. narrow beam divergence d. reliable light source b. a. powerful regenerators ans: a What filter is used to block light from a laser and let other light through? a. neutral density b. spontaneous emission b. a.

plastic-clad-silica b.999 % d. a. PCS stands for a. drilling holes d. 99. personal communication system ans: a - . 99. a. getting laser light to pass through air c.99 % c.9 % b. 99. polyethylene-clad-silica c.Coherence of laser light is important for ______. personal carrier system d. holography ans: d The ultrapure glass used to manufacture optical fibers is approximately _____ pure.9999 % ans: d In fiber optics. light propagation b. 99.

5 c. no fixed limit. silica-clad-silica d. Infrared absorption d. serial-clad-silicon ans: c - . 2 b. silicon base-class-silica c. SCS stands for a. 9 d. Ultraviolet absorption c. Ion resonance absorption b. dependent on bandwidth and mode spacing ans: d _____ is the result of photons of light that are absorbed by the atoms of the glass core molecules. suppressed-clad-silicon b. Absorption loss ans: c In fiber optics.How many longitudinal modes can fall within a laser's gain bandwidth? a. a.

its imperfection ans: a What is the unit of responsitivity? . 1963 d. dark current d. spectral response c. 1964 ans: a What parameter of light detector determines the range or system length that can be achieved for a given wavelength? a.Helium laser was developed by A. Javen at Bell Labs in a. thermally generated carriers in the diode b. 1960 b. transit time b. small leakage current d. responsitivity ans: b Dark current in light detectors is caused by a. 1962 c. the absence of light input c.

spectral response c. ampere/volt b. 940 nm ans: d SONET stands for . dispersion ans: d What is the typical wavelength of light emitted from epitaxially grown LEDs? a. ampere/watt c. transit time d.a. 840 nm b. 480 nm d. 490 nm c. responsitivity b. watt/ampere d. volt/ampere ans: b One of the following is not a characteristic of light detectors? a.

Synchronous Optical Network c. a. System Optical Network b.200 nm c.a. Silica Optical Network d. 400 . 300 .2. 700 .000 nm d.000 nm ans: b - . 400 . an attenuation increase caused by bends radiating from the side of the fiber d.1. a reduction in strength of the signal caused by folded dipole bends c. System Optical Fiber Net ans: b Bend loss is a. a reduction in transmitter power caused by earth's surface curvature b.700 nm b.7. all of these ans: c Infrared range for fiber optics.

Optical Time Domain Regeneration d. higher losses d. electric hazards c. length of fiber c. all of these ans: c OTDR stands for a.Which of the following is a disadvantage for plastic fiber optics? a. Optical Transit Direction Return c. Overtime Direct Reference ans: a Which of the following is determined by an OTDR? a. refractive index d. noise immunity b. distance to trouble b. all of these ans: d - . Optical Time Domain Reflectometer b.

05 ans: b A step-index multimode optical fiber has a core diameter of _____ nm. 0.2 c. a single fiber should not be used for a two-way communication mainly because of a. 0.002 ans: a - . 0.01 c. 0. attenuation ans: c A single mode optical fiber has a core diameter of _____ nm. 0. a.02 b. noise d. 2 d. fading c.2 d.Under normal condition.1 b. 0. loss b. a. 0.

stepped index operation d. S/N ratio b.05 c. refractive index c.005 d. impurities b. 0. 0. 0. a.5 b. monomode ratio ans: b - . a. intermodal dispersion d. microbending ans: c The ratio of the speed of light in a vacuum and the speed of light in the material used. 5 ans: b Which is not a possible cause of optical fiber loss? a. glass attenuation c.The graded-index multimode optical fiber has a core diameter of _____ nm.

fusion b. 1 % ans: b - . insulator c. a. butt c. 14 % b. 4 % c. 10 % d. optoisolator b. optical IC ans: a When light strikes a flat polished end of a fiber. both fusion and butt ans: d An IC that represents a short distance one-way optical communications system. glue d. multivibrator d.Splicing fibers means a. it produces a loss of a.

antireflection coating c. backscattering b. cladding boundary at high angle b. absorption c. microbends ans: c - . splicing b. the fiber loss produced can be reduced by a. refraction d. backscaterring electromagnetic materials c. all of these ans: b In fiber optics. higher-order mode refers to a. insulation jacket d. all of these ans: a The following are the cause of light attenuation in fiber optics except: a. defracting signals d.When light strikes a flat polished end of a fiber.

it has weak signal ans: a Optical cable testers are used for a. cancels reflected waves b. non-calibrated light into a fiber d. filters unnecessary signals d. checking maximum distance covered ans: b A function of an optic isolator. checking refractive index b. it has low attenuation d. amplifies signal transmitted c. it has short wave c.Why are visible-light LEDs not used for fiber optics? a. light power out of a fiber c. all of these ans: a An increase in light intensity produces fast optic switching due to . a. it has high losses b.

a. amplification of optical signal c. 6 c. photoconductivity ans: b Light traveling in an optical fiber allows which of the following principles.a. Snell's law ans: d Optical fibers for telecommunications are typically about _____ mils thick and consist of a glass core. a glass cladding of lower index of refraction. high gain d. a. 5 b. and a protective coating. 8 ans: a Material dispersion is caused by the . increase in index of glass b. light theory d. 7 d. reflection theory c. Huygen's principle b.

dependence of the propagation constant on the wavelength d. dependence of the propagation constant on the mode number ans: d The dominant loss mechanism in silica fiber are a. independence of the propagation constant on the mode number ans: a Modal dispersion is caused by the a. dependence of wavelength on index of refraction b. coupling and radiation losses d. dependence of propagation constant on index of refraction c. wavelength independence of the index of refraction c. dependence of the propagation constant on the mode number d. wavelength dependence of the index of refraction b. absorption and radiation losses b. radiation and modal dispersion ans: b . absorption and Rayleigh scattering c.a.

responsitivity b. aperture d. mode b. photon efficiency c.The bandwidth of a fiber is limited by a. dispersion d. product of the bandwidth and distance b. a. quantum efficiency ans: d - . quotient of bandwidth and distance ans: a The _____ of a detector is the fraction of incident photons that produce a photoelectron or electron-hole pair. frequency ans: c Fiber bandwidth is generally specified as the a. sum of the bandwidth and distance c. difference of bandwidth and distance d. wavelength c.

holes and electrons c. PIN c. the excited charge is transported in the solid by a. density d. intensity b. holes and protons b.In solid-state optical detectors. protons and photons ans: b One of the following is not a solid-state optical detector. APD b. a. a. PMT d. photon ans: a - . phototransistors ans: c Optical detectors are square-law devices because they respond to _____ rather than amplitude. anion and cation d. light c.

10 dB b. phototransistor ans: a What is the average loss in fiber splice? a.20 dB d. 0. 0. PIN d. 0. responsitivity ans: c Which optical detector is used when high sensitivity and bandwidth are required? a.15 dB c. PMT b. 0.The _____ is equal to the number of electrons emitted per second times the electron charge. APD c. photocurrent d. optical power c. a. intensity b.25 dB ans: b - .

40 GHz d.Which of the following colors is not found in the visible light wave spectrum? a. 20 GHz b. 1 ans: a _____ is applied to protect core and cladding of the fiber. white c. orange d. 0. red b. 30 GHz c. 50 GHz ans: c The mechanical splice attenuation loss is _____ dB or less. . a.01 c. 0.1 b. 0. yellow ans: b What is the frequency limit of an optical fiber? a.001 d.

directly proportional to its bandwidth b.2 c.4 d.a. fiber insulation c. inversely proportional to the Planck's constant ans: b Refractive index of glass a. silica d. insulation b. 1. directly proportional to Boltzmann's constant d. 1. 1. 1.0 b. 1. a. 1. directly proportional to the Planck's constant c.4 .0 b.5 ans: d Refractive index of diamond. polymer jacket ans: d The energy of the photon is a.

c.01 dB or less c.1 dB or less b. a. optical power meter d.0 ans: d What is the unit of light wavelength? a. spectrum analyzer b. field strength meter . 1 dB or less d. micrometer b. mils d.8 d. fathom ans: b How much is the power loss of the fusion splice? a. 1. angstroms c. 0. oscilloscope c. 2. 10 dB or less ans: b Used to test a fiber optics splice. 0.

sodium chlorate d. none of these ans: a Reflections in many directions. fused coupler d. reflective star coupler c. diffraction c. scattering d. a. lithium niobate b. a. a. tourmaline c.ans: c A coupler which consists of a series of lenses and a partly reflective surface. sphalerite . diffuse reflection b. beam-splitting coupler b. dispersion ans: a Commonly used electro-optic crystal for polarization modulation.

ans: a Which modulation methods are the most widely used in optical systems? a. phase and frequency modulations b. intensity modulation and phase modulation d. polarization modulation and phase modulation c. intensity modulation and polarization modulation ans: d .