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RED CHINA

Peoples Republic or National Socialism?


By William P. Litynski

Yale-in-China: A Political Intrigue?

Former President of Yale University Timothy Dwight (left) U.!. President William "oward Taft (#enter) and President of Yale University $rth%r Twining "adley (right) walk together d%ring a #ommen#ement at Yale University on &%ne '( ()((. The Wuchang Uprising began in China on October 10, 1911. $ll three men were mem*ers of !k%ll + Bones a se#ret so#iety at Yale University. (!o%r#e, -an%s#ri.ts + $r#hives Yale University Li*rary)

In politics, nothing happens by accident. If it happens, you can bet it " #ran$lin %elano &oose'elt

as planned that

ay.!

Yale University in New Haven, Connecticut, U.S.A.

President /eorge ".W. B%sh greets the 0hinese .eo.le in Tiananmen !1%are in Bei2ing 0omm%nist 0hina on Fe*r%ary '3 ()4). The Tiananmen !1%are -assa#re o##%rred in Bei2ing on &%ne 5 ()4).

6i#e President /eorge ".W. B%sh visits 7ed 0hina8s 0ommissar Deng 9iao.ing in Bei2ing on &an%ary ( ()4:. (eorge ).W. *ush is a +e+ber of ,$ull - *ones, a secret society at .ale Uni'ersity. (&ean Lo%is $tlan;!ygma;0<7B=!)

U.!. !e#retary of !tate &ohn >erry (left) is greeted *y 0omm%nist 0hina8s President 9i &in.ing %.on entering the F%2ian 7oom at the /reat "all of the Peo.le in Bei2ing 0omm%nist 0hina on $.ril (? '@(?. /ohn 0erry is a +e+ber of ,$ull - *ones, a secret society at .ale Uni'ersity. (U.!. !tate De.artment Photo; P%*li# Domain)

0omm%nist 0hinese .aramilitary .oli#e offi#er stands o%tside the entran#e of the United !tates Am*assy in Bei2ing 0omm%nist 0hina on !%nday $.ril ') '@('. ($P Photo; 6in#ent Thian)

.ale1in1China2 .ale13ducated 4+bassadors to Co++unist China

/eorge ".W. B%sh B.$. Yale ()54 U.!. Liaison <ffi#er to 0omm%nist 0hina (<#to*er '( ()B5C De#em*er B ()B3)D 5e+ber of ,$ull *ones

Winston Lord B.$. Yale ()3) U.!. $m*assador to 0omm%nist 0hina (Eovem*er () ()43C $.ril '? ()4))D 5e+ber of ,$ull *ones

&ames 7. Lilley B.$. Yale ()3( U.!. $m*assador to 0omm%nist 0hina (-ay 4 ()4)C -ay (@ ())()D Dire#tor of the $meri#an =nstit%te in Taiwan (()4(C()45)

0lark T. 7andt &r. B.$. Yale ():4


U.!. $m*assador to 0omm%nist 0hina (&%ly '? '@@(C &an%ary '@ '@@))

/ary Lo#ke B.$. Yale ()B' U.!. $m*assador to 0omm%nist 0hina ($%g%st (? '@((C Fe*r%ary '4 '@(5)

6ro+inent .ale (raduates - Their Occupation during the ,econd Chinese Ci'il War 7198911989:

7o*ert Ten Broe#k !tevens B.$. Yale ()'( 0hairman of Federal 7eserve Bank of Eew York (()54C()3?)

W. !t%art !ymington B.$. Yale ()'? !e#retary of the $ir For#e (()5BC()3@)

Dean /. $#heson B.$. Yale ()(3 U.!. !e#retary of !tate (()5)C()3?)

0hester Bowles B.$. Yale ()'5 /overnor of 0onne#ti#%t (()5)C()3()

!tanley F. 7eed B.$. Yale ()@: &%sti#e of the U.!. !%.reme 0o%rt (()?4C()3B)

7%ssell 0. Leffingwell B.$. Yale (4)) Partner of &.P. -organ + 0o. (()'?C()3@)D 0hairman of the 0o%n#il on Foreign 7elations (()5:C()3?)

B. Brewster &ennings B.$. Yale ()'@ President of !o#onyC-o*il <il 0o. (()55C()33)

A%gene -eyer B.$. Yale (4)3 0hairman of the *oard of The Washington Post 0o. (()5BC()3))

&. =rwin -iller B.$. Yale ()?( President of 0%mmins Angine 0o. (()5BC()3()

Allsworth B%nker B.$. Yale ()(: 0hairman of the *oard of Eational !%gar 7efining 0o. (()54C()3()

7o*ert Lehman B.$. Yale ()(? Partner of Lehman Brothers F&ewish *anking firm in Eew York 0ityG (()'3C():))

&ames !. 7o#kefeller B.$. Yale ()'5 6i#e President of Eational 0ity Bank of Eew York F0iti*ankG (()5@C()54)

&ames 0. $%#hin#loss B.$. Yale ()@4 U.!. 0ongressman (7CEew &ersey ()5?C():3)

&ohn Ta*er B.$. Yale ()@' U.!. 0ongressman (7CEew York ()'?C():?)

Thr%ston B. -orton B.$. Yale ()') U.!. 0ongressman (7C>ent%#ky ()5BC()3?)

7o*ert -aynard "%t#hins B.$. Yale ()'( 0han#ellor of University of 0hi#ago (()53C()3()

William 6in#ent /riffin B.$. Yale ()(' President of AnglishC !.eaking Union of the United !tates (()5BC()3B)

Frank $lts#h%l B.$. Yale ()@4 !e#retary of the 0o%n#il on Foreign 7elations (()55C()B')

$llen Wardwell B.$. Yale (4)3 -em*er of Davis Polk Wardwell Flaw firmG (()@)C()3?)

&%an Terry Tri..e Ph.B. Yale ()'( President of Pan $meri#an World $irways =n#. (()'BC():5)

6ro+inent .ale (raduates 7,$ull - *ones: - Their Occupation during the ,econd Chinese Ci'il War 7198911989:

"enry 7. L%#e B.$. Yale ()'@ AditorCinC0hief of Time magaHine (()'?C():5)

W. $verell "arriman B.$. Yale ()(? U.!. !e#retary of 0ommer#e (()5:C()54)

7o*ert $. Lovett B.$. Yale ()(4 Under U.!. !e#retary of !tate (()5BC()5))

0harles !eymo%r B.$. Yale ()@4 President of Yale University (()?BC()3@)

"enry L. !timson B.$. Yale (444 0o%nsel of Winthro. !timson P%tnam + 7o*erts ((4)(C()@: ()(?C()'B ()??C()5@ ()53C()3@)

"arvey ". B%ndy B.$. Yale ()@) Tr%stee of World Pea#e Fo%ndation (()?5C():?)

"arold !tanley B.$. Yale ()@4 Partner of -organ !tanley + 0o. (()5(C()33)

Pres#ott !. B%sh B.$. Yale ()(B Partner of Brown Brothers "arriman + 0o. F*ankG (()?(C()B')

A. 7oland "arriman B.$. Yale ()(B Partner of Brown Brothers "arriman + 0o. F*ankG (()?(C()B4)

>night Woolley B.$. Yale ()(B Partner of Brown Brothers "arriman + 0o. F*ankG (()?(C()4')

7o*ert $. Taft B.$. Yale ()(@ U.!. !enator (7C<hio ()?)C()3?)

&ohn !herman 0oo.er B.$. Yale ()'? U.!. !enator (7C>ent%#ky ()5:C()5) ()3'C()33 ()3:C()B?)

&. I%igg Eewton &r. B.$. Yale ()?? -ayor of Denver 0olorado (()5BC()33)

&ames W. Wadsworth &r. B.$. Yale (4)4 U.!. 0ongressman (7CEew York ()??C()3()

&ohn -artin 6orys B.$. Yale ()(4 U.!. 0ongressman (7C<hio ()?)C()3))

/eorge L. "arrison B.$. Yale ()(@ 0hairman of the *oard of Eew York Life =ns%ran#e 0o. (()54C()35)

-orris "adley B.$. Yale ()(: Partner of -il*ank Tweed "adley + -#0loy Flaw firmG (()'5C()B))

0harles -. !.offord B.$. Yale ()'5 -em*er of Davis Polk + Wardwell Flaw firmG (()5@C()3@ ()3'C()B?)

". Eeil -allon B.$. Yale ()(B President of Dresser =nd%stries =n#. (()')C()34)

"enry &ohn "einH == B.$. Yale ()?( President of ".&. "einH 0om.any (()5(C()3))

Tiananmen Square: Revolution Repression or T!e Establis!ment o" a Ne# $orl% &r%er?

Student demonstraters congregate in Tiananmen Square in Beijing, Communist C ina on A!ril "#, $%&%. 'Ullstein Bilderdienst, Berlin(

Students in Tiananmen Square sit in silent !rotest )e*ore t e +eo!le,s -i)eration Army in late s!ring o* $%&%. '.orrest Anderson / 0amma1-iaison(

President /eorge ".W. B%sh greets the 0hinese .eo.le in Tiananmen !1%are in Bei2ing 0omm%nist 0hina on Fe*r%ary '3 ()4) less than fo%r months .rior to the Tiananmen !1%are -assa#re.

Tho%sands of st%dents from lo#al #olleges and %niversities mar#h to Tiananmen !1%are Bei2ing on -ay 5 ()4) to demonstrate for government reform. ($P Photo;-ikami) htt.,;;www.theatlanti#.#om;info#%s;'@(';@:;tiananmenCs1%areCthenCandCnow;(@@?((;

Bei2ing .oli#e .arade thro%gh Tiananmen !1%are #arrying *anners in s%..ort of striking University st%dents on -ay () ()4). The st%dents were in the siJth day of their h%nger strike for .oliti#al reform. ($P Photo;!aday%ki -ikami) htt.,;;www.theatlanti#.#om;info#%s;'@(';@:;tiananmenCs1%areCthenCandCnow;(@@?((;

This file .hoto taken twenty years ago on &%ne ' ()4) shows some of the h%ndreds of tho%sands of 0hinese gathering aro%nd a (@Cmeter re.li#a of the !tat%e of Li*erty (#enter) #alled the /oddess of Demo#ra#y in Tiananmen !1%are demanding demo#ra#y des.ite martial law in Bei2ing. "%ndreds .ossi*ly tho%sands of .rotesters were killed *y 0hinaKs military on &%ne ? and 5 ()4) as #omm%nist leaders ordered an end to siJ weeks of %n.re#edented demo#ra#y .rotests in the heart of the 0hinese #a.ital. (0$T"A7=EA "AE7=ATTA;$FP;/etty =mages) htt.,;;www.*oston.#om;*ig.i#t%re;'@@);@:;remem*eringLtiananmenL'@Lyears.html

$ 0hinese man attem.ts to sto. an a..roa#hing #ol%mn of Peo.le8s Li*eration $rmy tanks on 0hangan $ven%e east of Tiananmen !1%are in Bei2ing d%ring the Tiananmen !1%are -assa#re on &%ne 3 ()4).

This file .hoto taken on &%ne 5 ()4) shows an armored .ersonnel #arrier in flames as st%dents set it on fire near Tiananmen !1%are in Bei2ing. (T<--Y 0"AE/;$FP;/etty =mages) htt.,;;www.*oston.#om;*ig.i#t%re;'@@);@:;remem*eringLtiananmenL'@Lyears.html

$ 0hinese man attem.ts to sto. an a..roa#hing #ol%mn of Peo.le8s Li*eration $rmy tanks on 0hangan $ven%e east of Tiananmen !1%are in Bei2ing d%ring the Tiananmen !1%are -assa#re on &%ne 3 ()4). ($P Photo;&eff Widener)

The 0hinese 0omm%nist Peo.le8s Li*eration $rmy (PL$) m%rders the 0hinese .eo.le on Tiananmen !1%are d%ring the Tiananmen !1%are -assa#re in the early ho%rs of &%ne 5 ()4). The PL$ was re.ortedly %nder orders to #lear the s1%are *y :,@@ $.-. with no eJ#e.tions.

$ vi#tim of the Tiananmen !1%are -assa#re and 0omm%nist 0hinese terrorism

$ 0hinese man in Bei2ing #ondemns and #%rses the 0hinese 0omm%nists after the 0hinese 0omm%nist Peo.le8s Li*eration $rmy soldiers killed a 0hinese man.

0hinese onlookers r%n away as a soldier threatens them with a g%n on &%ne 3 ()4) as tanks took .osition at Bei2ingKs key interse#tions neJt to the di.lomati# #om.o%nd. (0atherine "enriette;$FP;/etty =mages) htt.,;;www.theatlanti#.#om;info#%s;'@(';@:;tiananmenCs1%areCthenCandCnow;(@@?((;

$ 0hinese man dis.lays a leather *elt after he was severely .%nished *y mem*ers of the 0hinese 0omm%nist se#ret .oli#e.

$n estimated (3@ @@@ 0hinese .eo.le in "ong >ong #ommemorate the '@th anniversary of the Tiananmen !1%are -assa#re on &%ne 5 '@@). (Photo, AP$)

-em*ers of the 0hinese 0omm%nist .aramilitary .oli#e mar#h in %nison on Tiananmen !1%are in Peking FBei2ingG 0omm%nist 0hina.

Li% 9iao*o a 0hinese dissident who is #%rrently im.risoned *y the 0hinese 0omm%nist regime in Bei2ing was awarded the Eo*el Pea#e PriHe on <#to*er 4 '@(@. Li% 9iao*o was detained *y the 0hinese 0omm%nists on De#em*er 4 '@@4 and formally arrested on &%ne '? '@@) for #riti#iHing the 0omm%nist Party and #ir#%lating the M0harter @48 .etitions .romoting freedom. Li% 9iao*o was tried and #onvi#ted in a 0omm%nist 0hinese #o%rt on De#em*er '3 '@@) and senten#ed to (( years in .rison. Li% 9iao*o .rotested with st%dents in Tiananmen !1%are in Bei2ing in ()4) and was im.risoned *y the 0hinese 0omm%nists afterwards. (Photo, 0o.yright N The Eo*el Fo%ndation Photo, Bi Yimin)

0hinese .eo.le in "ong >ong demand the 0omm%nist 0hinese government release all .risoners of #ons#ien#e d%ring a demonstration on Eovem*er (? '@@). U.!. 0ongressman 7on Pa%l a mem*er of the 7e.%*li#an Party and a former .residential #andidate was the only mem*er of the U.!. "o%se of 7e.resentatives to vote against a *ill on De#em*er 4 '@(@ honoring 0hinese freedom a#tivist Li% 9iao*o.

2C ina,s !olitical re*orm 3...4 s ould )e gradual, !eace*ul, orderly and controlla)le and s ould )e interactive, *rom a)ove to )elow and *rom )elow to a)ove. T is way causes t e least cost and leads to t e most e**ective result. 5 6now t e )asic !rinci!les o* !olitical c ange, t at orderly and controlla)le social c ange is )etter t an one w ic is c aotic and out o* control. T e order o* a )ad government is )etter t an t e c aos o* anarc y. So 5 o!!ose systems o* government t at are dictators i!s or mono!olies. T is is not 7inciting su)version o* state !ower,. 8!!osition is not equivalent to su)version.9 : -iu ;iao)o, % .e)ruary "<$<

-iu ;iao)o, in is 2*inal statement9 on =ecem)er ">, "<<%


?une $%&% was t e major turning !oint in my @< years on li*e,s road. Be*ore t at, 5 was a mem)er o* t e *irst grou! o* students a*ter restoration o* t e college entrance eAamination a*ter t e Cultural Bevolution '$%##(C my career was s smoot ride *rom undergraduate to grad student t roug to + .=. A*ter graduation 5 stayed on as a lecturer at Beijing Normal University. 8n t e !odium, 5 was a !o!ular teac er, well received )y students. 5 was at t e same time a !u)lic intellectual. 5n t e $%&<s 5 !u)lis ed articles and )oo6s t at created an im!act, was *requently invited to s!ea6 in various !laces, and was invited to go a)road to Duro!e and t e U.S. as a visiting sc olar. E at 5 required o* mysel* wasF )ot as a !erson and in my writing, 5 ad to live wit onesty, res!onsi)ility and dignity. Su)sequently, )ecause 5 ad returned *rom t e U.S. to ta6e !art in t e $%&% movement, 5 was im!risoned *or 2counter/ revolutionary !ro!aganda and incitement to crime,9 losing t e !lat*orm w ic was my !assionC 5 was never again allowed !u)lis or s!ea6 in !u)lic in C ina. Sim!ly *or eA!ressing divergent !olitical views and ta6ing !art in a !eace*ul and democratic movement, a teac er loses is !odium, a writer loses t e rig t to !u)lis , and a !u)lic intellectual loses t e c ance to s!ea6 !u)licly, w ic is a sad t ing, )ot *or mysel* as an individual, and *or C ina a*ter t ree decades o* re*orm and o!ening u!. T in6ing a)out it, my most dramatic eA!eriences a*ter ?une .ourt ave all lin6ed wit courtsC t e two o!!ortunities 5 ad to s!ea6 in !u)lic ave )een !rovided )y trials eld in t e +eo!le,s 5ntermediate Court in Beijing, one in ?anuary $%%$ and one now. Alt oug t e c arges on eac occasion were di**erent, t ey were in essence t e same, )ot )eing crimes o* eA!ression. Twenty years on, t e innocent souls o* ?une .ourt do not yet rest in !eace, and 5, w o ad )een drawn into t e !at o* dissidence )y t e !assions o* ?une .ourt , a*ter leaving t e Ginc eng +rison in $%%$, lost in t e rig t to s!ea6 o!enly in my own country, and could only do so t roug overseas media, and ence was monitored *or many yearsC !laced under surveillance 'Hay $%%@ : ?anuary $%%I(C educated t roug la)or '8cto)er $%%I : 8cto)er $%%%(, and now once again am t rust into t e doc6 )y enemies in t e regime. But 5 still want to tell t e regime t at de!rives me o* my *reedom, 5 stand )y t e )elie* 5 eA!ressed twenty years ago in my 2?une Second Hunger Stri6e =eclaration9 J 5 ave no enemies, and no atred. None o* t e !olice w o ave monitored, arrested and interrogated me, t e !rosecutors w o !rosecuted me, or t e judges w o sentence me, are my enemies. E ile 5,m una)le to acce!t your surveillance, arrest, !rosecution or sentencing, 5 res!ect your !ro*essions and !ersonalities, including K ang Bongge and +an ;ueqing w o act *or t e !rosecution at !resent. 5 was aware o* your res!ect and sincerity in your interrogation o* me on =ecem)er >. .or atred is corrosive o* a !erson,s wisdom and conscienceC t e mentality o* enmity can !oison a nation,s s!irit, instigate )rutal li*e and deat struggles, destroy a society,s tolerance and umanity, and )loc6 a nation,s !rogress to *reedom and democracy. 5 o!e t ere*ore to )e a)le to transcend my !ersonal vicissitudes in understanding t e develo!ment o* t e state and c anges in society, to counter t e ostility o* t e regime wit t e )est o* intentions, and de*use ate wit love. As we all 6now, re*orm and o!ening u! )roug t a)out develo!ment o* t e state and c ange in society. 5n my view, it )egan wit a)andoning 2ta6ing class struggle as t e 6ey lin6,9 w ic ad )een t e ruling !rinci!le o* t e Hao era. Ee committed ourselves instead to economic develo!ment and social armony. T e !rocess o* a)andoning t e 2! iloso! y o* struggle9 was one o* gradually diluting t e mentality o* enmity, eliminating t e !syc ology o* atred, and !ressing out t e 2wol*,s mil69 in w ic our umanity ad )een stee!ed. 5t was t is !rocess t at !rovided a relaAed environment *or t e re*orm and o!ening u! at ome and a)road, *or t e restoration o* mutual love )etween !eo!le, and so*t umane soil *or t e !eace*ul coeAistence o* di**erent values and di**erent interests, and t us !rovided t e eA!losion o* !o!ular creativity and t e re a)ilitation o* warm eartedness wit incentives consistent wit uman nature. DAternally a)andoning 2anti/im!erialism and anti/revisionism,9 and internally, a)andoning 2class struggle9 may )e called t e )asic !remise o* t e continuance o* C ina,s re*orm and o!ening u! to t is day. T e mar6et orientation o* t e economyC t e cultural trend toward diversityC and t e gradual c ange o* order to t e rule o* law, all )ene*ited *rom t e dilution o* t is mentality o* enmity. Dven in t e !olitical *ield, w ere !rogress is slowest, dilution o* t e mentality o* enmity also made !olitical !ower ever more tolerant o* diversity in society, t e intensity !ersecution o* dissidents as declined su)stantially, and c aracteriLation o* t e $%&% movement as c anged *rom an 2instigated re)ellion9 to a 2!olitical u! eaval.9 T e dilution o* t e mentality o* enmity made t e !olitical !ower gradually acce!t t e universality o* uman rig ts. 5n $%%&, t e C inese government !romised t e world it would sign t e t e two international uman rig ts conventions o* t e U.N., mar6ing

C ina,s recognition o* universal uman rig ts standardsC in "<<M, t e National +eo!le,s Congress *or t e *irst time inscri)ed into t e constitution t at 2t e state res!ects and sa*eguards uman rig ts,9 signaling t at uman rig ts ad )ecome one o* t e *undamental !rinci!les o* t e rule o* law. 5n t e meantime, t e !resent regime also !ro!osed 2!utting !eo!le *irst9 and 2creating a armonious society,9 w ic signaled !rogress in t e +arty,s conce!t o* rule. T is macro/level !rogress was discerni)le as well in my own eA!eriences since )eing arrested. E ile 5 insist on my innocence, and t at t e accusations against me are unconstitutional, in t e year and more since 5 lost my *reedom, 5,ve eA!erienced two !laces o* detention, *our !retrial !olice o**icers, t ree !rosecutors and two judges. 5n t eir andling o* t e case, t ere as )een no lac6 o* res!ect, no time overruns and no *orced con*essions. T eir calm and rational attitude as over and again demonstrated goodwill. 5 was trans*erred on ?une "> *rom t e residential surveillance to Beijing Hunici!al +u)lic Security Bureau =etention Center No. $, 6nown as 2Bei6an.9 5 saw !rogress in surveillance in t e siA mont s 5 s!ent t ere. 5 s!ent time in t e old Bei6an 'Ban)uqiao( in $%%I, and com!ared wit t e Bei6an o* a decade ago, t ere as )een great im!rovement in t e ardware o* *acilities and so*tware o* management. 5n !articular, Bei6an,s innovative umane management )ased on res!ecting t e rig ts and dignity o* detainees, im!lementing more *leAi)le management o* t e will )e *leAi)le to t e detainees words and deeds, em)odied in t e Earm )roadcast and Be!entance, t e music !layed )e*ore meals, and w en wa6ing u! and going to slee!, gave detainees *eelings o* dignity and warmt , stimulating t eir consciousness o* 6ee!ing order in t eir cells and o!!osing t e warders sense o* t emselves as lords o* t e jail, detainees, !roviding not only a umaniLed living environment, )ut greatly im!roved t e detainees, environment and mindset *or litigation, 5 ad close contact wit -iu K en, in c arge o* my cell. +eo!le *eel warmed )y is res!ect and care *or detainees, re*lected in t e management o* every detail, and !ermeating is every word and deed. 0etting to 6now t e sincere, onest, res!onsi)le, good earted -iu K en really was a !iece o* good luc6 *or me in Bei6an. +olitical )elie*s are )ased on suc convictions and !ersonal eA!eriencesC 5 *irmly )elieve t at C ina,s !olitical !rogress will never sto!, and 5,m *ull o* o!timistic eA!ectations o* *reedom coming to C ina in t e *uture, )ecause no *orce can )loc6 t e uman desire *or *reedom. C ina will eventually )ecome a country o* t e rule o* law in w ic uman rig ts are su!reme. 5,m also loo6ing *orward to suc !rogress )eing re*lected in t e trial o* t is case, and loo6 *orward to t e *ull court,s just verdict J one t at can stand t e test o* istory. As6 me w at as )een my most *ortunate eA!erience o* t e !ast two decades, and 5,d say it was gaining t e sel*less love o* my wi*e, -iu ;ia. S e cannot )e !resent in t e courtroom today, )ut 5 still want to tell you, sweet eart, t at 5,m con*ident t at your love *or me will )e as always. 8ver t e years, in my non/*ree li*e, our love as contained )itterness im!osed )y t e eAternal environment, )ut is )oundless in a*tert oug t. 5 am sentenced to a visi)le !rison w ile you are waiting in an invisi)le one. Your love is sunlig t t at transcends !rison walls and )ars, stro6ing every inc o* my s6in, warming my every cell, letting me maintain my inner calm, magnanimous and )rig t, so t at every minute in !rison is *ull o* meaning. But my love *or you is *ull o* guilt and regret, sometimes eavy enoug o))le my ste!s. 5 am a ard stone in t e wilderness, !utting u! wit t e !ummeling o* raging storms, and too cold *or anyone to dare touc . But my love is ard, s ar!, and can !enetrate any o)stacles. Dven i* 5 am crus ed into !owder, 5 will em)race you wit t e as es. 0iven your love, sweet eart, 5 would *ace my *ort coming trial calmly, wit no regrets a)out my c oice and loo6ing *orward to tomorrow o!timistically. 5 loo6 *orward to my country )eing a land o* *ree eA!ression, w ere all citiLens, s!eec es are treated t e sameC ere, di**erent values, ideas, )elie*s, !olitical viewsN )ot com!ete wit eac ot er and coeAist !eace*ullyC ere, majority and minority o!inions will )e given equal guarantees, in !articular, !olitical views di**erent *rom t ose in !ower will )e *ully res!ected and !rotectedC ere, all !olitical views will )e s!read in t e sunlig t *or t e !eo!le to c ooseC all citiLens will )e a)le to eA!ress t eir !olitical views wit out *ear, and will never )e !olitically !ersecuted *or voicing dissentC 5 o!e to )e t e last victim o* C ina,s endless literary inquisition, and t at a*ter t is no one else will ever )e jailed *or t eir s!eec . .reedom o* eA!ression is t e )asis o* uman rig ts, t e source o* umanity and t e mot er o* trut . To )loc6 *reedom o* s!eec is to tram!le on uman rig ts, to strangle umanity and to su!!ress t e trut . 5 do not *eel guilty *or *ollowing my constitutional rig t to *reedom o* eA!ression, *or *ul*illing my social res!onsi)ility as a C inese citiLen. Dven i* accused o* it, 5 would ave no com!laints. T an6 youO SourceF tt!F11t elede.)logs.nytimes.com1"<$<1$<1<&1jailed/c inese/dissidents/*inal/statement1

Human Rights in Communist China: National Socialism at Work

2+olitical !ower grows out o* t e )arrel o* a gun.9 : Hao Tse/tung

$ -em*er of 0omm%nist 0hina8s se#ret .oli#e ste.s on a 0hinese man8s fa#e.

$ 0hinese man is seen getting assa%lted *y 7ed 0hinese se#ret .oli#e offi#ers.

$ 0hinese Fal%n /ong mem*er attem.ts to eJer#ise his freedom of religion as a 7ed 0hinese .oli#e offi#er .re.ares to eliminate dissent.

$ 0anadian Fal%n /ong a#tivist is kidna..ed *y the mem*ers of the 7ed 0hinese se#ret .oli#e.

$ 0hinese woman is detained *y three 7ed 0hinese .oli#e offi#ers.

$ 0hinese man is tried in a 0hinese #o%rt for Os%*version against the !tate.P

$ 0hinese man awaits his verdi#t and .ossi*ly his fate.

-em*ers of the 7ed 0hinese se#ret .oli#e .re.are to eJe#%te two men.

$ gro%. of 7ed 0hinese terrorists .re.are to eJe#%te inno#ent 0hinese women.

$ vi#tim of the Tiananmen !1%are -assa#re and 0omm%nist 0hinese terrorism

These 0hinese women are m%rdered at the hands of the 0hinese 0omm%nists. The 0hinese 0omm%nists sell h%man organ on the *la#k market that are OharvestedP from dead 0hinese dissidents.

This 0hinese woman *e#ame another #as%alty of 0hinese 0omm%nist terrorism. -ay she rest in .ea#e.

28ne is im!ressed immediately )y t e sense o* national armony.... T ere is a very real and !ervasive dedication to C airman Hao and Haoist !rinci!les. E atever t e !rice o* t e C inese Bevolution, it as o)viously succeeded not only in !roducing more e**icient and dedicated administration, )ut also in *ostering ig morale and community !ur!ose. 0eneral social and economic !rogress is no less im!ressive.... T e enormous social advances o* C ina ave )ene*ited greatly *rom t e singleness o* ideology and !ur!ose. ... T e social eA!eriment in C ina under C airman HaoPs leaders i! is one o* t e most im!ortant and success*ul in istory.9 : =avid Boc6e*eller, C airman o* t e )oard o* C ase Han attan Ban6, in an article in The New York Times on August $<, $%#>

&ames -#Eerney (left) 0hairman President and 0hief AJe#%tive <ffi#er of Boeing 0om.any meets with 0omm%nist 0hina8s 6i#e Premier Li >e1iang (right) in Bei2ing the #a.ital of #omm%nistCo##%.ied mainland 0hina on &%ne 5 '@@4 the () th anniversary of the Tiananmen !1%are -assa#re. (9inh%a;Fan 7%2%n) htt.,;;www.#hinaCem*assy.org;eng;Jw;t5:()'@.htm

&ames -#Eerney (left) 0hairman President and 0hief AJe#%tive <ffi#er of Boeing 0om.any shakes hands with 0omm%nist 0hina8s 6i#e Premier Li >e1iang (right) in Bei2ing the #a.ital of #omm%nistCo##%.ied mainland 0hina on &%ne 5 '@@4 the ()th anniversary of the Tiananmen !1%are -assa#re. /a+es 5c;erney earned a *achelor of 4rts degree at .ale Uni'ersity in 19<1. (9inh%a;Fan 7%2%n) htt.,;;www.#hinaCem*assy.org;eng;Jw;t5:()'@.htm

Left .hoto, "% &intao (right) President of 0omm%nist 0hina shakes hands with $meri#an *%sinessman 7i#hard Parsons 0hairman and 0A< of Time Warner =n#. d%ring a meeting in the /reat "all of the Peo.le in Bei2ing 0omm%nist 0hina on -ay (: '@@3. &ichard 6arsons is a +e+ber of the Council on #oreign &elations, a pri'ate foreign affairs organi=ation in ;e .or$ City. (9inh%a .hoto) 7ight .hoto, "% &intao (right) President of 0omm%nist 0hina shakes hands with $meri#an *anker 0harles Prin#e 0A< of 0itigro%. =n#. d%ring a meeting in the /reat "all of the Peo.le in Bei2ing 0omm%nist 0hina on -ay (: '@@3. Charles 6rince is a +e+ber of the Council on #oreign &elations, a pri'ate foreign affairs organi=ation in ;e .or$ City. (9inh%a .hoto)

Left .hoto, "% &intao (right) President of 0omm%nist 0hina shakes hands with 7i#hard Wagoner &r. #hairman and 0A< of /eneral -otors 0or.oration d%ring a meeting in the /reat "all of the Peo.le in Bei2ing 0omm%nist 0hina on -ay (: '@@3. (9inh%a .hoto) 7ight .hoto, "% &intao (right) President of 0omm%nist 0hina shakes hands with &ohn -enHer President and 0A< of WalC-art =nternational d%ring a meeting in the /reat "all of the Peo.le in Bei2ing 0omm%nist 0hina on -ay (: '@@3. (9inh%a .hoto)

Left .hoto, "% &intao (right) President of 0omm%nist 0hina shakes hands with >ats%aki Watana*e AJe#%tive 6i#e President and =n#oming President of Toyota -otor 0or.oration d%ring a meeting in the /reat "all of the Peo.le in Bei2ing 0omm%nist 0hina on -ay (: '@@3. (9inh%a .hoto) 7ight .hoto, "% &intao (right) President of 0omm%nist 0hina shakes hands with Thomas P%tter 0A< of $llianH 0a.ital Partners /m*" d%ring a meeting in the /reat "all of the Peo.le in Bei2ing 0omm%nist 0hina on -ay (: '@@3. (9inh%a .hoto)

-o ?ui/c ing 'le*t, Harc @, $%@I edition( and C en Yi 'rig t, .e)ruary "I, $%I@ edition(

Hao Tse/tung 'le*t, =ecem)er $, $%@& edition( and -in +iao 'rig t, Se!tem)er %, $%II edition(

A Bed C inese !rison guard monitors C inese !risoners in a la)or cam! 'laogai(. 'A.+10etty 5mages( 'SourceF tt!F11www.t ee!oc times.com1n"1australia1torture/la)or/cam!/olym!ic/site/"$#&. tml(

C inese women are seen manu*acturing toys in a sweats o! in Communist C ina.

A C inese *actory su!ervisor monitors C inese wor6ers in a sweats o! in Communist C ina. '+ otoF tt!F11news)laLe.com1story1"<<#<$"I">"#"#nnnn.n)1to!story. tml(

A Eal/Hart store in Communist C ina

Communist C ina,s +resident Hu ?intao 'B(, *ormer +resident ?iang Kemin 'C(, and National +eo!le,s Congress C airman Eu Bangguo attend a )anquet mar6ing t e I<t anniversary o* t e Communist o!!ression o* t e C inese !eo!le and t e Communist occu!ation o* t e C inese mainland at t e 0reat Hall o* t e +eo!le in Beijing on Se!tem)er ><, "<<%. 'Beuters(

5n t is ! oto distri)uted )y t e o**icial ;in ua news agency, Bed C inese +resident Hu ?intao 'center( *lan6ed )y *ormer +resident ?iang Kemin '"nd rig t( and ot er senior leaders, a!!lauds as t ey watc t e grand gala cele)rating t e I<t anniversary o* Communist occu!ation o* mainland C ina on t e Tiananmen Bostrum in Beijing on 8cto)er $, "<<%. 'A+ + oto(

+resident Bill Clinton and Bed C ina,s +resident ?iang Kemin s are a toast during t eir state dinner at t e E ite House in 8cto)er $%%#. '0reg 0i)son1A+(

Eorld Ban6 +resident +aul Eol*owitL 'le*t(, Secretary o* t e Treasury Henry +aulson 'rig t(, 0overnor o* +eo!lePs Ban6 o* C ina K ou ;iaoc uan laug !rivately during t e 0# summit in Dssen, 0ermany on .e)ruary $<, "<<#. '+ oto )y Bal! 8rlows6i10etty 5mages(

Communist C ina,s incoming +resident ;i ?in!ing delivers a s!eec at a Communist +arty meeting in Beijing '+e6ing( in .e)ruary "<$>.

Communist C ina,s +resident ;i ?in!ing meets wit *ormer U.S. Secretary o* State Henry Qissinger, a mem)er o* t e Bilder)erg 0rou! and t e Trilateral Commission, at t e 0reat Hall o* t e +eo!le in Beijing, Communist C ina on A!ril "M, "<$>. '+ otoF tt!F11www.*m!rc.gov.cn1eng1LAAA1t$<>@&<M.s tml(

Chinese Communist Party Leadership

Deng 9iao.ing Paramo%nt Leader of 0omm%nist 0hina (()B4C())')

0ho% AnClai Premier of 0omm%nist 0hina (()5)C()B:)

-ao TseCt%ng Di#tator and 0hairman of 0omm%nist 0hina (()5)C()B:)

&iang Qemin President of 0omm%nist 0hina (())?C'@@?)

"% &intao President of 0omm%nist 0hina ('@@?C'@(?)

0hen Yi Foreign -inister of the Peo.leKs 7e.%*li# of 0hina (()34C()B')

Lin Piao -inister of Eational Defense of 0omm%nist 0hina (()3)C()B()

Li% !hao1i 0hairman of the Peo.leKs 7e.%*li# of 0hina (()3)C():4)

Li Peng Premier of the Peo.leKs 7e.%*li# of 0hina (()44C())4)

Iian Ii#hen Foreign -inister of the Peo.leKs 7e.%*li# of 0hina (()44C())4)

Qh% 7ong2i Premier of the Peo.leKs 7e.%*li# of 0hina (())4C'@@?)

Wen &ia*ao Premier of the Peo.leKs 7e.%*li# of 0hina ('@@?C'@(?)

/en. 0hi "aotian -inister of Eational Defense of 0omm%nist 0hina (())?C'@@?)

/en. 0ao /ang#h%an -inister of Eational Defense of 0omm%nist 0hina ('@@?C'@@4)

&iang Iing (-adame -ao TseCt%ng) 0hinese 0omm%nist Party !.okeswoman

0hinese 0omm%nist Party Leadershi., -ao TseCt%ng (De#em*er ': (4)?C!e.tem*er ) ()B:) R Di#tator and 0hairman of 0omm%nist 0hina (()5)C()B:) 0ho% AnClai (-ar#h 3 (4)4C&an%ary 4 ()B:) R Premier of 0omm%nist 0hina (<#to*er ( ()5)C&an%ary 4 ()B:)D Foreign -inister of 0omm%nist 0hina (()5)C()34) Deng 9iao.ing ($%g%st '' ()@5CFe*r%ary () ())B) R Paramo%nt Leader of 0omm%nist 0hina (De#em*er '' ()B4C<#to*er (' ())') &iang Qemin (*orn $%g%st (B ()':) R President of 0omm%nist 0hina (())?C'@@?)D -ayor of !hanghai (()43C()44) "% &intao (*orn De#em*er '( ()5') R President of 0omm%nist 0hina (-ar#h (3 '@@?C.resent) Li% !hao1i R 0hairman of the Peo.leKs 7e.%*li# of 0hina (()3)C():4) Lin Piao R -inister of Eational Defense of 0omm%nist 0hina (()3)C()B() Li Peng R Premier of the Peo.leKs 7e.%*li# of 0hina ('3 -ar#h ()44 R (B -ar#h ())4) Qh% 7ong2i R -ayor of !hanghai (()44C())()D /overnor of the Peo.leKs Bank of 0hina (())?C())3)D Premier of the Peo.leKs 7e.%*li# of 0hina (())4C'@@?) Wen &ia*ao R Premier of the Peo.leKs 7e.%*li# of 0hina ('@@?C'@(?) Iian Ii#hen R Foreign -inister of the Peo.leKs 7e.%*li# of 0hina (()44C())4) 0hen Yi R -ayor of !hanghai (()5)C()34)D Foreign -inister of the Peo.leKs 7e.%*li# of 0hina (()34C()B') /en. 0hi "aotian R -inister of Eational Defense of 0omm%nist 0hina (())?C'@@?) /en. 0ao /ang#h%an R -inister of Eational Defense of 0omm%nist 0hina ('@@?C'@@4) &iang Iing (-adame -ao TseCt%ng) R 0hinese 0omm%nist Party !.okeswoman

PA<PLA8! L=BA7$T=<E $7-Y

0hinese 0omm%nist Peo.leKs Li*eration $rmy (PL$) soldiers .atrol in front of Potala Pala#e in Lhasa Ti*et on &%ne '@ '@@4. (7e%ters)

0hinese 0omm%nist Peo.le8s Li*eration $rmy (PL$) troo.s line %. in a .arade gro%nd in "ong >ongKs Eew Territories d%ring the #ityKs ann%al rotation of military .ersonnel or K0hanging of the /%ardK as it is *etter known in "ong >ong on Eovem*er '3 '@@4. <ver 3 @@@ PL$ troo.s have *een stationed in "ong >ong sin#e the handover from British r%le in ())B. ($FP;/etty =mages)

0hinese 0omm%nist Peo.le8s Li*eration $rmy gooseCste.s in a military .arade. ($FP;/etty =mages)

0hinese 0omm%nist Peo.le8s Li*eration $rmy gooseCste.s in a military .arade. ($FP;/etty =mages)

0hina8s Iinshan E%#lear Plant == !tage8s 0onstr%#tion (Photo, htt.,;;www.#hinaCdefenseCmash%..#om;S#atT?:)

Poli#emen stand g%ard at the eJit of Iinshan E%#lear Power Plant in Iinshan of "angHho% #ity Qhe2iang .rovin#e 7ed 0hina on &%ne (@ '@@3. Iinshan E%#lear Power is 7ed 0hinaKs first indigeno%slyCdesigned and #onstr%#ted n%#lear .ower .lant whi#h *egan #onstr%#tion in the midC()4@Ks. 0hina .lans to o.en ?@ new n%#lear generators *y '@'@ des.ite it only meeting 5 .er#ent of 0hinaKs .ower #a.a#ity. (Photo, /%ang Ei%;/etty =mages) (!o%r#e, htt.,;;www.life.#om;image;3?@3@(:()

+-A Navy,s Ty!e <%M SSBN su)marine '+ otoF tt!F11www.c ina/de*ense/mas u!.com1RcatS>I(

The #r%ise missiles are dis.layed in a .arade of the #ele*rations for the :@th anniversary of the fo%nding of the OPeo.leKs 7e.%*li# of 0hinaP on 0hangKan !treet in Bei2ing 7ed 0hina on <#to*er ( '@@). (9inh%a;Wang !ong) htt.,;;news.Jinh%anet.#om;english;'@@)C(@;@(;#ontentL('(5:(@5.htm

0r%ise missiles are dis.layed in a .arade of the #ele*rations for the :@th anniversary of the fo%nding of the OPeo.leKs 7e.%*li# of 0hinaP on 0hangKan !treet in Bei2ing 7ed 0hina on <#to*er ( '@@). (9inh%a;Wang &ianmin) htt.,;;news.Jinh%anet.#om;english;'@@)C(@;@(;#ontentL('(5:(@5.htm

0onventional missiles are dis.layed in a .arade of the #ele*rations for the :@th anniversary of the fo%nding of the OPeo.leKs 7e.%*li# of 0hinaP on 0hangKan !treet in #entral Bei2ing 7ed 0hina on <#to*er ( '@@). (9inh%a;Ding Lin) htt.,;;news.Jinh%anet.#om;english;'@@)C(@;@(;#ontentL('(53)4(.htm

A Communist C inese soldier a!!ears wit a missile. '+ otoF tt!F11www.c ina/de*ense/mas u!.com1RcatS>I(

C inese Communist missiles '+ otoF tt!F11www.c ina/de*ense/mas u!.com1RcatS>I(

=nternational Bankers + 0omm%nist 0hina

0hase -anhattan Bank 0hairman David 7o#kefeller (left) smiles as he visits 7ed 0hina8s envoy 0ho% Anlai on the ste.s of the /reat "all of the Peo.le in Peking in ()B?. This .hoto was .%*lished in David 7o#kefeller8s a%to*iogra.hy Memoirs.

World Bank President 7o*ert -#Eamara (left) stands *eside 7ed 0hina8s des.ot Deng 9iao.ing in $.ril ()4@. (!o%r#e, In Retrospect: The Tragedy and Lessons of Vietnam *y 7o*ert !. -#Eamara)

0hairman of the Board of Tr%stees Fof the 0hina =nstit%teG 6irginia $. >amsky /oldman !a#hs 0hairman and 0A< "enry -. Pa%lson and $m*assador Li% Biwei 0ons%l /eneral of 7ed 0hina in Eew York 0ity attends the 0hina =nstit%te $nn%al Benefit /ala at the -andarin <riental "otel in Eew York 0ity on &%ne (3 '@@3. /oldman !a#hs is a *anking firm in Eew York 0ity. 6irginia $. >amsky and "enry -. Pa%lson are mem*ers of the 0o%n#il on Foreign 7elations. (Photo *y Brad Barket;/etty =mages)

Treas%ry !e#retary 7o*ert A. 7%*in (left) Federal 7eserve 0hairman $lan /reens.an (#enter) and 7ed 0hina8s Premier Qh% 7ong2i .ose for .ress .hotogra.hers at the Blair "o%se in Washington D.0. on $.ril ) ())). 7o*ert A. 7%*in and $lan /reens.an is a mem*er of the 0o%n#il on Foreign 7elations.

World Bank President &ames D. Wolfensohn (left) visits 7ed 0hina8s 0ommissar "% &intao (right) at the /reat "all of the Peo.le in Bei2ing on -ay ?@ '@@5.

World Bank President Pa%l WolfowitH (#enter) wat#hes Qho% 9iao#h%an (left) /overnor of the Peo.le8s Bank of 0hina shake hands with =-F -anaging Dire#tor 7odrigo de 7ato on <#to*er (5 '@@3. (Photo, N World Bank ; W% Qhiyi)

Eew York !to#k AJ#hange 0A< &ohn $. Thain meets with Qho% 9iao#h%an /overnor of the Peo.le8s Bank of 0hina (PB<0) at the PB<0 offi#e in Bei2ing in <#to*er '@@3. (Eew York !to#k AJ#hange)

7o*ert A. 7%*in (left) 0hairman of the eJe#%tive #ommittee of 0itigro%. shakes hands with 0omm%nist 0hina8s Premier Wen &ia*ao at the Waldorf $storia "otel in Eew York 0ity on Wednesday !e.tem*er '5 '@@4. 7o*ert A. 7%*in is the 0oC0hairman of the 0o%n#il on Foreign 7elations a .rivate organiHation in Eew York 0ity that .romotes glo*aliHation. ($P Photo)

0hinese 6i#e President 9i &in.ing (right) meets with "enry Pa%lson former U.!. !e#retary of the Treas%ry and former #hairman of the *oard of /oldman !a#hs *ank in Eew York 0ity on $.ril ) '@(@. "enry Pa%lson was ele#ted as a mem*er of the *oard of dire#tors of Boao For%m for $sia (BF$) in Boao a s#eni# town in so%th 0hinaKs "ainan Provin#e. F9inh%aG

6i#e Premier of 0omm%nist 0hina Wang Iishan (right) shakes hands with former U.!. !e#retary of the Treas%ry "enry Pa%lson in Bei2ing 0omm%nist 0hina on De#em*er ? '@('. (Photo, 9inh%a;7ao $imin)

World Bank President 7o*ert Qoelli#k shakes hands with 7ed 0hinese 6i#e Premier W% Yi in Bei2ing on De#em*er (4 '@@B. (Photo, The World Bank)

0%lt%ral 7evol%tion + !o#ial "ygiene in 7ed 0hina

$ gro%. of 0hinese #hildren display copies of Maos Little Red Book in Tiananmen !1%are in Peking d%ring the 0%lt%ral 7evol%tion. (Photo, htt.,;;media..hoto*%#ket.#om;image;tiananmenU'@s1%areU'@littleU'@redU'@*ook;2innLins.ire;#%lt%reCrevol%tion3.2.g)

7ed /%ards sal%te -ao TseCt%ng and the 0hinese 0omm%nists in Tiananmen !1%are in Peking in <#to*er ():: d%ring the height of the 0%lt%ral 7evol%tion. $n estimated ?@ million 0hinese .eo.le .erished d%ring the /reat Lea. Forward (()34C():() and the 0%lt%ral 7evol%tion (()::C()B()

Left, 0hinese #hildren read a teJt from -ao8s Little 7ed Book. 7ight, Pro.aganda .oster of the steel .rod%#tion o*2e#tive. The teJt reads, VTake steel as the key link, leap forward in all fieldsV the teJt *elow is .inyin.

C inese !eo!le in Communist C ina carry a co!y o* Hao,s 2little red )oo69 during t e Cultural Bevolution. '+ otoF tt!F11www.meAican!ictures.com1 eadingeast1"<<I1$$1cultural/revolution/images. tml(

Hem)ers o* a !eo!le,s commune !ut on Hao )uttons toget er. '+ otoF tt!F11www.virtual/c ina.org1"<<I1$$1"@1*rom/t e/))s/@</! otos/@</years/o*/!easant/li*e1(

Left, This .hotogra.h was shown to a Ti*etan who said, VLook the windows were *roken. ThereKs a *ig hole in the *oyKs sleeve. "e was even holding a s#ri.t .re.ared *y some others. Did he really %nderstand what he saidS The .eo.le aro%nd him were so #onf%sed. =tKs like they were mani.%lated. This is Ti*etKs 0%lt%ral 7evol%tion.V (Photo, htt.,;;voyage.ty.e.ad.#om;#hina;maoLHedong;) 7ight, B%ddhist #lassi#s were *%rnt o%tside the &okhang Tem.le in 0omm%nistCo##%.ied mainland 0hina. (Photo, htt.,;;voyage.ty.e.ad.#om;#hina;maoLHedong;)

Families in a .eo.le8s #omm%ne eat in a #omm%nal dining hall d%ring the 0%lt%ral 7evol%tion. (Photo, htt.,;;www.virt%alC#hina.org;'@@:;((;)

.arm collectives are amalgamated into gigantic !eo!le,s communes o* u! to "<,<<< ouse olds in t e summer o* $%@&. .amine conditions a!!ear in many !arts o* t e country. '+ otoF AmaLon(

=e!ortation o* Ti)etans )y C inese Communist troo!s in Harc $%@% '+ otoF Ullstein Bilderdienst, Berlin(

C inese students conduct a 2Struggle Session9 on a sc ool teac er 'or local o**icial( during t e Cultural Bevolution.

Young Haoists attac6 an elderly C inese man w o did not meet t eir measure o* !ro!er Haoist demeanor during t e Cultural Bevolution in $%I#.

C inese 2Ca!italist/Boaders9 are !unis ed )y Bed 0uards during t e Cultural Bevolution.

T is C inese Communist !ro!aganda !oster de!icts mass murderer C airman Hao as t e 2savior9 o* C ina.

O$ revol%tion is not a dinner .arty *%t an a#t of violen#e *y whi#h one #lass overthrows another.P R -ao TseCt%ng

A C inese Communist !ro!aganda !oster !roduced during t e Cultural Bevolution. TranslationF 2CriticiLe t e old world and )uild a new world [order] wit Hao Kedong T oug t 3doctrine4 as a wea!on.9 (Yi Mao Zedong sixiang wei wuqi pipan jiu shijie jianshe xin shijie(

C inese Communist !ro!aganda !osters call *or t e 2li)eration9 o* t e island o* Taiwan. T e island o* Taiwan as )een administered )y t e Be!u)lic o* C ina 'also 6nown as 2Nationalist C ina9( since $%M@, and t e island o* Taiwan 'as well as +escadores, Guemoy, Hatsu, and +ratas 5slands( is t e only !art o* C ina t at is *ree *rom Communist rule.

Hao Tse/tung 'Hao Kedong( waves to a grou! o* Bed 0uards in Beijing during t e Cultural Bevolution.

+resident Bic ard NiAon s ares a toast wit C ou Dnlai at a )anquet in +e6ing, +eo!le,s Be!u)lic o* C ina.

Tiananmen !1%are in Bei2ing where nearly (@ @@@ 0hinese .eo.le died at the hands of the 0hinese 0omm%nists on &%ne 5 ()4). -ay the vi#tims rest in .ea#e.

/eneralissimo 0hiang >aiCshek (left) President of the 7e.%*li# of 0hina and his wife -adame 0hiang >aiCshek greet =ndia8s antiC#olonial .atriot -ahatma /andhi near 0al#%tta =ndia FBritish =ndiaG on Fe*r%ary (4 ()5'. 0hiang >aiCshek .reserved a remnant of OFree 0hinaP on the island of Taiwan (%nder martial law) des.ite a#ts of *etrayal *y Dean $#heson "enry >issinger 7i#hard EiJon and David 7o#kefeller.

0hairman -ao + The <ld /%ard, The Peo.le8s <..ressors

0hinese 0omm%nist des.ot -ao TseCt%ng delivers a s.ee#h in -os#ow in ()3B. !oviet 0ommissar Eikita >hr%sh#hev is seen a..la%ding in the *a#kgro%nd (third row third from right). (!o%r#e, The Peoples mperor: Mao, ! Biography of Mao Tse"t#ng *y Di#k Wilson)

0omm%nist 0hina8s 0ommissar -ao TseCt%ng (left) !oviet 7%ssia8s military #hief Eikolai B%lganin (se#ond from left) !oviet 7%ssia8s 0ommissar &osef !talin (se#ond from right) and Aast /erman 0omm%nist Party #hief Walter Ul*ri#ht (right) #ele*rate !talin8s B@th *irthday at the >remlin in De#em*er ()5).

Left .hoto, 0%*a8s 0omm%nist terrorist 0he /%evara shakes hands with -ao TseCt%ng. 7ight .hoto, Eorth >orea8s des.ot >im =l !%ng greets 7ed 0hina8s des.ot -ao TseCt%ng.

Soviet Bussia,s Commissar ?ose* Stalin 'le*t( and Bed C ina,s Commissar Hao Tse/tung 'center, standing( watc C ou Dnlai, +remier o* t e 0overnment Administration Council o* t e Central +eo!le,s 0overnment o* t e +eo!le,s Be!u)lic o* C ina 3Bed C ina4, sign t e Signing Ceremony o* t e Sino/Soviet Treaty o* .riends i!, Alliance and Hutual Assistance and related agreements on .e)ruary $M, $%@<. '+ otoF tt!F11www.idc!c.org.cn1englis 1al)um1cornerstoneTe1$/$/M. tm(

-ao TseCt%ng (left) a..ears with Deng 9iao.ing.

-em*ers of the Polit*%ro !tanding 0ommittee meet .rivately in &an%ary ():' as millions of 0hinese .eo.le die from famine and .oliti#al .erse#%tion. From left to right, 0ho% Anlai 0hen Y%n Li% !hao1i -ao TseCt%ng and Deng 9iao.ing.

-ao TseCt%ng (left) Prin#e !ihano%k of 0am*odia (se#ond from right) and Le D%# Tho of 7ed 6ietnam (right) meet in Peking d%ring the 6ietnam War. (Photo, &oel D. -eyerson United !tates $rmy in 6ietnam, =mages of a Lengthy War. Washington D.0., 0enter of -ilitary "istory ()4:. <ffi#ial U.!. $rmy Photogra.h)

=eng ;iao!ing 'second *rom le*t( a!!ears wit is comrades in C ina in Novem)er $%M&. 'SourceF Deng Xiaoping: My Father )y =eng Haomao(

0ho% Anlai -ao8s wife 0hiang 0hing Polit*%ro mem*er >ang !heng -ao and Lin Piao (Defense -inister) .re.are to eJterminate millions of 0hinese .eo.le in the O/reat Lea. ForwardP and the O0%lt%ral 7evol%tion.P

-ao TseCt%ng (left) #hats with !oviet Premier Eikita >hr%sh#hev in Peking 7ed 0hina in ()34. (!o%r#e, The Peoples mperor: Mao, ! Biography of Mao Tse"t#ng *y Di#k Wilson)

!oviet Premier Eikita >hr%sh#hev 0omm%nist 0hinese des.ot -ao TseCt%ng and Eorth 6ietnam8s des.ot "o 0hi -inh a..ear at a *an1%et in Peking on <#to*er ?@ ()3) marking (@th anniversary of 0omm%nist 0hina. (Underwood + Underwood;0<7B=!)

Hao Tse/tung 'le*t( greets Soviet +remier Ni6ita Q rus c ev in Hoscow in Novem)er $%@#. Hao,s relations i! wit t e Soviets soured as Hao Tse/tung attem!ted to reclaim territories in eastern Bussia t at C ina lost *rom CLarist Bussia.

Hao Tse/tung meets wit Britis mem)ers o* t e -a)or +arty in +e6ing, including Clement Attlee 'second *rom rig t(, t e *ormer +rime Hinister o* 0reat Britain. 'SourceF The eop!e"s #mperor: Mao$ % &iography o' Mao Tse(tung )y =ic6 Eilson(

Eorth 6ietnam8s di#tator "o 0hi -inh so#ialiHes with -ao. -ore than 34 @@@ $meri#an soldiers and marines died in !o%th 6ietnam d%ring the 6ietnam War.

$ .hoto taken in the ()B@Ks o%tside of 0am*odia shows 0hinaKs #hairman -ao Qedong ((4)? C ()B:) (L) greeting to. >hmer 7o%ge offi#ial Leng !ary (7) also known as K *rother n%m*er threeK while >hmer 7o%ge leader Pol Pot (0) looks on. Des.ite a tra#k re#ord of *r%tality Pol PotKs loathing of !ovietC*lo# neigh*or 6ietnam won him key allies in 0hina the United !tates and it !o%theast $sian and A%ro.ean allies whose #old war eJ.edien#y sidelined #on#erns over the welfare of 0am*odiaKs .eo.le. TwentyCfive years ago the >hmer 7o%ge seiHed the 0am*odian #a.ital Phnom Penh (B $.ril ()B3 marking the start of a geno#idal regime d%ring whi#h %. to two million .eo.le died *etween ()B3 and ()B). ($FP;/etty =mages)

Left to right, /eneral Eam =l of Eorth >oreaD !oviet Union Foreign -inister 6ya#heslav -. -olotov 0ho% Anlai of 7ed 0hina and 6ietminh Foreign -inister Pham 6an Dong a..ear at 0ho%Ks villa d%ring .ea#e talks in /eneva !witHerland in &%ly ()35. (N Bettmann;0<7B=!)

=ndonesia8s di#tator !%karno (left) is seen #hatting with 0omm%nist 0hina8s des.ot 0hairman -ao TseCT%ng d%ring a *an1%et given *y the 0hairman of 7ed 0hina in honor of the =ndonesian di#tator in Peking 0omm%nist 0hina on Eovem*er '5 ()3:. (Bettmann;0<7B=!)

0omm%nist 0hinaKs Premier 0ho% AnCLai (left) looks at the sights d%ring a #r%ise on the Eile 7iver near 0airo Agy.t on &%ly : ():3 while his #om.anion President !%karno of =ndonesia #he#ks the time. Both men were in Agy.t awaiting the o.ening of the $froC$sian 0onferen#e whi#h was to *e held in $lgiers $lgeria. 0ho% stayed on in the Agy.tian #a.ital after the #onferen#e was .ost.oned. (Bettmann;0<7B=!)

=ndonesia8s di#tator !%karno #ele*rates with -ao. 0ho% Anlai #an *e seen to the left of -ao in the *a#kgro%nd.

President !amora -a#hel of -oHam*i1%e greets 0ho% Anlai.

0ho% Anlai (left) 0omm%nist 0hinese .remier and foreign minister stands with 0hairman -ao TseCt%ng and Lin Piao (right) one of 7ed 0hina8s o%tstanding #ommanders. (Aast.hoto)

-adame !%n YatCsen (#enter) a..ears with -ao TseCt%ng ('L) 0ho% Anlai ('7) and 0hen Yi (7) at the Qhong Ean "ai in Peking in <#to*er ()3:. (!o%r#e, 0hina !oong 0hingCling Fo%ndation) htt.,;;s#lf.#ri.#n;(;'@@4;@B;(?;'W?53.htm

!oong 0hingCling (-adame !%n YatCsen) has a dinner with 7ed 0hina8s des.ot Deng 9iao.ing in ()4@.

Eorth 6ietnamese 0ommissar "o 0hi -inh meets with -adame !%n YatCsen (!oong 0hingCling) at her Bei2ing residen#e in Bei2ing 7ed 0hina on &%ly 3 ()33. (Photo, htt.,;;english.#wi.org.#n;al*%m;@3.htm)

!oong 0hingCling ('7) entertains >im == !%ng ('L) #hairman of the Demo#rati# Peo.leKs 7e.%*li# of >orea at her !hanghai residen#e in !hanghai 7ed 0hina on Eovem*er 3 ()34. (Photo, htt.,;;english.#wi.org.#n;al*%m;@3.htm)

!oong 0hingCling ('L) -ao Qedong (?7) and /%o -o 7%o a..la%d with the !oviet Union delegation at a #eremony marking the 3th anniversary of the esta*lishment of 0hinaC!oviet Friendshi. $sso#iation in <#to*er ()35. (Photo, htt.,;;english.#wi.org.#n;al*%m;@3.htm)

Hadame Sun Yat/sen 'Soong C ing/ling, rig t( watc es Hao Tse/tung sign t e concluding declaration o* t e Con*erence o* communist and Eor6ers, +arties o* t e Socialist Countries in Hoscow in $%@#. '+ otoF Uander)ilt University -i)rary(

Hao Tse/tung addresses is comrades.

-ao TseCt%ng greets !oviet #ommissars Eikita >hr%sh#hev ('nd right) and $nastas -ikoyan (far right).

President /erald Ford and his wife Betty wat#h 0hairman -ao shake hands with their da%ghter !%Hanne Ford on De#em*er ' ()B3.

-ao TseCt%ng (left) and "arvard grad%ate Dr. W.A.B. D% Bois la%gh together in 0omm%nistCo##%.ied mainland 0hina in $.ril ()3). (Photo, University of -assa#h%setts Li*rary)

U.!. $rmy /eneral /eorge 0. -arshall (se#ond from left) meets with 0ho% Anlai (far left) 0h% Teh Eationalist 0hinese /eneral 0heng >aiC min and -ao TseCt%ng (far right) at the 0omm%nist head1%arters in Yan8an (Yenan) 0hina in -ar#h ()5:.

Left .hoto, /eneral /eorge 0. -arshall and -ao TseCt%ng review the 0hinese 0omm%nist troo.s.

2+olitical !ower grows out o* t e )arrel o* a gun.9 : Hao Tse/tung

T!e Peoples &ppressors:


T!e 'utc!ers o" 'ei(in) * Comra%es in Arms

!e#retary of Defense 7o*ert -. /ates and 7ed 0hina8s -inister of Defense /en. 0ao /ang#h%an (left in %niform) review the 0hinese 0omm%nist Peo.le8s Li*eration $rmy in Bei2ing on Eovem*er 3 '@@B. 7o*ert -. /ates is a mem*er of the 0o%n#il on Foreign 7elations and a former Dire#tor of the 0entral =ntelligen#e $gen#y. (U.!. De.artment of Defense .hoto *y 0herie $. Th%rl*y)

President Bill 0linton and 0omm%nist 0hina8s des.ot &iang Qemin review the 7ed 0hinese Peo.le8s Li*eration $rmy on Tiananmen !1%are in Bei2ing on &%ne 'B ())4. (Photo *y Wally -#Eamee)

I%een AliHa*eth == of /reat Britain walks down the line of the g%ard of honor near Tiananmen !1%are and the For*idden 0ity in Bei2ing 0omm%nist 0hina.

U.!. President 7onald 7eagan reviews troo.s d%ring an arrival #eremony at the /reat "all of the Peo.le in Bei2ing 0omm%nist 0hina on $.ril ': ()45. (Photo, 7onald 7eagan Presidential Li*rary)

U.!. 6i#e President $l /ore and Li Peng review the Peo.le8s Li*eration $rmy.

7ed 0hina8s Defense -inister /en. 0hi "aotian and U.!. !e#retary of Defense William !. 0ohen review the 0hinese 0omm%nist Peo.le8s Li*eration $rmy in Bei2ing on &%ly (' '@@@. William !. 0ohen is a mem*er of the 0o%n#il on Foreign 7elations.

!e#retary of Defense Donald 7%msfeld reviews the Peo.le8s Li*eration $rmy in Bei2ing.

7ed 0hinese /eneral Liang /%anglie the #hief of the general staff of the 7ed 0hinese Peo.le8s Li*eration $rmy and /en. 7i#hard -yers 0hairman of the &oint 0hiefs of !taff review the Peo.le8s Li*eration $rmy in Bei2ing on &an%ary (5 '@@5.

Prime -inister of =srael Ah%d <lmert and 7ed 0hinese Premier Wen &ia*ao review the Peo.le8s Li*eration $rmy in Bei2ing on &an%ary (@ '@@B. (7e%ters)

0hairman of the &oint 0hiefs of !taff /en. Peter Pa#e sal%tes to the Peo.le8s Li*eration $rmy in Bei2ing on -ar#h '? '@@B.

U.!. Eavy $dmiral Dennis 0. Blair shakes hands with 7ed 0hina8s Defense -inister /eneral 0hi "aotian the OB%t#her of Bei2ingP who was involved in the Tiananmen !1%are -assa#re on &%ne 5 ()4). U.!. $m*assador to 7ed 0hina &ose.h Pr%eher is standing *etween Dennis Blair and 0hi "aotian. Dennis Blair is a 7hodes !#holar and a former mem*er of the Trilateral 0ommission. Dennis 0. Blair was President Bara#k <*ama8s Dire#tor of Eational =ntelligen#e.

President of Fran#e &a#1%es 0hira# (left) and Pakistan8s r%ler /en. PerveH -%sharraf (right) review the Peo.le8s Li*eration $rmy.

7ed 0hina8s 0ommissar "% &intao (left) and Qim*a*we8s di#tator 7o*ert -%ga*e (#enter) review the Peo.le8s Li*eration $rmy at the /reat "all of the Peo.le in Bei2ing on &%ly ': '@@3. (Peter Parks;$FP;/etty =mages)

!o%th $fri#a8s President Tha*o -*eki (#enter) and 7ed 0hina8s 0ommissar "% &intao (left) review the Peo.le8s Li*eration $rmy at the /reat "all of the Peo.le in Bei2ing on Eovem*er : '@@:. (Frederi# &. Brown;$FP;/etty =mages)

7ed 0hina8s 0ommissar "% &intao (left) and >ing $*d%llah == of &ordan review the Peo.le8s Li*eration $rmy at the /reat "all of the Peo.le in Bei2ing on <#to*er ?@ '@@B. >ing $*d%llah == was on his fifth visit to 7ed 0hina to #ele*rate the ?@th anniversary of the esta*lishment of di.lomati# relations *etween the two #o%ntries. (Photo *y $ndrew Wong;/etty =mages)

!a%di $ra*ia8s >ing $*d%llah (#enter) and 7ed 0hina8s 0ommissar "% &intao review the Peo.le8s Li*eration $rmy at the /reat "all of the Peo.le in Bei2ing on &an%ary '? '@@:. (Frederi# &. Brown;$FP;/etty =mages)

-eJi#o8s President Feli.e 0alderon (7) walks with 7ed 0hina8s r%ler "% &intao (L) as they review the g%ard of honor d%ring a wel#ome #eremony at the /reat "all of the Peo.le in Bei2ing 7ed 0hina on &%ly (( '@@4. 0alderon arrived in !hanghai on &%ly ) starting a fo%rCday state visit to 7ed 0hina at the invitation of 7ed 0hina8s President "% &intao. ($FP;/etty =mages)

0omm%nist 0hina8s Premier Wen &ia*ao (left) a##om.anies =taly8s Prime -inister -ario -onti (right) to view an honor g%ard d%ring a wel#oming #eremony at the /reat "all of the Peo.le in Bei2ing 0omm%nist 0hina on -ar#h ?( '@('. -onti .aid an offi#ial visit to 0hina from -ar#h ?@ to $.ril '. (Feng Li;/etty =mages)

The Peo.le8s Di.loma#y, From Bei2ing With Love

Lloyd8s 0hairman Lord Levene shakes hands with 0omm%nist 0hinese 0ommissar "% &intao at Downing !treet in London in Eovem*er '@@3. Lloyd8s is a British ins%ran#e #om.any lo#ated in London. (Lloyd8s .hoto) htt.,;;www.lloyds.#om;EewsL0entre;PressLreleases;LloydsLgetsLtheLgoaheadLtoLdevelo.LaL.resen#eLinLTheLPeo.lesL7e. %*li#LofL0hinaL)Eov'@@3.htm

British Prime -inister Tony Blair and his wife invite a..ear with 0omm%nis 0hina8s President "% &intao and his wife at the Prime -inister8s offi#e on (@ Downing !treet in London.

Y%goslavia8s 0ommissar &osi. BroH Tito #ele*rates with 7ed 0hina8s .rime minister and 0omm%nist Party #hairman "%a /%ofeng.

0omm%nist 0hina8s 0ommissar Deng 9iao.ing talks to !oviet 0ommissar -ikhail /or*a#hev at a meeting in Bei2ing in -ay ()4). /or*a#hev visited 0omm%nist 0hina from -ay (3C(4 ()4). Deng 9iao.ing ordered the 0hinese 0omm%nist Peo.le8s Li*eration $rmy to m%rder tho%sands of 0hinese .eo.le on Tiananmen !1%are the following month. (Photo, htt.,;;www.id#.#.org.#n;english;Jiao.ing;relations;4)C((.htm)

Hargaret T atc er 'le*t(, t e leader o* o!!osition Britis Conservatives, meets wit Communist C ina,s +remier Hua Quo/*eng 'Hua 0uo*eng( in Beijing, Communist C ina. '+ictoral +arade '?o n =iAon / + otogra! ers 5nternational(

Secretary o* State Henry Qissinger 'le*t( s a6es ands wit Hua 0uo*eng, t e +remier o* Communist C ina. ';in ua ! oto(

Left, United Eations !e#retaryC/eneral >ofi $nnan shakes hands with "% &intao d%ring their meeting at the /reat "all of the Peo.le in Bei2ing on -ay () '@@:. 7ight, United Eations !e#retaryC/eneral >ofi $nnan shakes hands with &iang Qemin at the /reat "all of the Peo.le in Bei2ing on <#to*er (5 '@@'. (9inh%a .hoto)

Left, United Eations !e#retaryC/eneral >ofi $nnan shakes hands with Wen &ia*ao the 7ed 0hinese Premier d%ring a meeting in &akarta =ndonesia on &an%ary : '@@3. (9inh%a .hoto) 7ight, United Eations !e#retaryC/eneral >ofi $nnan shakes hands with Li QhaoJing the Foreign -inister of 7ed 0hina at the 34th United Eations /eneral $ssem*ly in Eew York 0ity on !e.tem*er '3 '@@?. (7e%ters)

!e#retaryC/eneral >ofi $nnan meets with Li QhaoJing Foreign -inister of 7ed 0hina at the A%ro.ean Union "ead1%arters in Br%ssels Belgi%m in &%ne '@@3. (Askinder De*e*e United Eations)

0omm%nist 0hina8s des.ot "% &intao (0) shakes hands with 6ietnamKs /eneral !e#retary of the 0omm%nist Party Eong D%# -anh (7) and President Tran D%# L%ong (L) %nder the *%st of late revol%tionary #ommissar "o 0hi -inh d%ring a farewell #eremony at the Presidential Pala#e in "anoi on Eovem*er ' '@@3. "% leaves "anoi on Wednesday at the end of a threeCday offi#ial visit to 6ietnam his first visit sin#e taking offi#e as 0hinese 0omm%nist Party 0hief and 0hinaKs President. (>"$-;7e%ters;0or*is)

British Prime -inister Tony Blair greets "% &intao.

X 7%ssian President 6ladimir P%tin (left) and 0omm%nist 0hinese President &iang Qemin toast ea#h other in Bei2ingKs /reat "all of the Peo.le &%ly (4 '@@@. (Photo, htt.,;;www.glo*alse#%rity.org;wmd;li*rary;news;r%ssia;'@@@;r%ssia;.art((.htm)

/erman 0han#ellor designate $ngela -erkel (left) meets 7ed 0hina8s President "% &intao (0) at the "otel $dlon in Berlin /ermany on Eovem*er (( '@@3. (/etty =mages)

/erman 0han#ellor $ngela -erkel s.eaks with 7ed 0hina8s President "% &intao in the /reat "all of the Peo.le in Bei2ing mainland 0hina on -ay '' '@@:. (/etty =mages)

British Prime -inister /ordon Brown (L) meets with 7ed 0hina8s President "% &intao at the /reat "all of the Peo.le in Bei2ing mainland 0hina on $%g%st '' '@@4. Brown attended the #losing #eremony of the '@@4 Bei2ing <lym.i# /ames d%ring whi#h 0hina handed over the <lym.i# flag to /reat Britain whi#h will host the '@(' <lym.i# /ames in London. (/etty =mages)

British Prime -inister /ordon Brown meets with 7ed 0hina8s President "% &intao (left) on the ste.s of E%m*er (@ Downing !treet the Prime -inister8s residen#e in London Angland /reat Britain on $.ril ( '@@). (Peter -a#diarmid;/etty =mages)

President of Fran#e Ei#olas !arkoHy (left) greets 0omm%nist 0hina8s President "% &intao. (Photo, htt.,;;www.#hineCinformations.#om;a#t%alite;ni#olasCsarkoHyCren#ontreCleC.residentC#hinoisCh%C2intaoCaClondresL('B@(.html)

7ed 0hina8s President "% &intao ('nd 7) and President of Fran#e Ei#olas !arkoHy ('nd L) toast d%ring a signing #eremony of do#%ments on #oo.eration in the fields of environmental .rote#tion n%#lear energy aviation and et#. at the /reat "all of the Peo.le in Bei2ing mainland 0hina on Eovem*er ': '@@B. (9inh%a Photo)

"% &intao greets 0han#ellor of /ermany /erhard !#hroeder (left) and Fren#h President &a#1%es 0hira# (right).

7ed 0hinese 0ommissar "% &intao shakes hands with AU 0o%n#il !e#retaryC/eneral &avier !olana (left) in the /reat "all of the Peo.le in Bei2ing on !e.tem*er 3 '@@3 as British Prime -inister Tony Blair (right) and AU 0ommission President -an%el Barroso look on.

Left .hoto, A%ro.ean 0ommission President &ose -an%el Barroso shakes hands with 7ed 0hinese Premier Wen &iao*ao on De#em*er B '@@5. 7ight .hoto, British Prime -inister -argaret That#her visits Deng 9iao.ing in De#em*er ()45.

&a#1%es 0hira# (left) and Tony Blair (right) share a glass of li1%or with "% &intao.

Communist C ina,s Uice +remier Eang Gis an 'rig t( meets wit Eorld Trade 8rganiLation 'ET8( =irector/0eneral +ascal -amy in Beijing, ca!ital o* Communist C ina, on ?uly "$, "<$<. ';in ua1-i Tao(

0omm%nist 0hina8s President "% &intao (right) meets with President of the !o#ialist =nternational (!=) /eorge Pa.andreo% who later served as the Prime -inister of /ree#e at the /reat "all of the Peo.le in Bei2ing 0omm%nist 0hina on -ay (3 '@@). /eorge Pa.andreo% was in Bei2ing to attend a seminar on s%staina*le growth #oCs.onsored *y the 0omm%nist Party of 0hina and the !=. (9inh%a;Li 9%eren) (!o%r#e, htt.,;;*n.#hineseem*assy.org;eng;HgJw;t3:'45:.htm)

Hu ?intao 'rig t(, +resident o* Communist C ina, s a6es ands wit +ascal -amy, director general o* t e Eorld Trade 8rganiLation, during a *orum to commemorate t e $<t anniversary o* Communist C ina,s accession to t e Eorld Trade 8rganiLation at t e 0reat Hall o* t e +eo!le in Beijing in "<$$. 'A+1-iu ?in(

"elm%t !#hmidt (right) 0han#ellor of West /ermany shakes hands with 0ommissar -ao TseCt%ng in Peking 0omm%nist 0hina. (Photo, Men and Powers: ! Political Retrospecti$e *y "elm%t !#hmidt)

"elm%t !#hmidt (right) 0han#ellor of West /ermany meets with 0hinese 0omm%nist Party mem*er "%a /%ofeng in Peking 0omm%nist 0hina. (Photo, Men and Powers: ! Political Retrospecti$e *y "elm%t !#hmidt)

0omm%nist 0hina8s De.%ty Premier Deng 9iao.ing instr%#ts West /ermany8s 0han#ellor "elm%t !#hmidt in the %se of #ho.sti#ks d%ring a *an1%et in Bei2ing on <#to*er ') ()B3. !#hmidt was the first #han#ellor of the Federal 7e.%*li# of /ermany to visit mainland 0hina. (Photo, N d.a;0or*is)

Private #itiHen "elm%t !#hmidt former 0han#ellor of West /ermany meets with Deng 9iao.ing in Bei2ing in !e.tem*er ()45. (Photo, Men and Powers: ! Political Retrospecti$e *y "elm%t !#hmidt)

!o%r#e, The Man %ho &hanged &hina: The Life and Legacy of 'iang (emin *y 7o*ert Lawren#e >%hn

!o%r#e, The Man %ho &hanged &hina: The Life and Legacy of 'iang (emin *y 7o*ert Lawren#e >%hn

(!o%r#e, The Man %ho &hanged &hina: The Life and Legacy of 'iang (emin *y 7o*ert Lawren#e >%hn)

Left .hoto, >ing &%an 0arlos = of !.ain and his wife I%een !ofia greet 7ed 0hina8s 0ommissar Deng 9iao.ing in Bei2ing in &%ne ()B4. I%een !ofia has a..eared in several Bilder*erg -eetings. 7ight .hoto, I%een AliHa*eth == of /reat Britain meets with Deng 9iao.ing in <#to*er ()4:.

!o%r#e, The Man %ho &hanged &hina: The Life and Legacy of 'iang (emin *y 7o*ert Lawren#e >%hn

6i#eC0hairwoman of the EP0 standing 0ommittee !oong 0hingCling (left) =ndia8s Prime -inister &awaharlal Eehr% (#enter) and 7ed 0hina8s Premier 0ho% Anlai are seen talking at the grand re#e.tion in Peking FBei2ingG on <#to*er () ()35. (Photo, htt.,;;in.#hinaCem*assy.org;eng;ssygd;!ino=ndia7elations;t(454)@.htm)

(!o%r#e, The Man %ho &hanged &hina: The Life and Legacy of 'iang (emin *y 7o*ert Lawren#e >%hn)

!o%r#e, The Man %ho &hanged &hina: The Life and Legacy of 'iang (emin *y 7o*ert Lawren#e >%hn

Permanent mem*ers of the United Eations !e#%rity 0o%n#il meet at hotel in Eew York 0ity on !e.tem*er B '@@@. From right are, British Prime -inister Tony Blair U.!. President Bill 0linton 0omm%nist 0hinese President &iang Qemin Fren#h President &a#1%es 0hira# and 7%ssian President 6ladimir P%tin. (/A<7/A! /<BAT;$FP;/etty =mages)

Left .hoto, >ing Fahd of !a%d $ra*ia meets with 7ed 0hina8s 0ommissar &iang Qemin. 7ight .hoto, 6eneH%ela8s r%ler "%go 0haveH visits "% &intao.

Left, 7%ssia8s President and former >/B agent 6ladimir P%tin em*ra#es 7ed 0hina8s 0ommissar &iang Qemin. 7ight, Eorth >orea8s des.ot >im &ong =l greets 7ed 0hina8s 0ommissar &iang Qemin.

Left, 6ladimir P%tin shakes hands with 7ed 0hina8s #ommissar Li Peng at the >remlin in !e.tem*er '@@@. 7ight, President of !o%th $fri#a Eelson -andela greets 7ed 0hina8s 0ommissar &iang Qemin.

7%ssia8s Prime -inister 6ladimir P%tin (front left) and 7ed 0hina8s Premier Wen &ia*ao (front right) a..ear in the (5th reg%lar .rime ministers8 talks *etween 7ed 0hina and 7%ssia. (Photo, htt.,;;www.#hinaCdefenseCmash%..#om;S#atT?:)

0anada8s Li*eral Prime -inister Pierre Tr%dea% meets -ao TseCt%ng Di#tator of 0omm%nist 0hina in <#to*er ()B?. ($sso#iated Press)

7%ssia8s President 6ladimir P%tin shakes hands with 7ed 0hina8s 0ommissar "% &intao d%ring the /4 !%mmit in !t. Peters*%rg 7%ssia on &%ly (B '@@:. (Photo, <ffi#ial We*site of the 7%ssian /4 Presiden#y)

>ing $*d%llah of !a%di $ra*ia greets 7ed 0hina8s des.ot "% &intao at the Peo.le8s /reat "all in Bei2ing on &an%ary '? '@@:.

=sraeli Prime -inister Ah%d <lmert em*ra#es 7ed 0hinese #ommissar Wen &ia*ao in Bei2ing on &an%ary (( '@@B. ($sia Eews)

7ed 0hinese $m*assador to =srael 0hen Yonglong and =sraeli De.%ty Prime -inister !himon Peres .ose for a .hoto in "erHliyya =srael on &%ly (' '@@:. The 7ed 0hinese Am*assy to =srael held a sym.osi%m on the 7ed 0hinaC=srael relations in "erHliyya on &%ly (( '@@: to %nveil a series of a#tivities to mark the #oming (3th anniversary of the esta*lishment of the di.lomati# ties *etween 7ed 0hina and =srael. =srael maintained di.lomati# relations with the 7e.%*li# of 0hina on Taiwan d%ring the Tiananmen !1%are -assa#re in ()4)D =srael severed di.lomati# ties with the 7e.%*li# of 0hina and esta*lished di.lomati# relations with the OB%t#hers of Bei2ingP. <ver 3@ million 0hinese .eo.le have *een *r%tally m%rdered *y the 0hiinese 0omm%nists sin#e ()5)D at least : million &ews were *r%tally m%rdered *y the EaHi /ermans d%ring World War ==. (9inh%a Photo)

Pakistan8s President /en. PerveH -%sharraf greets 0omm%nist 0hina8s President "% &intao.

$fghanistan8s President "amid >arHai visits 7ed 0hina8s 0ommissar "% &intao.

Hu ?intao 'le*t(, +resident o* Communist C ina, a!!ears wit Ha moud A madinejad, +resident o* t e 5slamic Be!u)lic o* 5ran.

=ran8s r%ler -ohammed >hatami (right) greets 0ommissar of 0omm%nist 0hina &iang Qemin.

$ra* terrorist Yasser $rafat greets and em*ra#es &iang Qemin.

+resident o* Communist C ina Hu ?intao 'le*t( a!!ears wit +resident o* Dgy!t Ho amed Horsi in Beijing, Communist C ina on August "&, "<$".

Left, 7ed 0hina8s 0ommissar "% &intao greets =ran8s r%ler -ahmo%d $hmadine2ad. 7ight, !yria8s des.ot Bashar $ssad and "% &intao review the Peo.le8s Li*eration $rmy.

President of 0omm%nist Qim*a*we 7o*ert -%ga*e (left) shakes hands with President of 0omm%nist 0hina "% &intao d%ring the wel#oming #eremony for re.resentatives attending the Bei2ing !%mmit of the For%m on 0hinaC$fri#a 0oo.eration at the /reat "all of Peo.le in Bei2ing on Eovem*er 5 '@@:. (Photo *y $ndrew Wong;/etty =mages)

President of !o%th $fri#a Tha*o -*eki (left) shakes hands with President of 0omm%nist 0hina "% &intao d%ring the wel#oming #eremony for re.resentatives attending the Bei2ing !%mmit of the For%m on 0hinaC$fri#a 0oo.eration at the /reat "all of Peo.le in Bei2ing 0omm%nist 0hina on Eovem*er 5 '@@:. (Photo *y $ndrew Wong;/etty =mages)

(!o%r#e, The Man %ho &hanged &hina: The Life and Legacy of 'iang (emin *y 7o*ert Lawren#e >%hn)

President of 0omm%nist 0hina "% &intao (#enter) and President of 0omm%nist 0%*a 7a%l 0astro (left) re#eives military honors at the 7evol%tion Pala#e in "avana 0%*a on Eovem*er (4 '@@4. ($FP;/etty =mages)

0%*a8s di#tator Fidel 0astro greets 7ed 0hina8s #ommissars "% &intao (left) and &iang Qemin.

Fidel 0astro em*ra#es Qh% 7ong2i.

6eneH%ela8s r%ler "%go 0haveH stands *eside &iang Qemin.

President of -eJi#o 6i#ente FoJ shakes hands with &iang Qemin the 0ommissar of 7ed 0hina d%ring an $PA0 meeting that took .la#e in Los 0a*os (Ba2a 0alifornia !%r) -eJi#o on <#to*er ': '@@'. (Photo, $riel /%tierreH)

BraHilKs President L%iH =na#io L%la da !ilva (0) greets 7ed 0hinese 0entral -ilitary 0ommission 6i#e 0hairman /eneral 9% 0aiho% (left) while Defen#e -inister of BraHil Eelson &o*im looks on d%ring their meeting at Planalto Pala#e in Brasilia BraHil on Eovem*er 'B '@@4. (7e%ters)

Former President of -eJi#o Arnesto Qedillo shakes hands with 7ed 0hina8s 0ommissar "% &intao on $.ril '5 '@@5.

-eJi#o8s President 6i#ente FoJ greets "% &intao.

President of -eJi#o 6i#ente FoJ (left and #enter) and President of -eJi#o Arnesto Qedillo (right) meet with &iang Qemin.

-eJi#oKs President Feli.e 0alderon (L) and his 0hinese #o%nter.art "% &intao toast after re.resentatives from the two #o%ntries signed agreements at the /reat "all of the Peo.le in Bei2ing &%ly (( '@@4. (7e%ters)

Pakistan8s President /en. PerveH -%sharraf shares a toast with "% &intao.

0omm%nist 0hina8s President "% &intao (7) shakes hands with 0anadaKs Prime -inister !te.hen "ar.er (L) *efore their meeting at the /reat "all of the Peo.le in Bei2ing on De#em*er ? '@@). (Pool;/etty =mages)

Left .hoto, 0anada8s Prime -inister Pa%l -artin shakes hands with 7ed 0hina8s des.ot "% &intao d%ring a wel#ome l%n#heon given *y Pa%l -artin in <ttawa on !e.tem*er ) '@@3. (9inh%a)

The Peo.le8s Di.loma#y, $ &ewish 0ons.ira#yS Israel Epstein, Prominent Chinese Communist, Dies at 90

Eang Yan1New C ina News Agency, via Associated +ress

+resident Hu ?intao o* C ina greeted 5srael D!stein, retired editor o* C ina Today, in Beijing in A!ril just )e*ore Hr. D!steinPs %<t )irt day. By DOU L!" #!$%I&
P%*lished, &%ne ' '@@3

Corre'tion !ppended 5srael D!stein, a journalist, aut or and !ro!agandist *or C ina w ose !assion *or Communism was *ueled in long interviews wit Hao in t e $%M<Ps and was not dimmed )y im!risonment during t e Cultural Bevolution, died last T ursday at a os!ital in Beijing. He was %<. His deat was announced )y t e o**icial New C ina News Agency. Hr. D!stein edited C ina Today, an Dnglis /language C inese newsmagaLine, translated t e sayings and writings o* Hao and =eng ;iao!ing and advised t e C inese government on ow to !olis its overseas image. He )ecame a C inese citiLen, joined t e Communist +arty and served on o**icial government and !arty committees. He and !er a!s a doLen ot er aging *oreign/)orn residents o* Beijing were sometimes seen as t e last true )elievers in a revolution t at as sometimes seemed )lurred )y timePs !assage and C inaPs em)race o* *ree mar6ets and consumerism. 5n $%%I, T e 8)server, t e -ondon news!a!er, said, V+er a!s t e most loyal Communists in t e country today are *oreigners, veteran *ellow travelers *rom a vanis ed era o* idealism.V Hr. D!stein ung HaoPs !ortrait on is )edroom wallC 6new t e American journalist Ddgar Snow well enoug to el! edit is )oo6sC was a !rotWgW o* t e widow o* Sun Yat/sen, t e *ounder o* C inaPs *irst re!u)licC and was a)le to say t e *ive years e s!ent in !rison on *alse c arges during t e Cultural Bevolution ad el!ed im!rove im )y s rin6ing is ego. .or decades C inaPs to! leaders visited im on is )irt days. VHy )asic ideas ave not c anged,V e told T e 8)server. V5 see no reason to c ange t em.V

5srael D!stein was )orn on A!ril "<, $%$@, in Earsaw, t en under Bussian control. His *at er was im!risoned )y t e cLarist aut orities *or leading a la)or u!rising, and is mot er was once eAiled to Si)eria. VT e earliest in*luence on me came *rom my socialist !arents,V Hr. D!stein said in an interview wit C ina =aily in "<<>. A*ter t e out)rea6 o* Eorld Ear 5, is *at er was sent )y is com!any to ?a!an to develo! )usiness in t e +aci*ic region. As t e 0erman Army a!!roac ed Earsaw, is mot er, wit im in er arms, *led t e city and traveled east to )e reunited wit er us)and. A*ter eA!eriencing anti/?ewis sentiment in several !laces, t ey settled in Tianjin in nort C ina. He was t en ". Hr. D!stein )egan is career as a journalist at $@, wor6ing *or t e Tianjin/)ased +e6ing and Tientsin Times, an Dnglis /language news!a!er. He covered C inaPs struggle against ?a!anese invaders *or United +ress and ot er Eestern news organiLations. 5n $%M$, a s ort item in T e New Yor6 Times re!orted t at e ad )een 6illed, )ut it later turned out t at e ad *a6ed is deat to divert t e ?a!anese w o were unting im. He anonymously su)merged into a ?a!anese internment cam! *or a w ile. Hr. D!stein )ecame acquainted wit Hr. Snow a*ter is editor assigned im to review one o* Hr. SnowPs )oo6s, and Hr. Snow s owed im is classic VBed Star 8ver C inaV )e*ore it was !u)lis ed. Hr. Snow reci!rocated )y reading Hr. D!steinPs un!u)lis ed wor6s. 5n Hong Qong, Hr. D!stein wor6ed wit Soong C ing -ing, Sun Yat/senPs widow, w om e ad met in le*t/wing !olitical activities in t e $%><Ps. S e arranged *or im to visit Hao, K ou Dnlai and t eir revolutionary comrades at t eir )ase in C inaPs nort west in $%MM, and Hr. D!stein said is conversations in a cave wit Hao ad c anged is li*e. 5n $%MM, Hr. D!stein visited Britain, t en s!ent t e neAt *ive years in t e United States, w ere e !u)lis ed VT e Un*inis ed Bevolution in C inaV to good reviews. 8t er )oo6s e wrote were *irst !u)lis ed in C inese and included V.rom 8!ium Ear to -i)erationV in $%@M, VTi)et Trans*ormedV in $%&> and VEoman in Eorld HistoryF Soong C ing -ingV in $%%>. 5n $%@$, Hs. Soong invited im to return to C ina to edit C ina Beconstructs, later renamed C ina Today. He was editor in c ie* until is retirement at #<, and t en editor emeritus. His *ive years in !rison during t e Cultural Bevolution, on c arges o* !lotting against K ou, ended in $%#> wit a !ersonal a!ology *rom K ou and a restoration o* is eAalted !osition. His !rominence in C ina was suggested )y t e annual tal6s Hao ad wit im. =eng attended Hr. D!steinPs retirement rece!tion in $%&@. 8n A!ril $#, t e C inese !resident, Hu ?intao, visited im and !raised is Vs!ecial contri)utionsV to C ina. Hr. D!stein *irst wi*e, Dlsie .air*aA/C olmeley, died in $%&M. He is survived )y is wi*e, Ean Bi, two c ildren and two ste!c ildren. He will )e )uried at t e Ba)aos an Cemetery *or Bevolutionaries. Correction: )une *+$ ,--.$ /aturday: %n o0ituary on )une , a0out 1srae! #pstein$ a 2arsaw(0orn journa!ist who 0e3ame a prominent 4hinese 4ommunist$ re'erred in3orre3t!y to his marriage to #!sie Fair'ax(4ho!me!ey5 /he was his se3ond wi'e6 his 'irst was #dith &iho7sky #pstein$ !ater &a!!in$ 'rom whom he was di7or3ed in the ear!y *89-:s5
!o%r#e, htt.,;;www.nytimes.#om;'@@3;@:;@';international;asia;@'e.stein.htmlSLrT@

C inese ?ewis communist agent 5srael D!stein 'rig t( greets Soong C ing -ing 3Hadame Sun Yat/sen4 'le*t(.

C inese ?ewis communist agent 5srael D!stein 'rig t( visits Comrade =eng ;iao!ing in Beijing, Communist C ina in $%&@.

C inese ?ewis communist agent 5srael D!stein 'rig t( visits Communist C ina,s +resident ?iang Kemin in Beijing.

"idney $itten(er)* $e+le'tions on a li+etime in China


by Allison Carroll Goldman on August 3, 2012

+C!airman, -ao Tse.tun) /le"t0 #it! C!inese Communist 1e#is! a)ent Si%ne2 Rittenber) Si%ne2 Rittenber) is t!e sub(ect o" a ne# %ocumentar2 "ilm calle% +T!e Revolutionar23, He is an American #!o live% in C!ina "rom 4567 to 45893 His arrival #as partl2 coinci%ence: !e #as %ra"te% %urin) $orl% $ar II an% sent to C!ina a"ter stu%2in) C!inese lan)ua)e at Stan"or% :niversit23 He arrive% (ust as t!e 1apanese #ere surren%erin) an% #itnesse% in(ustices committe% b2 t!e ;uomintan) )overnment a)ainst its o#n people3 A"ter t!e #ar en%e% Rittenber) %eci%e% to sta2 in C!ina an% see< out t!e lea%ers o" t!e Communist revolution t!at #as ra)in) across t!e countr2si%e3 He travele% to t!e mountains in =anan #!ere t!e lea%ers #ere base% an% met #it! -ao >e%on) an% >!ou Enlai3 T!e2 tol% !im t!e2 nee%e% a native En)lis! spea<er to e?plain t!eir policies to t!e :nite% States3 In !elpin) t!em Rittenber) !a% t!e sense o" "ul"illin) a !istorical nee%3 C!ina #as t!e most populous an% most ancient countr2 in t!e #orl% an% it #as in t!e process o" reinventin) itsel"3 He "elt !e !a% !is +"in)er on t!e pulse o" !istor23, T!rou)!out !is time in C!ina Rittenber) #as connecte% #it! t!e upper ec!elons o" t!e Communist Part2 lea%ers!ip3 He !as <no#n ever2 ma(or lea%er in Communist C!ina inclu%in) -ao >!ou Enlai 1ian) >emin an% Hu 1intao3 Rittenber) is reco)ni@e% t!rou)!out C!ina b2 !is C!inese name Ai Dunbai /03 He #itnesse% an% too< part in t!e "ormation o" mo%ern C!ina an% live% all its comple?ities3 He spent a total o" 4B 2ears in solitar2 con"inement an% #as a po#er"ul proponent o" t!e Cultural Revolution be"ore !imsel" "allin) victim to its c!aos3 T!e "irst time !e #as (aile% #as at t!e request o" 1osep! Stalin #!o sent a #ritten communiquC to -ao accusin) Rittenber) o" bein) a sp2 sent b2 t!e Americans to un%ermine t!e revolution3 He #as t!ro#n into solitar2 con"inement an% not release% until a"ter Stalins %eat! si? 2ears later3 T!e secon% time !e o""en%e% -aos #i"e 1ian) Din) #!o !a% become po#er"ul %urin) t!e Cultural Revolution as one o" t!e rut!less +Ean) o" Four3, Rittenber) en%e% up once a)ain in prison in solitar2 con"inement "or 49 2ears3 His #i"e remaine% lo2al to !im all t!at time an% a"ter !e #as release% at t!e en% o" t!e Cultural Revolution t!e2 move% to)et!er bac< to t!e :nite% States3 Rittenber) is no# 54 2ears ol% an% !e an% !is #i"e provi%e consultin) services "or lar)e American corporations #it! interests in C!ina3 T!e "ilm +T!e Revolutionar2, #as create% over a 7.2ear perio% an% pro%uce% b2 Irv Drasnin Don Sellers an% Auc2 &stran%er in cooperation #it! Rittenber) !imsel"3 T!e ta)line rea%s: +-aos call "or a Cultural Revolution #as ans#ere% b2 tens o" millions o" C!ineseG an% one American3, T!e "ollo#in) is an intervie# con%ucte% b2 email #it! Rittenber) about t!e "ilm an% !is e?periences in C!ina: Ho !i! the i!ea "or #he Re$olutionar% come a&out? T!e i%ea o" a "ilm on m2 stor2 occurre% to acclaime% pro%ucer Auc2 &stran%er #!en s!e rea% a Ne# =or< Times pro"ile o" me3 S!e !a% lon) a)o "ilme% me "or !er %ocumentar2 on Anna Aouise Stron)3

In the "ilm %ou talk a&out $er% traumatic e$ents in %our li"e' Was it !i""icult to !o this in "ront o" the camera? I !a% no problem %iscussin) un!app2 personal e?periences "or t!is "ilm3 I !a% complete con"i%ence in t!e pro%ucers Auc2 Don Sellers an% t!e pro%ucerHintervie#er Irv Drasnin3 Irv use% to pro%uce t!e C!arles ;uralt ne#s pro)ram an% !as %one outstan%in) %ocumentar2 #or< on C!ina3 I "oun% !im eas2 to c!at #it!3 'esi%es %urin) t!e most tr2in) times in solitar2 I !a% ma%e up m2 min% to tr2 to remember ever2t!in) t!at !appene% t!in<in) t!at in t!is #a2 I coul% avoi% "uture post.traumatic issues3 Its li<e )ettin) a splinter in 2our s<in I t!ou)!t: i" 2ou let t!e s<in close over it it ma2 !urt "or t!e rest o" 2our li"e an% 2ou ma2 not even remember #!23 T!at approac! #or<e%3 What "irst ins(ire! %ou to tra$el to Yan)an a"ter the ar an! meet the Chinese Communist Part% lea!ers? I !a% learne% somet!in) about t!e C!inese Communist movement at t!e :S Arm2 Aan)ua)e Sc!ool at Stan"or% :niversit2 an% later ma%e contact #it! un%er)roun% CCP members in ;unmin) an% S!an)!ai3 I believe% t!at t!e Ne# C!ina un%er t!e CCP #oul% be a )reat %emocrac2 a lan% o" peace an% plent2 #!ic! #oul% be a blessin) "or America an% "or t!e #orl%3 I envisione% t!e #orl%s ol%est countr2 reinventin) itsel" as t!e 2oun)est3 I sa# a :SHC!ina alliance as t!e !ope o" t!e #orl%: America !a% t!e )reatest store o" e?actl2 #!at C!ina nee%e% I capital science tec!nolo)2J C!ina !a% #!at America nee%e% I a vast ne# mar<et an% !u)e numbers o" "rien%s on t!e strate)ic arc o" Asia3 As an American #it! C!inese lan)ua)e s<ills I #ante% to %o #!atever I coul% to buil% bri%)es bet#een Americans an% C!inese to !elp brin) t!at about3 You *oine! the CPC in +,-./ an! t o %ears later ere im(risone! un!er sus(icion o" &eing an American s(%' You ere hel! in solitar% con"inement "or . %ears &e"ore &eing release!' What ma!e %ou sta% in China an! remain lo%al to the Part% a"ter that? Coul! %ou ha$e le"t i" %ou ante! to? I coul% easil2 !ave le"t C!ina in 4577 a"ter m2 release3 In "act C!inese lea%ers o""ere% to "inance #!atever en%eavor I mi)!t #ant to start up in America3 'e"ore t!at I !a% been tol% a"ter t!e "irst 2ear in solitar2 I in 4579 I t!at i" I %i%nt #ant to #ait "or m2 case to be resolve% I coul% return to America t!en an% never come bac< to C!ina3 I %i%nt )ive t!is option a moments t!ou)!t I I !a% ma%e up m2 min% to #or< on buil%in) bri%)es bet#een C!inese an% Americans an% I sa# no reason #!2 I s!oul% )ive t!at up3 -2 lo2alt2 to t!e i%eals o" Communism never #avere% %urin) t!ose si? 2ears in solitar23 I" an2t!in) it )re# stron)er3 I #as %etermine% t!at I #oul% not let m2 personal %isaster a""ect m2 belie" in #!at I t!ou)!t #as true an% )oo%3 -2 "at!er tau)!t me to tr2 to never let m2 vie# o" t!e trut! be a""ecte% b2 #!et!er or not it #as )oo% "or me3 In %our #e!0 talk/ %ou !escri&e %our e0(eriences ith solitar% con"inement an! the slee(-!e(ri$ation tactics that ere use! to &reak %ou !o n so %ou oul! con"ess' Can %ou !escri&e hat 1reu! as/ an! ho that kno le!ge hel(e! %ou maintain %our sanit%? -2 "irst t!ou)!t #!en I #as loc<e% up in a %ar< cell #as t!at +Reason is stron)er t!an Freu%3, '2 +Freu%, /#!om I !a% never rea%0 I simpl2 meant t!e "ear o" represse% emotions o" isolation an% ot!er ps2c!olo)ical problems3 I t!ou)!t I am a stu%ent /an% tr2 to be a practitioner0 o" scienti"ic p!ilosop!23 I s!oul% be able to anal2@e m2 situation an% #or< out #a2s "or %ealin) #it! it so t!at I %ont en% up seriousl2 traumati@e% li<e man2 el%er ca%res #!om I <ne# an% #!o !a% been t!rou)! severe political !arassment3 :ltimatel2 I t!in< t!is reliance on rational t!in<in) on clin)in) to m2 c!osen li"e purpose on learnin) to !arness positive emotions to %eal #it! ne)ative ones an% to mo%ulate moo%s turne% out to be m2 salvation I even t!ou)! some o" m2 speci"ic political belie"s turne% out later to be un"oun%e%3 A 22C inter$ie er aske! %ou last %ear hether the Communist Part% o" China e0ists to!a%' You ans ere!/ Not &% an% !e"inition I kno o"3to!a% %ou !on)t "in! much moralit%' At hat (oint !o %ou think the Part% cease! to e0ist? Was that !ecline ine$ita&le? T!e CCP as a revolutionar2 or)ani@ation t!at inspire% an% arouse% t!e C!inese people cease% to e?ist lon) a)o3 T!is #as ma%e o""icial t#o or t!ree 2ears a)o #!en t!e Part2 announce% t!at it #as no lon)er a revolutionar2 Part2 but a rulin) Part2 I t!e Part2 in po#er3 'e"ore comin) to po#er t!e Part2 !a% no source o" stren)t! e?cept "or #!atever popular support t!e2 coul% arouse b2 actions t!at "ul"ille% t!e peoples most ur)ent nee%s /lan% "ree%om "rom oppression "air pa2 an% treatment "or #or<in) people respect an% opportunit2 "or intellectuals national pri%e an% in%epen%ence etc03 T!e2 !a% to #or< !ar% be %emocratic an% practice !umilit2 in or%er to #in t!e peoples support3 A"ter comin) to po#er in 4565 t!e ne# la#s require% t!at ever2one reco)ni@e t!em as t!e rulers an% t!eir i%eolo)2 as t!e onl2 correct one3 From servants o" t!e people t!e2 )ra%uall2 an% not entirel2 consciousl2 turne% into t!eir masters3 Eone #as t!e %emocratic spirit t!e !umilit2 t!e tolerance "or ot!er vie#s3 From a Part2 t!at serve% t!e people t!e2 became t!e rulers o" t!e people3 T!is #as alrea%2 becomin) a qualitativel2 %i""erent Part23 Still man2 o" t!e ol% virtues remaine% an% t!ere #ere repeate% attempts to maintain close ties bet#een lea%ers an% le% an% to maintain a plebeian st2le3 T!en #it! t!e Cultural Revolution t!e ol% Part2 #as b2 an% lar)e p!2sicall2 %estro2e%3 T!e ol% ca%res #ere brutall2 persecute% an% be)an rapi%l2 "a%in) a#a2 an% %2in) o""3 T!e entire Part2 or)ani@ation /e?cept "or t!e militar2 branc!es0 "rom political bureau %o#n cease% operations in t!e sprin) o" 45BK 2iel%in) place to t!e Cultural Revolution Aea%in) Eroup3 Part2 o""ices #it! t!eir "iles an% %ossiers #ere seale% an% t!ere #ere no meetin)s I outsi%e o" t!e militar23

T!e Part2 or)ani@ation t!at #as later restore% #as a mere s!a%o# o" t!e ori)inal I meetin)s #ere spora%ic an% pro."orma t!e spirit #as )one t!e part2 became a mere mac!ine "or e?ercisin) po#er over t!e )overnment an% t!e people3 &""icial corruption an% careerism rare be"ore t!e Cultural Revolution no# became prevalent an% s2stemic3 T!ere are vi)orous "orces #it!in t!e CCP to%a2 #!o are %etermine% to clean up an% revive t!e Part2 #it! a rene#e% spirit o" %e%ication to servin) t!e people an% lea%in) t!em on#ar% to a better li"e3 T!e2 #or< "or %emocratic political re"orms alon) speci"ic C!inese lines t!at coul% ma<e t!is possible3 'ut t!e2 !ave t!eir #or< cut out "or t!em I it #ill not be a s!ort I term nor an eas2 tas<3 You rote (ro(agan!a !uring the "irst "e months o" the Cultural Re$olution/ in hich %ou !e"en!e! the (osition that onl% the most "er$ent "ollo ers o" 4ao shoul! &e consi!ere! genuine re$olutionaries an! (atriots' In a small a%/ %our or!s oul! ha$e contri&ute! to the increasingl% $iolent ra!icalism o" the time' Ho !i! %ou "eel a&out hat %ou ere riting at the time hen %ou ere riting it? At t!e time t!at I #as %oin) ra%ical pamp!leteerin) %urin) t!e Cultural Revolution I "erventl2 believe% in #!at I #as sa2in)3 I t!ou)!t t!at t!e Cultural Revolution #as a )reat movement to %emocrati@e Socialism to ma<e t!e collective serve t!e in%ivi%ual more t!an vice versa I t!at literall2 in t!e #or%s o" t!e Internationale a better #orl% #as in birt!3 &nl2 t!e purest -ar?ists #!ole!earte%l2 %e%icate% to t!e peoples cause coul% provi%e lea%ers!ip in t!is ne# era3 For t!is reason "or e?ample even t!ou)! >!ou Enlai #as a %earl2 belove% "rien% an% supporter #!en I receive% opposite instructions "rom !im an% "rom 1ian) Din) I "oolis!l2 listene% to 1ian) Din) t!in<in) t!at s!e represente% a purer "orm o" +-ao >e%on) T!ou)!t3, As a result I atten%e% t!e Re% Euar% stru))le meetin) a)ainst $an) Euan)mei /-a%ame Aiu S!aoqi0 #!ic! I !ave %eepl2 re)rette% ever since3 I #as s!oc<e% at t!e violence in t!e Cultural Revolution but I t!ou)!t t!at t!is #as t!e unavoi%able accompaniment o" convulsive social c!an)e suc! as I sa# )oin) on3 All o" t!is #as o" course quite mista<en3 Anarc!istic %emocrac2 s#i"tl2 turne% into #orse %espotism t!an an2t!in) in t!e pre.Cultural Revolution bureaucrac2 an% I en%e% up sittin) in a little cell #it! m2 i%eals "or anot!er ten 2ears3 When the Cultural Re$olution &egan/ %ou ere not a &right-e%e! Re! 5uar!: You ere alrea!% a seasone! Part% mem&er an! ha! e0(erience! &oth the 5reat 6ea( 1or ar! an! long-term im(risonment at the han!s o" the Part%' What ins(ire! %ou a&out the Cultural Re$olution? Wh% !i! %ou rall% so strongl% &ehin! it? T!e ans#er is in t!e above I I onl2 )ot to ta<e part in t!e "irst /an% #orst0 46 mont!s o" t!e Cultural Revolution but I sa# it as a )reat %emocratic uprisin) #!ic! #as creatin) a ne# livel2 %emocratic "orm o" Socialism3 People electe% t!eir o#n lea%ers "orme% t!eir o#n political or)ani@ations publis!e% t!eir o#n opinions I it seeme% li<e a marvelous ne# #orl% #!ile it laste%3 I #as t!rille% to be a part o" it an% %i%nt reali@e t!at it #as conceive% as a sta)e in t!e establis!ment o" a +total %ictators!ip o" t!e proletariat , in -aos #or%s3 I t!ou)!t !e #as t!e )reat liberator #!o #as reall2 intro%ucin) a vibrant %emocratic societ23 You ha$e sai! that in the +,.7s/ %ou once "aile! to (rotect "rien!s ho ere single! out "or harsh criticism' At the time/ !i! %ou "eel %ou ere acting on %our o n im(etus? 8r !i! %ou "eel %ou ere &eing coerce!? I %i%nt "eel t!at I #as bein) coerce% #!en I "aile% to protect "rien%s "rom criticism3 Actuall2 I supporte% t!e criticism o" t!ese people I #it! t#o e?ceptions3 I stuc< m2 nec< out in #or% an% in #ritin) "or t#o ol% "rien%s ol% Eeneral $an) >!en an% Hubei Eovernor >!an) Ti?ue3 I <ne# t!em bot! #ell enou)! t!at I #as convince% t!e2 coul% not be )uilt2 o" un%erminin) C!airman -ao an% I #rote t!is to t!e Part2 lea%ers!ip3 As "or close "rien%s #!o #ere #ron)"ull2 sti)mati@e% as +ba% people , I stoppe% spea<in) to t!em I but I consi%ere% t!at t!is #as a part o" m2 lo2alt2 to t!e revolution not somet!in) %one un%er coercion3 Earlier %urin) t!e +Anti.Ri)!tist, campai)n in 457K I %i% )o alon) #it! t!e !ars! criticism o" some "rien%s partl2 un%er +internal coercion, I I !a% (ust emer)e% "rom si? 2ears in solitar2 an% I #as a"rai% o" arousin) suspicion3 I reali@e% later t!at t!is #as part o" #!2 I supporte% t!e criticism even t!ou)! I !a% be)un to !ave secret %oubts about t!e use o" class stru))le3 #o hat e0tent !o %ou think the legac% o" the Cultural Re$olution continues to sha(e Chinese societ% to!a%? Are there an% lasting e""ects that %ou o&ser$e? I t!in< t!e Cultural Revolution !as not been care"ull2 stu%ie% t!e e?perience is not )enerall2 %iscusse% in t!e sc!ools an% t!e lessons !ave not been %ra#n3 I %ont see si)ns o" a"ter.e""ects amon) people at lar)e but it is obvious in t!e e?a))erate% "ear t!at most lea%ers !ave o" +turbulence,3 T!is ten%s to ma<e t!em "ri)!tene% o" t!e ba%l2 nee%e% %emocratic re"orms in spite o" t!e "act t!at tar%2 re"orms coul% easil2 lea% to ma(or turbulenceG I %ont see an2 relations!ip bet#een t!e !an%lin) o" t!e 'o Lilai case an% t!e CR I it is bein) !an%le% in t!e #a2 t!at all suc! matters !ave been !an%le% startin) be"ore t!e CR3 'o ma%e cru%e attempts to )enerate a <in% o" CR.st2le personal c!arisma aroun% !imsel" b2 usin) met!o%s reminiscent o" CR met!o%s but it #as super"icial c2nical an% top.%o#n not bottom.up3 2ao #ong/ ho as high u( in the 9hao 9i%ang a!ministration &e"ore &eing !etaine! "or re$ealing state secrets an! making counter-re$olutionar% (ro(agan!a *ust &e"ore the +,:, #iananmen (rotests/ recentl% ga$e an inter$ie in hich he sai! it is im(ossi&le to &e in$ol$e! in the current (olitical s%stem in China ithout &eing corru(t' He commente!/ I" I ere in the current s%stem/ I)! &e corru(t too' Woul! %ou agree ith his sentiment? I t!in< t!e !i)!l2 a%mirable 'ao Ton) ma2 !ave been re"errin) to t!e "act t!at an o""icial #!o tries to remain clean an%

%e%icate% #ill o"ten be un%ermine% b2 t!e corrupt o""icials surroun%in) !im an% t!eir %evious #a2s an% #ill "in% it ver2 %i""icult to carr2 out !is %uties3 I %ont t!in< !e meant t!at t!ere are literall2 no )oo% o""icials because t!ere are3 Where ere %ou the !a% 4ao !ie!? What !i! %ou "eel hen %ou hear! the ne s? I #as in solitar2 #!en -ao %ie% an% it #as ver2 stran)e3 >!ou Enlai %ie% in 1anuar2 o" t!at 2ear an% I #ept "or %a2s as t!ou)! I !a% lost m2 o#n "at!er3 $!en -ao %ie% I "elt I intellectuall2 I t!at t!is #as a muc! muc! )reater loss t!at C!ina an% t!e #orl% !a% lost t!eir most !ope"ul lea%er it #as a terrible tra)e%23 An% 2et I %i% not s!e% a tear3 At t!e time I coul%nt un%erstan% it I #!2 no tears "or t!e Ereat Helmsman? It seems t!at m2 +emotional sense, #as smarter t!an m2 +intellectual sense,3 You no act as a consultant to large American &usinesses looking to un!erstan! the Chinese market' Yet %ou ha$e &een a cham(ion o" communism all %our li"e' ;i! %ou lose "aith in communism? I" not/ ho !o %ou reconcile those t o things? I !ave %e"initel2 lost "ait! in t!e Communist Part2 core %octrine o" #!at is calle% -ar?ism.Aeninism base% on t!e %ictators!ip o" t!e proletariat3 E?perience tau)!t me t!at %ictators!ip cannot lea% to more %emocrac2 but onl2 to more %ictators!ip3 As "or t!e i%eals o" communism I a "uture classless societ2 o" abun%ance equalit2 #orl% peace an% universal brot!er!oo% I I believe% in t!em lon) be"ore I ever !ear% o" t!e Communist Part2 an% I %o so no# more t!an ever3 As to !o# to attain t!ose )oals at present I !ave no clue3 'ut one t!in) is clear I )ro#in) t!e econom2 ever2#!ere a%vancin) universal e%ucation an% promotin) %emocratic %evelopment are surel2 <e2 steps in t!at %irection3 For t!at reason I "eel per"ectl2 !app2 #or<in) #it! )oo% people #!o can contribute to t!ose en%s an% #!o can con%uct #inH#in business #it! C!ina3 T!at %oesnt at all prevent me "rom ent!usiasticall2 promotin) :SHC!ina "rien%s!ip an% un%erstan%in) or "rom pursuin) pro)ressive politics in America3 &r "rom ar%entl2 supportin) t!e /non.violent0 +&ccupiers,3 What !o %ou like most a&out contem(orar% China/ an! hat !o %ou think is the countr%)s &iggest (ro&lem? $!at I li<e most about C!ina to%a2 is t!e vibrant optimistic spirit o" t!e people3 T!e2 are con"i%ant o" a bri)!ter "uture3 T!e2 are prou% o" t!eir countr2s pro)ress an% /%espite millions o" complaints an% protests0 are basicall2 please% #it! #!ere t!eir )overnment !as le% t!em3 C!ina un%er CPC lea%ers!ip !as "or t!e most part solve% t!e basic problem o" "oo% s!elter an% clot!in)3 C!ina emer)in) "rom t!e Dar< A)es a little over !al" a centur2 a)o still !as some people livin) belo# t!e povert2 line but t!e percenta)e is lo#er t!an t!at in t!e :SAMan% #!at e?cuse %o #e !ave? T!e2 "ace man2 problems but I "eel sure t!at in t!eir o#n )oo% time t!e2 #ill %eal #it! t!em3 T!is )eneral spirit is un"ortunatel2 in s!arp contrast to #!at I "in% !ere in America to%a23 C!inas bi))est problem? T!e nee% to re.i%enti"2 t!eir soul to establis! a sense o" purpose in 2oun) people asi%e "rom ma<in) mone2 an% narro# nationalism to restore an% carr2 "or#ar% C!inas brilliant le)ac2 o" p!ilosop!ic t!in<in) above an% be2on% commonplace ap!orisms "rom Con"ucius M inclu%in) t!e stu%2 o" positive elements in -ao >e%on)s p!ilosop!23 ;o Americans an! Chinese still un!erstan! one another as &a!l% as the% use! to? What !o most Americans not un!erstan! a&out China? Im a"rai% t!e level o" un%erstan%in) amon) most C!inese an% most Americans !as not c!an)e% muc! "or t!e better3 T!ere are !o#ever )ro#in) numbers o" C!inese #!o !ave stu%ie% #or<e% visite% or tra%e% in AmericaJ an% o" Americans #!o !ave visite% or #or<e% in C!ina3 Amon) t!em t!ere is a muc! better un%erstan%in) t!an be"ore3 T!ere are t#o ma(or t!reats to t!e )ro#t! in un%erstan%in) !o#ever3 &n our si%e t!e ten%enc2 o" t!e "inancial barons an% t!eir political spo<espeople to ma<e C!ina t!e scape)oat "or t!e "inancial morass into #!ic! t!e2 !ave le% us3 T!is ten%s to poison public opinion a)ainst C!ina3 &n t!e C!inese si%e t!e tou)! "orei)n polic2 stance on issues li<e t!e Sout! C!ina Sea ten%s to an)er an% "ri)!ten Americans3 T!e C!inese attitu%e to#ar%s t!e :SA is usuall2 courteous an% reasonable but t!e attitu%e to#ar%s C!inas Sout!east Asian nei)!bors a""ects public opinion as #ell as actual relations!ips3 A <e2 point in improvin) un%erstan%in) is t!at American opinion !as to accept t!e impermissibilit2 o" outri)!t con"lict bet#een t!e :SA an% C!ina an% t!ere"ore base our attitu%e to#ar%s C!ina on #or<in) out solutions not on tr2in) to impose c!an)es on C!ina or on +pivotin), militar2 stren)t! to areas surroun%in) C!ina3 -an2 American lea%ers <no# t!is but t!e2 sometimes i)nore our countr2s basic interests "or t!eir o#n political )ain3 What are the "uture (ros(ects "or "oreigners looking to !o &usiness in China? ;o %ou e0(ect the &usiness en$ironment to &ecome more o(en or more close! in the coming %ears? I believe t!at t!e business environment "or "orei)n "irms in C!ina #ill continue to improve an% t!at t!e C!inese %omestic mar<et #ill continue to open up as #ill investment opportunities3 T!e roa% #ill o" course not be smoot! nor #ill it be #it!out bumps an% @i)@a)s as in t!e past3 At t!e same time resistance "rom C!inese competitors #ill continue to sti""en an% t!e increasin)l2 po#er"ul lobb2in) e""orts o" C!inese con)lomerates #ill continue to create )litc!es in t!e )ro#t! o" "orei)n

participation in C!inas %evelopment3 'ut in t!e lon) run t!is resistance #ill be s#ept asi%e b2 t!e )ro#in) inter%epen%ence o" C!inese an% "orei)n economies3 You no li$e &ack in the <S/ &ut are o&$iousl% still $er% in$ol$e! in China' What !o %ou make o" the narrati$e o" American !ecline? ;o %ou think America ill &e a&le to (ull itsel" &ack u( again? $!et!er or not America %eclines is entirel2 up to us3 I" #e %eci%e t!at #e are beaten b2 t!e rise o" t!e 'RICS so t!at #e can no lon)er compete an% t!at our politics are %oome% to continue in t!e %rear2 monopol2 o" t#o out.mo%e% !opelessl2 %is!onest political parties M bot! o" t!em bou)!t an% pai% "or b2 t!e )reat parasites on $all Street M an% t!at #e are incapable o" a %emocratic revival in American politics t!en #e are surel2 %oome% to a ver2 unpleasant %ecline3 'ut I am convince% t!at neit!er o" t!ose t#o premises is necessaril2 true3 $e can vi)orousl2 e?pan% our econom2 base% on our stron) points in s<ill sets electronics communications clean ener)2 space operations an% ot!er areas o" tec!nolo)23 $e can stimulate an% inspire t!is e?pansion b2 a sur)e in citi@en political activit2 #!ic! brea<s t!e !ol% o" parasitic monopol2 "inance capital /no# 69N o" our EDP0 over our political li"e #!ic! restores our countr2s %emocratic spirit e?ten%s it to economic as #ell as political %emocrac2 an% )ives t!e innovators an% t!e pro%ucers a po#er"ul incentive to maintain our a%vance% position in t!e #orl% econom23 $e can a%(ust our )overnments "inancial polic2 to t!e nee% to )ive priorit2 to increasin) t!e purc!asin) po#er o" t!e consumers rat!er t!an en"orcin) t!e <in% o" austerit2 #!ic! attempts to resolve economic %i""iculties b2 penali@in) t!e poor #!ile t!e )overnment uses ta?.pa2ers mone2 to "inance t!e pro"iteerin) super.ric!3 $!en #e !ave t!is <in% o" %emocratic upsur)e brea<in) t!e current t#o.part2 %ol%rums t!en America #ill surel2 continue to )ro# an% prosper3 T!e barrier to pro)ress an% t!e nee% "or #i%esprea% an% %irect public action !as been !i)!li)!te% b2 t!e brave action o" t!e +&ccupiers3,
!o%r#e, htt.,;;www.danwei.#om;sidneyCritten*ergCrefle#tionsConCaClifetimeCinC#hina;

Soong C ing/-ing 'Hadame Sun Yat/sen( a!!ears wit t e Central Committee o* C ina =e*ense -eague in Hong Qong in $%>&. ?ewis journalist and communist agent 5srael D!stein was on t e le*t. 5srael D!stein was )orn to a ?ewis *amily in Earsaw, +oland, Bussian Dm!ire on A!ril "<, $%$@. '+ otoF tt!F11www.sino/us.com1"$1Bemem)ering/5srael/D!stein/and/ is/dedication/to/C ina. tml(

Sidney S a!iro, !olit)uro mem)er and a mem)er o* t e C inese Communist +arty, a!!ears at a Communist +arty *unction. '+ otoF tt!F11jewis *aces.com1c ina. tml(

C airman Hao in a ig /level meeting wit several ?ews 3.ran6 Coe, 5srael D!stein, Dlsie .air*aA/C olmely, and Solomon Adler4 '+ otoF tt!F11jewis *aces.com1c ina. tml(

Bewi Alley a!!ears wit C inese Communist .oreign Hinister C ou Dnlai. '+ otoF tt!F11jewis *aces.com1c ina. tml(

The Peo.le8s Di.loma#y, !inoC$meri#an 7elationshi.

President 7onald 7eagan and his wife Ean#y 7eagan meet with 7ed 0hina8s 0ommissar Deng 9iao.ing at the /reat "all of the Peo.le in Bei2ing on $.ril '4 ()45. (Photo, 7onald 7eagan Presidential Li*rary)

President 7onald 7eagan greets 7ed 0hina8s 0ommissar Deng 9iao.ing in the /reat "all of the Peo.le in Bei2ing on $.ril '4 ()45.

Avangelist .rea#her Pat 7o*ertson greets 7ed 0hina8s #ommissar Qh% 7ong2i in ())4.

Bill 0linton and British Prime -inister &ohn -a2or stand *eside &iang Qemin at the 7ed !1%are in -os#ow.

7ed 0hina8s President "% &intao President Bara#k <*ama and !e#retary of !tate "illary 0linton stand together at Winfield "o%se the U.!. am*assador8s residen#e in London on $.ril ( '@@).

U.!. President Bara#k <*ama meets with 7ed 0hinaKs President "% &intao (left) at Winfield "o%se the U.!. am*assadorKs residen#e on the sidelines of the /'@ gathering of world leaders in London on $.ril ( '@@). (7e%ters Photo ; &ason 7eed)

!e#retary of !tate "illary 0linton (L) arrives to a meeting with 7ed 0hina8s 0ommissar "% &intao in the /reat "all of the Peo.le in Bei2ing on Fe*r%ary '( '@@). 0linton said on !at%rday the United !tates and 7ed 0hina #an .%ll the world o%t of e#onomi# #risis *y working together and made #lear this took .re#eden#e over $meri#an #on#erns a*o%t h%man rights in 0omm%nistCo##%.ied mainland 0hina. (7e%ters)

!e#retary of !tate "illary 0linton (L) arrives to a meeting with 7ed 0hina8s Prime -inister Wen &ia*ao in Bei2ing on Fe*r%ary '( '@@). (7e%ters)

U.!. !e#retary of !tate "illary 0linton (0) and Treas%ry !e#retary Timothy /eithner (7) wel#ome 7ed 0hina8s 6i#e Premier Wang Iishan d%ring a family .hoto for the first 2oint meeting of the U.!.C0hina !trategi# and A#onomi# Dialog%e in Washington D.0. on &%ly 'B '@@). (7e%ters)

Federal 7eserve 0hairman Ben Bernanke (L) greets 7ed 0hina8s 6i#e Premier Wang Iishan in Washington D.0. on &%ly ') '@@). (7e%ters)

U.!. 6i#e President &oe Biden (left) President of 0omm%nist 0hina "% &intao (#enter) and U.!. !e#retary of !tate "illary 7odham 0linton (right) toast together with g%ests d%ring a l%n#heon at the !tate De.artment in Washington D.0. on &an%ary () '@((. ($P Photo)

U.!. President Bara#k <*ama stands alongside 0omm%nist 0hina8s President "% &intao as he s.eaks d%ring a !tate $rrival #eremony on the !o%th Lawn of the White "o%se in Washington D.0. on &an%ary () '@((. (/etty =mages)

7ed 0hina8s !tate 0o%n#illor Dai Bingg%o (L) 7ed 0hina8s 6i#e Premier Wang Iishan ('nd L) U.!. !e#retary of !tate "illary 0linton ('nd 7) and U.!. Treas%ry !e#retary Timothy /eithner (7) listen as U.!. President Bara#k <*ama addresses the o.ening of the first 2oint meeting of the U.!.C0hina !trategi# and A#onomi# Dialog%e in Washington D.0. on &%ly 'B '@@). (7e%ters)

The 0hinese 0omm%nistCowned 0hina <#ean !hi..ing 0om.any (0<!0<) make their .resen#e aro%nd the world. 0<!0<8s sister #om.any "%t#hinsonCWham.oa have attem.ted to #ontrol the Panama 0anal.

U.!. 6i#e President $l /ore (left) toasts Li Peng.

$meri#an *%sinessman Bill /ates (left) 0hairman and 0A< of -i#rosoft software F#om.%terG #om.any toasts 0omm%nist 0hina8s President "% &intao.

$meri#an *%sinessman Bill /ates the 0hairman and 0A< of -i#rosoft is seen walking with 7ed 0hina8s 0ommissar "% &intao.

2ush 1amil% = Communist China

/eorge ".W. B%sh the U.!. Liaison <ffi#er to 7ed 0hina and his wife Bar*ara B%sh stand in front of a .ortrait of 0hairman -ao the mass m%rderer of 0omm%nist 0hina. /eorge ".W. B%sh was a mem*er of the 0o%n#il on Foreign 7elations from ()B( to ()B)D /eorge ".W. B%sh is a mem*er of !k%ll + Bones and the Bohemian /rove. (Photo, /eorge B%sh Presidential Li*rary)

/eorge B%sh ('nd right) the U.!. Liaison <ffi#er to 0omm%nist 0hina a..ears with !e#retary of !tate "enry >issinger d%ring >issingerKs visit to 0omm%nistCo##%.ied mainland 0hina in ()B3. The U.!. government maintained di.lomati# relations with the 7e.%*li# of 0hina on the island of Taiwan in ()B3. (Photo, /eorge B%sh Presidential Li*rary and -%se%m)

/eorge B%sh the U.!. Liaison <ffi#er to 0omm%nist 0hina s.eaks with Y% Qhan 6i#eC-inister of the 0hinese -inistry of Foreign $ffairs and Wang Ye1i% Dire#tor of the B%rea% of "istori#al 7eli# $dministration in ()B3. =n the *a#kgro%nd is their translator Tang Wensheng. (/eorge B%sh Presidential Li*rary and -%se%m)

/eorge ".W. B%sh (left) White "o%se 0hief of !taff Donald 7%msfeld ('nd left) and !e#retary of !tate "enry >issinger ('nd right) meet with Deng 9iao.ing in 7ed 0hina in Eovem*er ()B5. (/eorge B%sh Presidential Li*rary and -%se%m)

6i#e President /eorge ".W. B%sh visits 7ed 0hina8s 0ommissar Deng 9iao.ing in Bei2ing on &an%ary ( ()4:. (&ean Lo%is $tlan;!ygma;0<7B=!)

President /eorge ".W. B%sh #ele*rates on Tiananmen !1%are on Fe*r%ary '3 ()4) 2%st months .rior to the Tiananmen !1%are -assa#re.

0hinese 0omm%nist *%rea%#rat Li Peng Premier of the !tate 0o%n#il met with President /eorge ".W. B%sh at the Diaoy%tai !tate /%estho%se on Fe*r%ary '3 ()4) and .resented him with a OFlying PigeonP *i#y#le.

Left .hoto, /eorge ".W. B%sh greets 7ed 0hinese Premier Wen &ia*ao in Bei2ing on Eovem*er (3 '@@3. 7ight .hoto, /eorge B%sh entertains Deng 9iao.ing at a .arty. B%sh is a former U.!. Liaison <ffi#er to 7ed 0hina.

Winston Lord Brent !#ow#roft !e#retary of !tate "enry >issinger President /erald Ford /eorge ".W. B%sh and &oe !is#o meet with 7ed 0hina8s des.ot Deng 9iao.ing and the 0hinese 0omm%nist Party *rass.

Former President /eorge ".W. B%sh former President of -eJi#o Arnesto Qedillo (#enter) and "ong >ong vi#eroy T%ng 0heeChwa attend the o.ening #eremony of a #onferen#e on $.ril '5 '@@5.

President /eorge W. B%sh greets 7ed 0hina8s 0ommissar &iang Qemin.

President /eorge W. B%sh greets 7ed 0hina8s 0ommissar "% &intao in !ydney $%stralia on !e.tem*er : '@@B. (White "o%se .hoto *y Ari# Dra.er)

U.!. President /eorge W. B%sh greets 7ed 0hina8s Premier Wen &ia*ao at the White "o%se in Washington D.0. on De#em*er ) '@@?. Wen &ia*ao ass%med the offi#e of Premier of 0omm%nist 0hina on -ar#h (: '@@?.

President /eorge W. B%sh greets 7ed 0hina8s 6i#eCPremier Iian Ii#hen at the White "o%se on -ar#h '' '@@(.

President /eorge W. B%sh greets 7ed 0hinese Premier Qh% 7ong2i at the Diaoy%tai !tate /%estho%se on Fe*r%ary '' '@@'.

7ed 0hina8s President &iang Qemin (left) #hats with U.!. President /eorge W. B%sh.

President /eorge W. B%sh greets &iang Qemin at an $PA0 s%mmit.

President /eorge W. B%sh greets 7ed 0hina8s President "% &intao at Iingh%a University in 7ed 0hina on Fe*r%ary '' '@@'.

Treas%ry !e#retary "enry Pa%lson la%ghs as U.!. President /eorge W. B%sh (#enter) em*ra#es 7ed 0hina8s 6i#e Premier W% Yi (left) at the White "o%se on -ay '5 '@@B. (Photo *y -ark Wilson;/etty =mages)

Former President /eorge ".W. B%sh #hats with 7ed 0hina8s des.ot &iang Qemin in "o%ston TeJas on Wednesday <#to*er '? '@@'. This .i#t%re was .%*lished in the London Times Print Adition .. (4 '3 <#to*er '@@'.

Former President /eorge ".W. B%sh introd%#es his grandda%ghter -s. Bar*ara B%sh to 7ed 0hinaKs President "% &intao on !%nday $%g%st (@ '@@4 following their visit to Qhongnanhai the 7ed 0hinese leaders8 #om.o%nd in Bei2ing. (White "o%se .hoto *y Ari# Dra.er)

0o%n#il on Foreign 7elations + 0omm%nist 0hina

U.!. !e#retary of Defense 7o*ert -. /ates (#enter) and 7ed 0hina8s -inister of Defense /en. 0ao /ang#h%an (left in %niform) review the 0hinese 0omm%nist Peo.le8s Li*eration $rmy in Bei2ing on Eovem*er 3 '@@B. 7o*ert -. /ates is a mem*er of the 0o%n#il on Foreign 7elations and a former Dire#tor of the 0entral =ntelligen#e $gen#y (0=$). (U.!. De.artment of Defense .hoto *y 0herie $. Th%rl*y)

U.!. President /erald Ford and 7ed 0hina8s 0ommissar Deng 9iao.ing review the Peo.le8s Li*eration $rmy in Peking on De#em*er ( ()B3. U.!. !e#retary of !tate "enry >issinger /eorge B%sh Bar*ara B%sh Eational !e#%rity $dvisor Brent !#ow#roft and !tate De.artment Dire#tor of Poli#y Planning !taff Winston Lord #an *e seen in the ento%rage. (Photo, /erald 7. Ford Li*rary)

U.!. President Bill 0linton and 0omm%nist 0hina8s des.ot &iang Qemin review the 7ed 0hinese Peo.le8s Li*eration $rmy on Tiananmen !1%are in Bei2ing on &%ne 'B ())4. (Photo *y Wally -#Eamee)

7ed 0hina8s Defense -inister /en. 0hi "aotian (OB%t#her of Bei2ingP) and U.!. !e#retary of Defense William !. 0ohen review the Peo.le8s Li*eration $rmy in Bei2ing on &%ly (' '@@@. (Photo, U.!. De.artment of Defense)

U.!. !e#retary of Defense Donald 7%msfeld review the Peo.le8s Li*eration $rmy in Bei2ing.

7ed 0hinese /eneral Liang /%anglie the #hief of the general staff of the 7ed 0hinese Peo.le8s Li*eration $rmy and /en. 7i#hard -yers 0hairman of the &oint 0hiefs of !taff review the Peo.le8s Li*eration $rmy in Bei2ing on &an%ary (5 '@@5.

0hairman of the &oint 0hiefs of !taff /en. 7i#hard -yers greets 7ed 0hina8s 0ommissar &iang Qemin in Bei2ing on &an%ary (3 '@@5.

U.!. President 7i#hard EiJon and 7ed 0hina8s envoy 0ho% Anlai review the Peo.le8s Li*eration $rmy in Peking in ()B'.

;I>O; - #O&% 4%5I;I,T&4TIO;,

0ho% Anlai (#enter) wat#hes 0hairman -ao #hat with !e#retary of !tate "enry >issinger on the evening of Fe*r%ary (B ()B?. (O7emem*er "enry .oliti#al .ower grows o%t of the *arrel of a g%n.P)

President /erald Ford and his da%ghter wat#h !e#retary of !tate "enry >issinger shake hands with 7ed 0hinese mass m%rderer -ao TseCt%ng in Peking 7ed 0hina on De#em*er ' ()B3. (Photo, /erald 7. Ford Li*rary)

7i#hard EiJon greets -ao the mass m%rderer of 7ed 0hina.

President 7i#hard EiJon greets 7ed 0hina8s 0ommissar -ao TseCt%ng in Peking on Fe*r%ary '( ()B'.

President 7i#hard EiJon and 7ed 0hina8s Premier 0ho% AnClai and their aides in#l%ding Eational !e#%rity $dvisor "enry >issinger (L) *egin the third day of formal talks on Fe*r%ary '? ()B' this time in the offi#ial /%est "o%se where -r. EiJon is staying while in Peking. =n the *a#kgro%nd is a ta.estry de.i#ting the yo%ng -ao TseCt%ng writing his treatises on #omm%nism. (Bettmann;0<7B=!)

President 7i#hard EiJon and Eational !e#%rity $dvisor "enry >issinger meet with 7ed 0hina8s Premier 0ho% Anlai d%ring EiJonKs histori# visit to 0omm%nistCo##%.ied mainland 0hina on Fe*r%ary '? ()B'. Winston Lord is seated on the far left. "enry >issinger and Winston Lord are mem*ers of the 0o%n#il on Foreign 7elations and mem*ers of the Trilateral 0ommission. (Bettmann;0<7B=!)

"enry >issinger toasts 0ho% Anlai.

U.S. +resident Bic ard NiAon s ares a toast wit Communist C ina,s +remier K ou Dnlai in +e6ing, Communist C ina on .e)ruary "@, $%#". '+ otoF Bic ard NiAon +residential -i)rary and Huseum(

Winston Lord (wearing reg%lar glasses far left in #enter row) and Eational !e#%rity $dvisor "enry >issinger (front and #enter) visit The For*idden 0ity in Peking d%ring their se#ret tri. to 7ed 0hina in &%ly ()B(.

!e#retary of !tate "enry >issinger shakes hands with Deng 9iao.ing in Eew York 0ity in ()B5.

>issinger on the 0o%#h, "enry >issinger listens to 7ed 0hinese 0ommissar 0ho% Anlai.

"enry >issinger and 7i#hard EiJon meet with 0ho% Anlai .rivately.

Eational !e#%rity $dvisor "enry >issinger visits the /reat Wall of 0hina d%ring his se#ret visit to 7ed 0hina.

Left .hoto, 7i#hard EiJon toasts Deng 9iao.ing. 7ight .hoto, Professor &erome $. 0ohen who is a mem*er of the 0o%n#il on Foreign 7elations meets Prime -inister 0ho% Anlai in 0omm%nist 0hina in &%ne ()B'. (N &oan Le*old 0ohen) htt.,;;www.%sasialaw.org;S.T?@5'

/eorge ".W. B%sh (#enter) the U.!. Liaison <ffi#er to 7ed 0hina and President /erald Ford (right) walk with Deng 9iao.ing at the /reat "all of the Peo.le on De#em*er ' ()B3. /eorge ".W. B%sh was a mem*er of the 0o%n#il on Foreign 7elations at the time this .hoto was taken. (Photo, /erald 7. Ford Li*rary)

President 7i#hard EiJon (#enter) dines with 0omm%nist 0hina8s Prime -inister (and Foreign -inister) 0ho% Anlai (left) in !hanghai at the end of EiJon8s visit in ()B'. (Bettmann;0or*is)

President /erald Ford addresses the 0hinese 0omm%nists in Peking on De#em*er 5 ()B3. !e#retary of !tate "enry >issinger #an *e seen sitting on the far right. (Photo, /erald 7. Ford Li*rary)

0o%n#il on Foreign 7elations mem*ers (left to right) Winston Lord Brent !#ow#roft !e#retary of !tate "enry >issinger President /erald Ford /eorge B%sh and &oe !is#o meet with 7ed 0hinese des.ot Deng 9iao.ing and his 0ommissars.

President /erald Ford and his advisers meet with Deng 9iao.ing and the 0hinese 0omm%nists at the /reat "all of the Peo.le in Peking on De#em*er ' ()B3. The $meri#an delegation from left to right, Winston Lord Brent !#ow#roft !e#retary of !tate "enry >issinger /erald Ford /eorge B%sh %nidentified %nidentified and %nidentified. $ll identified $meri#an delegates are or were mem*ers of the 0o%n#il on Foreign 7elations. (Photo, /erald 7. Ford Li*rary)

David >.A. Br%#e shakes hands with 7ed 0hinese m%rderer -ao TseCt%ng.

&ames Lilley was a mem*er of the 0o%n#il on Foreign 7elations. (!o%r#e, &hina )ands: *ine +ecades of !d$ent#re, spionage, and +iplomacy in !sia *y $m*assador &ames Lilley with &effrey Lilley)

President /erald Ford and Deng 9iao.ing review the Peo.le8s Li*eration $rmy in Peking on De#em*er ( ()B3. "enry >issinger /eorge B%sh Bar*ara B%sh Brent !#ow#roft and Winston Lord #an *e seen in the ento%rage. (Photo, /erald 7. Ford Li*rary)

President /erald Ford smokes a .i.e while his wife Betty Ford so#ialiHes with Deng 9iao.ing and one of Deng8s se#retary on De#em*er ? ()B3. (Photo, /erald 7. Ford Li*rary)

C4&T3& 4%5I;I,T&4TIO;

Former President 7i#hard EiJon President &immy 0arter and 7ed 0hinese De.%ty Premier Deng 9iao.ing s.eak at a state dinner in honor of DengKs visit to the United !tates in Washington D.0. on &an%ary ') ()B). This visit followed $meri#a8s esta*lishment of f%ll di.lomati# relations *etween the United !tates and 0omm%nist 0hina at the eJ.ense of severing di.lomati# relations with the 7e.%*li# of 0hina (also known as Free 0hina). (Bettmann;0<7B=!)

7ed 0hina8s 0ommissar Deng 9iao.ing meets with !e#retary of !tate 0yr%s 6an#e at the end of a threeCday visit to Washington D.0. in ()B).

(UP= .hoto)

0yr%s 6an#e and Q*igniew BrHeHinski toast Deng 9iao.ing at Q*igniew BrHeHinski8s home in &an%ary ()B).

Q*igniew BrHeHinski and his wife -%ska (se#ond from right) have a dinner with Deng 9iao.ing in 7ed 0hina in -ay ()B4.

Eational !e#%rity $dvisor Q*igniew BrHeHinski visits 7ed 0hinese 0ommissar Deng 9iao.ing on -ay '( ()B4.

President &immy 0arter (left) and 7ed 0hina8s 0ommissar Deng 9iao.ing (right) are seen la%ghing on &an%ary ') ()B). President &immy 0arter severed di.lomati# ties with the 7e.%*li# of 0hina (on Taiwan) offi#ially on &an%ary ( ()B).

&34(4; - *U,) 4%5I;I,T&4TIO;,

!e#retary of !tate /eorge P. !h%ltH visits 7ed 0hina8s 0ommissar Deng 9iao.ing in Bei2ing on &%ly (3 ()44. This .hoto a..ears in /eorge P. !h%ltH8s *ook T#rmoil and Tri#mph: My ,ears !s -ecretary of -tate .

!e#retary of !tate &ames $. Baker === (left) listens to Li Peng (right) in Bei2ing on Eovem*er (3 ())(. The 0hinese 7eds *%t#hered nearly (@ @@@ .eo.le on Tiananmen !1%are on &%ne 5 ()4). This .hoto a..ears in &ames $. Baker8s *ook The Politics of +iplomacy.

C?I;TO; 4%5I;I,T&4TIO;

President Bill 0linton shakes hands with 7ed 0hina8s des.ot &iang Qemin while attending an O=nformal $PA0 Leadershi. -eetingP in -anila Phili..ines on Eovem*er '5 ()):.

President Bill 0linton and Qh% 7ong2i stand at attention at the White "o%se.

7ed 0hina8s Prime -inister Li Peng (7) meets with U.!. !e#retary of !tate Warren 0hristo.her (L) at Qhongnanhai 0omm%nist Party head1%arters in Bei2ing on -ar#h ( ())5. Warren 0hristo.her is a mem*er of the 0o%n#il on Foreign 7elations. (Photo, Forrest $nderson;Time + Life Pi#t%res;/etty =mages)

U.!. !e#retary of !tate -adeleine $l*right (L) meets with 7ed 0hina8s Prime -inister Li Peng on Fe*r%ary '5 ())B after death of 7ed 0hina8s .aramo%nt OleaderP Deng 9iao.ing. (Photo, Forrest $nderson;Time + Life Pi#t%res;/etty =mages)

Left to right, 7ed 0hina8s 0ommissar &iang Qemin President Bill 0linton 6i#e President $l /ore and !e#retary of !tate -adeleine $l*right meet in the <val <ffi#e in Washington D.0. on <#to*er ') ())B. Bill 0linton and -adeleine $l*right are mem*ers of the 0o%n#il on Foreign 7elations. (Photo, Diana Walker;Time + Life Pi#t%res;/etty =mages)

Left .hoto, President Bill 0linton toasts 7ed 0hina8s 0ommissar &iang Qemin in Bei2ing in ())4. 7ight .hoto, !e#retary of !tate -adeleine $l*right shakes hands with 7ed 0hina8s 0ommissar &iang Qemin.

7ight .hoto, U.!. Trade 7e.resentative 0harlene Barshefsky (left) toasts with 7ed 0hinese Foreign Trade -inister !hi /%angsheng (right) after signing a se#ret agreement in Bei2ing on Eovem*er (3 ())).

!e#retary of Defense William &. Perry (right) .resents a gift to 7ed 0hina8s Defense -inister /en. 0hi "aotian at the Pentagon on De#em*er ) ()):. The man whose right hand is .la#ed toward his fa#e a..ears to *e Winston Lord. (Photo, U.!. De.artment of Defense)

Bill 0linton gives some advi#e to 7ed 0hinese /eneral Qhang Wannian.

!e#retary of Defense William !. 0ohen and 7ed 0hina8s Defense -inister /en. 0hi "aotian sign a se#ret treaty. Walter B. !lo#om*e (far left first row) the Under !e#retary of Defense for Poli#y and &ose.h W. Pr%eher (standing to the right of !lo#om*e) are wat#hing. (Photo, U.!. De.artment of Defense)

!e#retary of Defense William !. 0ohen and 7ed 0hinese /en. Qhang Wannian sign a se#ret treaty at the Pentagon. (Photo, U.!. De.artment of Defense)

7ed 0hina8s Defense -inister /eneral 0hi "aotian and 7ed 0hina8s 0ommissar &iang Qemin greet !e#retary of Defense William !. 0ohen and his wife 7 earing a &3% dress: at Qhongnanhai in Bei2ing on &%ly (? '@@@. (Photo, U.!. De.artment of Defense)

!e#retary of Defense William !. 0ohen shakes hands with 7ed 0hina8s Defense -inister /en. 0hi "aotian (OThe B%t#her of Bei2ingP) at the -inistry of Eational Defense "ead1%arters in Bei2ing on &%ly (' '@@@. (Photo, U.!. De.artment of Defense)

Defense !e#retary William !. 0ohen walks with 7ed 0hinese /eneral Qhang Wannian at the Pentagon on !e.tem*er (3 ())4. (Photo, U.!. De.artment of Defense)

!e#retary of Defense William !. 0ohen wat#hes 7ed 0hinese /en. Qhang Wannian deliver a s.ee#h. (Photo, U.!. De.artment of Defense)

U.!. Trade 7e.resentative 0harlene Barshefsky (left) and W% Yi (right) dis#%ss Ofree tradeP in Bei2ing on $.ril (' ())4.

Treas%ry !e#retary 7o*ert 7%*in (left) meets with "ong >ong 0hief AJe#%tive T%ng 0heeChwa .rior to their meeting in Washington D.0. on !e.tem*er ) ())B. (0hris >le.onis;$FP;/etty =mages)

7ed 0hina8s 0ommissar &iang Qemin entertains 6i#e 0hairman of the Federal 7eserve $li#e 7ivlin (wearing a red dress) and Treas%ry !e#retary 7o*ert 7%*in (right) at a tem.le in Bei2ing on !e.tem*er ': ())B. Both $li#e 7ivlin and 7o*ert 7%*in were mem*ers of the 0o%n#il on Foreign 7elations at the time this .hoto was taken on !e.tem*er ': ())B. (Photo *y -ike Fiala)

!e#retary of Defense William !. 0ohen toasts 7ed 0hina8s Defense -inister /eneral 0hi "aotian (OThe B%t#her of Bei2ingP) in Bei2ing. Walter B. !lo#om*e the Under !e#retary of Defense for Poli#y is standing neJt to /en. 0hi "aotian.

President Bill 0linton meets with 7ed 0hina8s Defense -inister /eneral 0hi "aotian OThe B%t#her of Bei2ing.P

Left, !e#retary of Defense William !. 0ohen greets 7ed 0hina8s des.ot &iang Qemin. 7ight, Federal 7eserve 0hairman $lan /reens.an wat#hes President Bill 0linton talk to 7ed 0hina8s 0ommissar &iang Qemin. (Photo, htt.,;;www.slate.#om;id;(54);)

(3O&(3 W. *U,) 4%5I;I,T&4TIO;

!e#retary of Defense Donald 7%msfeld shakes hands with 0hinese 0omm%nist military offi#ers at the Bayi B%ilding in Bei2ing on <#to*er () '@@3. (De.artment of Defense .hoto *y -aster !gt. &ames -. Bowman U.!. $ir For#e)

Left .hoto, !e#retary of !tate 0olin Powell shakes hands with 7ed 0hina8s 0ommissar "% &intao. 7ight .hoto, De.%ty !e#retary of !tate 7o*ert B. Qoelli#k shakes hands with 7ed 0hinese 6i#e Foreign -inister Dai Bingg%o in Bei2ing on $%g%st ( '@@3.

!e#retary of Defense Donald 7%msfeld (left) wel#omes 7ed 0hina8s 6i#e Premier Iian Ii#hen (#enter) as they arrive at the Pentagon on -ar#h '' '@@(. Donald 7%msfeld is a former mem*er of the 0o%n#il on Foreign 7elations. (Photo *y 7. D. Ward U.!. De.artment of Defense)

Left, 6i#e President Di#k 0heney shakes hands with Wen &ia*ao the 7ed 0hinese Premier on $.ril (5 '@@5. 7ight, !e#retary of Defense Donald 7%msfeld (left) shakes hands with 7ed 0hina8s 0ommissar "% &intao.

"enry Pa%lson (left) the U.!. !e#retary of the Treas%ry shakes hands with President of 0omm%nist 0hina "% &intao after the #losing of the !trategi# A#onomi# Dialog%e in Bei2ingKs /reat "all of the Peo.le in Bei2ing 0omm%nist 0hina on De#em*er (3 '@@:. (Photo *y /reg Baker;Pool;/etty =mages)

!e#retary of !tate 0ondoleeHHa 7i#e talks to 7ed 0hina8s 0ommissar "% &intao in Bei2ing on <#to*er '@ '@@:. (Do%g >anter !tate De.artment)

Treas%ry !e#retary "enry Pa%lson (left) meets with 7ed 0hinese 6i#e Premier W% Yi d%ring a meeting at Bei2ing air.ort in Bei2ing 7ed 0hina on -ar#h B '@@B. (Photo *y /reg BakerCPool;/etty =mages)

Treas%ry !e#retary "enry Pa%lson (left) meets with 7ed 0hinese Premier Wen &ia*ao d%ring their meeting at the /reat "all of the Peo.le in Bei2ing on !e.tem*er '' '@@:. (Photo *y AliHa*eth DalHielCPool;/etty =mages)

6i#e President Di#k 0heney (left) shakes hands with 7ed 0hina8s 0ommissar "% &intao in Bei2ing on $.ril (5 '@@5. (Eg "an /%an;$FP;/etty =mages)

6i#e President Di#k 0heney (left) shakes hands with 7ed 0hinese 6i#e President Qeng Iinghong at the /reat "all of the Peo.le in Bei2ing on $.ril (? '@@5. (9inh%a Photo)

!e#retary of !tate 0ondoleeHHa 7i#e greets 7ed 0hina8s 0ommissar "% &intao at the /reat "all of the Peo.le in Bei2ing on -ar#h '@ '@@3. ($P;Wide World Photo)

Left, !e#retary of Defense Donald 7%msfeld greets 7ed 0hina8s /eneral 0ao /ang#h%an in Bei2ing. 7ight, !e#retary of Defense Donald 7%msfeld walks with 7ed 0hina8s /eneral 0ao /ang#h%an at the Pentagon.

0ondoleeHHa 7i#e greets 7ed 0hina8s 0ommissar &iang Qemin.

!e#retary of !tate 0ondoleeHHa 7i#e shakes hands with 7ed 0hinese Premier Wen &ia*ao in Bei2ing on <#to*er '@ '@@:. (Do%g >anter !tate De.artment)

!e#retary of La*or Alaine 0hao (.olka dot shirt) shakes hands with 7ed 0hina8s 6i#e Premier W% Yi (red shirt) as !e#retary of 0ommer#e 0arlos /%tierreH (se#ond from left) U.!. Trade 7e.resentative !%san !#hwa* (far left) and !e#retary of "ealth and "%man !ervi#es -i#hael Leavitt (se#ond from right) look on at the /reat "all of the Peo.le in Bei2ing on De#em*er (5 '@@:. Alaine 0hao and !%san !#hwa* are mem*ers of the 0o%n#il on Foreign 7elations. (Photo *y Frederi# &. BrownCPool;/etty =mages)

U.!. Treas%ry !e#retary "enry Pa%lson(7) and 7ed 0hina8s 6i#e Premier Wang Iishan shake hands after signing the U.!.C0hina (@Cyear #oo.eration agreement on energy and environmental .rote#tion d%ring the .ress #onferen#e at the U.!. Treas%ry De.artment in Washington D.0. on &%ne (4 '@@4. (9inh%a Photo)

U.!. La*or !e#retary Alaine 0hao (L) shakes hands with 7ed 0hinese Premier Wen &ia*ao at the Qhongnanhai leaders #om.o%nd in Bei2ing on $%g%st '? '@@4. 0hao will lead the U.!. delegation to the #losing #eremonies of the Bei2ing <lym.i# /ames on !%nday after U.!. !e#retary of !tate 0ondoleeHHa 7i#e .%lled o%t *e#a%se of the 7%ssiaC/eorgia #onfli#t the White "o%se said on T%esday. (7e%ters)

7ed 0hina8s President "% &intao (7) shakes hands with U.!. $m*assador to 7ed 0hina 0lark 7andt (L) as U.!. President /eorge W. B%sh ('nd 7) and U.!. Treas%ry !e#retary "enry Pa%lson wat#h in Bei2ing on $%g%st (@ '@@4. (7e%ters)

*4&4C0 O*454 4%5I;I,T&4TIO;

U.!. President Bara#k <*ama (?rd L) greets 0hinaKs !tate 0o%n#iler Dai Bingg%o alongside De.%ty Premier of 0hinaKs !tate 0o%n#il Wang Iishan ('nd L) as 0hinaKs President "% &intao (?rd 7) greets U.!. Treas%ry !e#retary Tim /eithner (7) and !e#retary of !tate "illary 0linton at Winfield "o%se the U.!. $m*assadorKs residen#e in London $.ril ( '@@).

U.!. Treas%ry !e#retary Tim /eithner left meets with 0hinaKs 6i#e Premier Wang Iishan for a *ilateral meeting following the /C'@ Leaders !%mmit in London Th%rsday $.ril ' '@@).

Treas%ry !e#retary Timothy /eithner (left) and 7ed 0hina8s 6i#e Premier Wang Iishan toast ea#h other d%ring a dinner after the first meeting of the U.!.C0hina !trategi# and A#onomi# Dialog%e in Washington D.0. on &%ly '4 '@@). Timothy /eithner is a mem*er of the 0o%n#il on Foreign 7elations and a reg%lar Bilder*erg -eetings .arti#i.ant. (7e%ters)

7ed 0hina8s 6i#e Premier Wang I%ishan .%ts his arm aro%nd Treas%ry !e#retary Timothy /eithnr after delivering #losing statements with !e#retary of !tate "illary 7odham 0linton and 7ed 0hina8s !tate 0o%n#ilor Dai Bingg%o *oth .artially visi*le in *a#kgro%nd at the U.!.C0hina !trategi# and A#onomi# Dialog%e in Washington D.0. on &%ly '4 '@@). ($P Photo)

U.!. Treas%ry !e#retary Timothy F. /eithner (left) meets with 0omm%nist 0hina8s Prime -inister Wen &ia*ao on &an%ary (( '@('. ($ndy Wong;$sso#iated Press)

U.!. Treas%ry !e#retary Timothy /eithner (L) a..ears with 0omm%nist 0hina8s 6i#e Premier Wang Iishan and the 0omm%nist 0hinese delegation at the A#onomi# Tra#k <.ening !ession of the U.!.C0hina !trategi# and A#onomi# Dialog%e at the Treas%ry De.artment in Washington D.0. on &%ly '4 '@@). (7e%ters)

Left to right, U.!. !e#retary of !tate "illary 7odham 0linton U.!. Treas%ry !e#retary Timothy /eithner 0omm%nist 0hina8s Prime -inister Wen &ia*ao and 0omm%nist 0hina8s 6i#e Premier Wang Iishan a..ear at the P%r.le Pavillion in Bei2ing 0omm%nist 0hina on -ay 5 '@('. (Photo, !hannon !ta.leton;The $sso#iated Press;7e%ters)

Treas%ry !e#retary Timothy /eithner (#enter) hosts a meeting of the U.!.C0hina !trategi# and A#onomi# Dialog%e with 0omm%nist 0hinaKs 6i#e Premier Wang Iishan (#enter right) at the Treas%ry De.artment in Washington D.0. on &%ly '4 '@@). ($P Photo)

U.!. De.%ty !e#retary of !tate &ames !tein*erg (L) s.eaks with 7ed 0hina8s 6i#e President 9i &in.ing (7) d%ring their meeting at Qhongnanhai in Bei2ing on !e.tem*er ') '@@). (/etty =mages)

U.!. De.%ty !e#retary of !tate &ames !tein*erg (L) .oses with /eneral -a 9iaotian de.%ty #hief of general staff of the Peo.leKs Li*eration $rmy (PL$) d%ring a meeting at the PL$ *%ilding in Bei2ing 7ed 0hina on !e.tem*er ') '@@). (7e%ters)

U.!. De.%ty !e#retary of !tate &ames !tein*erg (L) shakes hands with 7ed 0hina8s !tate 0o%n#ilor Dai Bing%o (7) d%ring their meeting at Qhongnanhai in Bei2ing 7ed 0hina on !e.tem*er ') '@@). &ames !tein*erg is a mem*er of the 0o%n#il on Foreign 7elations a reg%lar Bilder*erg -eetings .arti#i.ant and a former mem*er of the Trilateral 0ommission. (/etty =mages)

U.!. Eational A#onomi# 0o%n#il 0hairman Larry !%mmers (L) and De.%ty Eational !e#%rity $dviser Thomas Donilon (7) meet with 0hinese President "% &intao at the /reat "all of the Peo.le in Bei2ing 0hina on !e.tem*er 4 '@(@. U.!. Eational A#onomi# 0o%n#il Dire#tor Larry !%mmers and De.%ty Eational !e#%rity $dviser Thomas Donilon visited mainland 0omm%nist 0hina from !e.tem*er 3C4 '@(@. (Feng Li;/etty =mages $siaPa#)

U.!. Eational A#onomi# 0o%n#il 0hairman Larry !%mmers (right) and De.%ty Eational !e#%rity $dviser Thomas Donilon (left) meet with 0omm%nist 0hina8s Premier Wen &ia*ao (#enter) in Bei2ing 0hina on !e.tem*er B '@(@. U.!. Eational A#onomi# 0o%n#il 0hairman Larry !%mmers and De.%ty Eational !e#%rity $dviser Thomas Donilon visited mainland 0omm%nist 0hina from !e.tem*er 3C4 '@(@. Donilon and !%mmers are mem*ers of the 0o%n#il on Foreign 7elations. (Feng Li;/etty =mages $siaPa#)

De.%ty Eational !e#%rity $dviser Thomas Donilon (left) greets 0omm%nist 0hina8s President "% &intao in Bei2ing.

U.!. De.%ty Eational !e#%rity $dviser Thomas Donilon (left) meets with 0omm%nist 0hina8s President "% &intao (right) at the /reat "all of the Peo.le in Bei2ing 0omm%nist 0hina on !e.tem*er 4 '@(@. U.!. Eational A#onomi# 0o%n#il Dire#tor Larry !%mmers and De.%ty Eational !e#%rity $dviser Thomas Donilon are visiting 0hina from !e.tem*er 3C4. (Feng Li;/etty =mages $siaPa#)

U.!. !enator &ohn -#0ain (left 7e.%*li#an PartyC$riHona) greets 0omm%nist 0hina8s -inister of Defense /en. Liang /%anglie %.on his arrival at the Bayi *%ilding in Bei2ing 0omm%nist 0hina on $.ril 4 '@@). (Photo, Pool;/etty =mages)

U.!. !e#retary of Defense 7o*ert /ates (left) shakes hands with 0omm%nist 0hinaKs -inister of Defense /en. Liang /%anglie in "anoi 6ietnam on <#to*er (( '@(@. /ates was in "anoi to attend a meeting of defense ministers from aro%nd the $siaC Pa#ifi# region. (Pool;/etty =mages)

U.!. !e#retary of Defense 7o*ert /ates (left) and 0omm%nist 0hinaKs -inister of Defense /eneral Liang /%anglie (7) review mem*ers of the Peo.le8s Li*eration $rmy at an honors arrival #eremony at Bayi B%ilding in Bei2ing 0omm%nist 0hina on &an%ary (@ '@((. (Photo, Pool;/etty =mages)

U.!. !e#retary of Defense 7o*ert /ates (L) and 0hinaKs -inister of Eational Defense /eneral Liang /%anglie (7) listen to the national anthems at an honors arrival #eremony at Bayi B%ilding in Bei2ing 0omm%nist 0hina on &an%ary (@ '@((. /ates is d%e to hold talks with 0hinaKs .oliti#al and military leaders d%ring the visit whi#h #omes ahead of se#ond s%mmit *etween President <*ama and 0hinaKs President "% &intao whi#h is s#hed%led to start on &an%ary (4. (Photo, Pool;/etty =mages)

)4&O?% 6&4TT )OU,3

This .hoto was .%*lished in the '@@B 0o%n#il on Foreign 7elations $nn%al 7e.ort.

7ed 0hinese des.ot Deng 9iao.ing and his #ommissars killed over 3@@@ 0hinese .eo.le on Tiananmen !1%are in Bei2ing on &%ne 5 ()4). (Photo, 0o%n#il on Foreign 7elations $nn%al 7e.ort)

Lo%is 6. /erstner &r. (#enter) the 0hairman and 0A< of =nternational B%siness -a#hines F=B-G and -a%ri#e /reen*erg (right) the 0hairman and 0A< of $meri#an =nternational /ro%. F$=/G invite 0omm%nist 0hina8s leader &iang Qemin to s.eak to 0o%n#il on Foreign 7elations mem*ers at the "arold Pratt "o%se on !e.tem*er 4 '@@@. (Photo, 0o%n#il on Foreign 7elations '@@( $nn%al 7e.ort)

0o%n#il on Foreign 7elations 0hairman Peter /. Peterson (left) the former 0hairman and 0A< of Lehman Brothers *anking firm talks to 7ed 0hina8s Foreign -inister Iian Ii#hen (right) at a meeting on $.ril ') ())B. (Photo, ())B 0o%n#il on Foreign 7elations $nn%al 7e.ort)

Theodore ". White dines with "an 9% the 7ed 0hinese $m*assador to the U.!. at the "arold Pratt "o%se in ()4:. (Photo, 0o%n#il on Foreign 7elations $nn%al 7e.ort)

Former se#retaries of !tate 0yr%s 6an#e (left) and $l "aig (#enter) listen as Li Daoy% the 7ed 0hinese $m*assador to the U.!. s.eak at a 0o%n#il on Foreign 7elations meeting on Fe*r%ary '@ ())B. (Photo, 0o%n#il on Foreign 7elations $nn%al 7e.ort)

Former !e#retary of !tate 0yr%s 6an#e (right) listens to 7ed 0hinese -inister of Foreign $ffairs Iian Ii#hen at the "arold Pratt "o%se on <#to*er 5 ())@ a year after the Tiananmen !1%are -assa#re. (Photo, 0o%n#il on Foreign 7elations $nn%al 7e.ort)

Left .hoto, Winston Lord (left) stands *eside 7ed 0hinese 0ommissar Qhang Wen2in at the "arold Pratt "o%se. (Photo, 0o%n#il on Foreign 7elations $nn%al 7e.ort) 7ight, 7i#hard "ol*rooke shakes hands with 7ed 0hina8s -inister of Foreign $ffairs Iian Ii#hen (left) in front of the "arold Pratt "o%se on -ay ?( ()44. (Photo, 0o%n#il on Foreign 7elations $nn%al 7e.ort)

This .hoto a..ears in the '@@: 0o%n#il on Foreign 7elations $nn%al 7e.ort.

&ames -. Lindsay (left) greets 7ed 0hina8s leader "% &intao. (Photo, 0o%n#il on Foreign 7elations '@@: $nn%al 7e.ort)

0o%n#il on Foreign 7elations *oard mem*er -a%ri#e 7. /reen*erg (left) a..ears with 0omm%nist 0hina8s -inister of Foreign $ffairs Yang &ie#hi. (Photo, 0o%n#il on Foreign 7elations '@@4 $nn%al 7e.ort)

7etired U.!. $ir For#e /en. 7i#hard -yers (left) former 0hairman of the U.!. &oint 0hiefs of !taff shakes hands with 7ed 0hina8s Defense -inister Liang /%anglie d%ring their meet in Bei2ing on De#em*er 4 '@@4. (9inh%a Photo)

,63CI4? I;T3&3,T,

"enry >issinger visits 7ed 0hina8s 0ommissar "% &intao in Bei2ing on -ay (B '@@3.

World Bank President &ames D. Wolfensohn (left) visits 7ed 0hina8s 0ommissar "% &intao (right) at the /reat "all of the Peo.le in Bei2ing on -ay ?@ '@@5.

U.!. $m*assador to the United Eations 7i#hard "ol*rooke shakes hands with 7ed 0hina8s 0ommissar &iang Qemin in Bei2ing 7ed 0hina on -ar#h '' '@@@ following the .residential ele#tion that was held in the 7e.%*li# of 0hina on the island of Taiwan. (/reg Baker;$FP;/etty =mages)

7ed 0hina8s 6i#e Premier W% Yi #hats with President and 0A< of the /lo*al B%siness 0oalition on "=6;$=D! (/B0) + former U.!. $m*assador to the UE 7i#hard "ol*rooke at the &oint !%mmit on B%siness and $=D! in Bei2ing on -ar#h (4 '@@3. (Photo *y /%ang Ei%;/etty =mages)

0hase -anhattan Bank 0hairman David 7o#kefeller (left) smiles as he visits 7ed 0hina8s des.ot 0ho% Anlai on the ste.s of the /reat "all of the Peo.le in Peking in ()B?. This .hoto was .%*lished in David 7o#kefeller8s a%to*iogra.hy Memoirs.

FoJ Eews *oss 7%.ert -%rdo#h meets Qhao I%iHheng head of the =nformation <ffi#e of the !tate 0o%n#il (left) and !%n &iaHheng the 7ed 0hinese -inister of 0%lt%re in !e.tem*er '@@@.

Left .hoto, 7ed 0hina8s Premier Wen &ia*ao a..ears with 0o%n#il on Foreign 7elations 0oC0hairman 0arla "ills at a Eational 0ommittee on United !tatesC0hina 7elations meeting on !e.tem*er '? '@@4. (Photo, htt.,;;www.n#%s#r.org;.rograms;l%n#heonC#hineseC.remierCwenC2ia*ao) 0arla "ills stands *eside 7ed 0hina8s 6i#e Premier Wang Iishan at a #onferen#e on &%ne (4 '@@4. (Photo, htt.,;;www.n#%s#r.org;S1T.rograms;dinnerChonorCvi#eC.remierCwangC1ishan)

$rmand "ammer the 0hairman of <##idental Petrole%m greets Deng 9iao.ing in Bei2ing in &%ne ()43.

Left .hoto, 0omm%nist 0hinese 0ommissar "% &intao shakes hands with 0harles Prin#e (left) 0A< of 0itigro%. =n#. d%ring a meeting in the /reat "all of the Peo.le in Bei2ing on -ay (: '@@3. (9inh%a .hoto) htt.,;;news.Jinh%anet.#om;english;'@@3C@3;(B;#ontentL'):5@B4.htm 7ight .hoto, 0omm%nist 0hinese 0ommissar "% &intao shakes hands with 7i#hard Parsons (left) 0hairman and 0A< of Time Warner =n#. d%ring a meeting in the /reat "all of the Peo.le in Bei2ing on -ay (: '@@3. (9inh%a .hoto) htt.,;;news.Jinh%anet.#om;english;'@@3C@3;(B;#ontentL'):5@B4.htm

"enry >issinger shares a drink with 7ed 0hina8s des.ot &iang Qemin.

/lenn T. !ea*org shakes hands with 0ho% AnCLai in Peking 7ed 0hina in ()B?. (htt.,;;dsd.l*l.gov;!ea*org.talks;.residents;#om.lete.html)

<wen Lattimore (se#ond from right) talks to 0ho% Anlai in Peking in <#to*er ()B'. This .hoto was .%*lished in the *ook .wen Lattimore and The /Loss0 of &hina *y 7o*ert P. Eewman.

0o%n#il on Foreign 7elations mem*er 0harles W. Yost shakes hands with 7ed 0hina8s envoy 0ho% Anlai.

0harles W. Yost (left) and 0ommissar Deng 9iao.ing a..la%d at a re#e.tion in Washington D.0. in Fe*r%ary ()B).

Left .hoto, "enry >issinger greets 7ed 0hina8s Premier Qh% 7ong2i on $.ril (3 '@@'. 7ight .hoto, "enry >issinger introd%#es 0yr%s 6an#e to 7ed 0hina8s 0ommissar &iang Qemin in Bei2ing.

6i#e President Di#k 0heney (left) and 7i#hard "ol*rooke (right) listen to &iang Qemin.

!enator &a#o* &avits and !enator Frank 0h%r#h visit Deng 9iao.ing.

This .hoto a..ears in the *ook The !ge of T#r1#lence: !d$ent#res in a *ew %orld *y $lan /reens.an.

7ed 0hina8s 0ommissar &iang Qemin (far left) a..ears with (from left to right) !an Fran#is#o -ayor Willie Brown 0harlotte !h%ltH &iang QeminKs wife Wang Ye.ing and former !e#retary of !tate /eorge !h%ltH at !an Fran#is#o =nternational $ir.ort on <#to*er '4 '@@'. /eorge P. !h%ltH is a mem*er of the 0o%n#il on Foreign 7elations. (Photo *y Thomas &. /i**ons;/etty =mages)

Treas%ry !e#retary 7o*ert 7%*in Federal 7eserve 0hairman $lan /reens.an and 7ed 0hinese Premier Qh% 7ong2i .ose for .ress .hotogra.hers at the Blair "o%se in Washington D.0. on $.ril ) ())). (Photo, A.iJ;/ammaCLiaison)

Federal 7eserve Board 0hairman $lan /reens.an shakes hands with 7ed 0hina8s 0ommissar "% &intao d%ring a meeting with leaders of the Bth /C'@ Finan#e -inisters and 0entral Bank /overnors inside the /reat "all of the Peo.le in Bei2ing <#to*er 3 '@@3. (Photo *y &ason LeeCPool;/etty =mages)

7ed 0hina8s 0ommissar "% &intao (left) greets former !e#retary of !tate "enry >issinger (right) as Thomas Donoh%e (#enter) of the U.!. 0ham*er of 0ommer#e looks on .rior to a dinner hosted *y the United !tatesC0hina *%siness #omm%nity in Washington D.0. on $.ril '@ '@@:. "enry >issinger and Thomas Donoh%e are mem*ers of the 0o%n#il on Foreign 7elations. (&onathan Arnst;$FP;/etty =mages)

Former !e#retary of !tate "enry >issinger (right) la%ghs as 7ed 0hina8s 0ommissar &iang Qemin (left) rea#ts to inter.reter 9% "%iKs (#enter) translation of >issingerKs #omments d%ring a meeting held at the $sian !o#iety in Washington D.0. on <#to*er ?@ ())B. (Tim !loan;$FP;/etty =mages)

7ed 0hinaKs $m*assador to the United !tates Li Daoy% (se#ond from right) is 2oined *y former se#retaries of !tate (from left to right) 0yr%s 6an#e "enry >issinger and $leJander "aig at a meeting of the $meri#aC0hina !o#iety and the 0o%n#il on Foreign 7elations in Eew York 0ity on Fe*r%ary '@ ())B. The meeting was held to #ommemorate the '3th anniversary of the !hanghai 0omm%ni1%Y whi#h marked the o.ening of U.!.C7ed 0hina relations. (&on Levy;$FP;/etty =mages)

7ed 0hina8s 0ommissar &iang Qemin (left) la%ghs with former !e#retary of !tate "enry >issinger d%ring a l%n#heon at the WaldorfC$storia in Eew York 0ity on <#to*er '? ())3. The l%n#heon hosted *y "enry >issinger was s.onsored in .art *y the $sia !o#iety. (Bo* !trong;$FP;/etty =mages)

7ed 0hina8s 6i#e .remier Teng "siaoCPing (7) shakes hands with U.!. !en. &ohn /lenn (DC<hio) at /reat "all of the Peo.le in Peking on &an%ary ) ()B) as !en. !am E%nn (L DC/eorgia) mem*er of !en. armed servi#es #ommittee /ary "art (DC0olo.) and !en. William 0ohen (7C-aine) look on. E%nn "art and 0ohen are mem*ers of the 0o%n#il on Foreign 7elations. (7ikio =ma2o;Bettmann;0<7B=!)

7ed 0hina8s des.ot &iang Qemin shakes hands with an %nidentified !enator at a hotel in Washington D.0. on <#to*er ') ())B. The woman on the left is !enator >ay Bailey "%t#hinsonD the woman in the middle is !enator Dianne Feinstein. Feinstein is a mem*er of the 0o%n#il on Foreign 7elations and a mem*er of the Trilateral 0ommission.

Eew York -ayor -i#hael Bloom*erg (left) meets with 0omm%nist 0hina8s Premier Wen &ia*ao (right) in Eew York 0ity on !e.tem*er '? '@@4. Wen was in Eew York 0ity to attend the United Eations /eneral $ssem*ly. ($FP;/etty =mages)

Former U.!. !e#retary of !tate "enry >issinger (L) shakes hands with 7ed 0hina8s Premier Wen &ia*ao at Qhongnanhai in Bei2ing on &an%ary (? '@@) as .art of a visit for talks marking the ?@th anniversary of di.lomati# relations *etween the two nations. ($FP;/etty =mages)

Former U.!. President &immy 0arter (L) meets with 7ed 0hina8s Premier Wen &ia*ao at Qhongnanhai in Bei2ing on &an%ary (? '@@) as .art of a visit for talks marking the ?@th anniversary of di.lomati# relations *etween the two nations. ($FP;/etty =mages)

Left .hoto, Former U.!. President &immy 0arter (L) shakes hands with 7ed 0hina8s Premier Wen &ia*ao at Qhongnanhai in Bei2ing on &an%ary (? '@@) as .art of a visit for talks marking the ?@th anniversary of di.lomati# relations *etween $meri#a and 7ed 0hina. ($FP;/etty =mages) 7ight .hoto, F% Qiying the 6i#e -inister of 0ommer#e of 0omm%nist 0hina meets with $nneC-arie !la%ghter Dire#tor of Poli#y Planning for the U.!. !tate De.artment. $nneC-arie !la%ghter is a mem*er of the 0o%n#il on Foreign 7elations. (Photo, htt.,;;f%Hiying'.mof#om.gov.#n;aarti#le;t%.ian;'@@)@:;'@@)@:@:?@@'3?.html)

Former U.!. !e#retary of !tate "enry >issinger (L) former First Lady 7osalynn !mith 0arter ('nd L) former U.!. President &ames 0arter (0) and 7ed 0hina8s Premier Wen &ia*ao ('nd 7) meet at Qhongnanhai in Bei2ing on &an%ary (? '@@). 0arter and >issinger are in 0hina to #ele*rate the ?@th anniversary of the esta*lishment of $meri#a8s di.lomati# relations with 0omm%nist 0hina whi#h *egan on &an%ary ( ()B). (7e%ters)

7ed 0hina8s 0ommissar "% &intao (7) shakes hands with former U.!. !e#retary of !tate "enry >issinger as former U.!. President &ames 0arter looks on d%ring a meeting at the /reat "all of the Peo.le in Bei2ing on &an%ary (' '@@). 0arter and >issinger are in 0hina to #ele*rate the ?@th anniversary of the esta*lishment of $meri#a8s di.lomati# relations with 0omm%nist 0hina whi#h *egan on &an%ary ( ()B). (7e%ters)

Former U.!. President &immy 0arter (?rd 7) former Eational !e#%rity $dvisor Q*igniew BrHeHinski ('nd L) and former !e#retary of !tate "enry >issinger (L) attend a .hoto eJhi*it on ?@ years of 7ed 0hinaCU.!. di.lomati# relations in Bei2ing on &an%ary (' '@@). 0arter and >issinger are in Bei2ing to #ele*rate the ?@th anniversary of the esta*lishment of $meri#a8s di.lomati# relations with 0omm%nist 0hina whi#h #ommen#ed on &an%ary ( ()B). (7e%ters)

$meri#an and 0omm%nist 0hinese *%siness leaders in#l%ding (*a#k row LC7) former White "o%se 0hief of !taff -a#k -#Larty former U.! Eational !e#%rity $dvisor Brent !#ow#roft U.!. 0ham*er of 0ommer#e President Tom Donoh%e 7ed 0hina8s 6i#e Premier Wang Iishan and 7ed 0hina8s -inister of 0ommer#e 0hen Deming offi#iate at a *%siness .artnershi. signing #eremony at the U.!. 0ham*er of 0ommer#e in Washington D.0. on &%ne (: '@@4. -#Larty !#ow#roft and Donoh%e are mem*ers of the 0o%n#il on Foreign 7elations. (7e%ters)

$meri#an and 0omm%nist 0hinese *%siness leaders in#l%ding former U.!. Eational !e#%rity $dvisor Brent !#ow#roft ('nd L) U.!. 0ham*er of 0ommer#e President Tom Donoh%e (?rd L) and 0hinaKs 6i#e Premier Wang Iishan ('nd 7) share a toast after a *%siness .artnershi. signing #eremony at the U.!. 0ham*er of 0ommer#e in Washington D.0. on &%ne (: '@@4. (7e%ters)

7ed 0hina8s Foreign -inister Yang &ie#hi (#enter) meets with 0arla $. "ills (left) the 0oC0hairman of the 0o%n#il on Foreign 7elations and Q*igniew BrHeHinski (right) *efore s.eaking at the 0enter for !trategi# and =nternational !t%dies (0!=!) in Washington D.0. on -ar#h (' '@@). 0arla $. "ills and Q*igniew BrHeHinski are mem*ers of the 0o%n#il on Foreign 7elations and the Trilateral 0ommission. ($P Photo)

U.!. !enate -a2ority Leader "arry 7eid (DCEevada) greets 0omm%nist 0hinaKs President "% &intao on 0a.itol "ill in Washington D.0. on &an%ary '@ '@((. From left to right are !enate Foreign 7elations 0ommittee 0hairman !en. &ohn >erry "% &intao "arry 7eid The !enate Foreign 7elations 0ommittee ranking 7e.%*li#an !en. 7i#hard L%gar and !en. &ohn -#0ain. &ohn >erry and &ohn -#0ain are mem*ers of the 0o%n#il on Foreign 7elations. ($P Photo)

former U.!. !e#retary of !tate "enry >issinger (L) and 0omm%nist 0hina8s President "% &intao (7) and s.eak to ea#h other with the hel. of a translator d%ring a l%n#heon in #ele*ration of 0omm%nist 0hinaKs !tate 6isit at the U.!. De.artment of !tate in Washington D.0. on &an%ary () '@((. "enry >issinger is a mem*er of the Trilateral 0ommission and a former mem*er of the 0o%n#il on Foreign 7elations. (/etty =mages)

Left .hoto, (Left to right) "ormatsD >issingerD 6ikram Pandit 0A< of 0itigro%.D the "onora*le 7o*ert A. 7%*in #oC#hair of the 0o%n#il on Foreign 7elations and former se#retary of the Treas%ryD and -%htar >ent #hair of the U!C0hina B%siness 0o%n#il (U!0B0) and 0hairman and 0A< of the 0o#aC0ola 0o. 7ight .hoto, (Left to right) The "onora*le "enry $. >issinger #hair of the $meri#aC0hina For%m and former !e#retary of !tateD David Paterson /overnor of Eew YorkD the "onora*le 7o*ert "ormats Under !e#retary of !tate for A#onomi# Anergy and $gri#%lt%ral $ffairsD the "onora*le Bar*ara Franklin President and 0A< of Bar*ara Franklin Anter.risesD William 7hodes senior advisor at 0itigro%. =n#.D Avan /reen*erg #hair and 0A< of the $0A /ro%.D and others at the .reCdinner re#e.tion in #ir#a '@@)C'@(@. (Both .hotos, htt.s,;;www.%s#hina.org;info;.hotoCgallery;gallery?B;)

Left .hoto, -a%ri#e /reen*erg #hair of the !tarr Fo%ndation greets Premier Wen &ia*ao. 7ight .hoto, 0o#aC0ola 0hairman and 0A< -%htar >ent (left) and Premier Wen &ia*ao share a la%gh. (Both .hotos, htt.s,;;www.%s#hina.org;info;.hotoCgallery;gallery?B;.ageC'.html)

Left .hoto, 0arla "ills leads a 1%estionCandCanswer session following Premier Wen &ia*aoKs remarks. 7ight .hoto, (Left to right) !te.hen $. <rlins .resident of the Eational 0ommittee on U!C0hina 7elations (E0U!07)D >entD Premier Wen &ia*aoD the "onora*le 0arla $. "ills #hair and 0A< of "ills + 0o. and #hair of E0U!07D and &ohn Fris*ie .resident of U!0B0. (Both .hotos, htt.s,;;www.%s#hina.org;info;.hotoCgallery;gallery?B;.ageC?.html)

Left, "enry >issinger s.eaks a*o%t the .ast three de#ades of the *ilateral #ommer#ial relationshi.. 7ight, U.!. !e#retary of 0ommer#e /ary Lo#ke s.eaks at the dinner. /ary Lo#k is not a mem*er of the 0o%n#il on Foreign 7elations yet. (Both .hotos, htt.s,;;www.%s#hina.org;info;.hotoCgallery;gallery?B;.ageC?.html)

"enry >issinger greets Premier Wen &ia*ao. (Photo, htt.s,;;www.%s#hina.org;info;.hotoCgallery;gallery?B;)

<n <#to*er (' '@@) 0hinese Premier Wen &ia*ao met in Qig%angge Qhongnanhai with the U.!. delegates who #ame to Bei2ing for the ina%g%ral 0hinaCU.!. Tra#k Two "ighCLevel Dialog%e. The U.!. delegation headed *y former U.!. !e#retary of !tate "enry >issinger also in#l%ded former !e#retary of !tate /eorge P. !h%ltH former Defense !e#retary William Perry and former Treas%ry !e#retary 7o*ert 7%*in. (Photo, htt.,;;www.#hinaCem*assy.org;eng;gyHg;t:'@?)3.htm)

0hinese 6i#e Premier Li >e1iang (0 front) .oses for a gro%. .hoto with former U.!. !e#retary of !tate "enry >issinger (5th L front) and his delegation (in#l%ding 0arla "ills and /eorge P. !h%ltH) attending the third meeting of the 0hinaCU.!. Tra#k Two "ighCLevel Dialog%e in Bei2ing #a.ital of 0omm%nist 0hina &an%ary (B '@('. (9inh%a;-a Qhan#heng) htt.,;;eng.#hinamil.#om.#n;newsC#hannels;todayCheadlines;'@('C@(;();#ontentL5BB'@@4.htm

0hinese 6i#e Premier Li >e1iang (7) shakes hands with former U.!. !e#retary of !tate "enry >issinger who is here to attend the third meeting of the 0hinaCU.!. Tra#k Two "ighCLevel Dialog%e in Bei2ing #a.ital of 0omm%nist 0hina &an%ary (B '@('. (9inh%a;-a Qhan#heng) htt.,;;eng.#hinamil.#om.#n;newsC#hannels;todayCheadlines;'@('C@(;();#ontentL5BB'@@4.htm

"enry >issinger is seen .laying ta*le tennis with 0omm%nist 0hina8s 6i#e President Li Lan1%ing in Bei2ing on !%nday -ar#h (4 '@@(. (Photo, htt.,;;twelfth*o%gh.*logs.ot.#om;'@(';@(;tra#kCtwoCtrea#hery.html)

0hinese Premier Wen &ia*ao (7) holds an %m*rella for former U.!. !e#retary of !tate "enry >issinger against the rain to see him off after a meeting in Bei2ing #a.ital of 0omm%nist 0hina <#t. (' '@@). >issinger and his delegation #ame to Bei2ing for the ina%g%ral 0hinaCU.!. Tra#k Two "ighCLevel Dialog%e whi#h gathered doHens of retired eminent di.lomats and offi#ials from *oth #o%ntries. (9inh%a;Yao Dawei) htt.,;;twelfth*o%gh.*logs.ot.#om;'@(';@(;tra#kCtwoCtrea#hery.html

Communist C ina,s Uice +resident ;i ?in!ing 'rig t( meets wit *ormer U.S. Secretary o* State Henry Qissinger, w o attended t e t ird C ina/U.S. Trac6 Two Hig /level =ialogue, )e*ore an event mar6ing t e M<t anniversary o* *ormer U.S. +resident Bic ard NiAonPs visit to Communist C ina and t e release o* t e S ang ai Communique, in Beijing, Communist C ina on ?anuary $I, "<$". ';in ua1-i ;ueren(

0omm%nist 0hina8s 6i#e President 9i &in.ing (right front) .oses for a gro%. .hoto with former U.!. !e#retary of !tate "enry >issinger (#enter front) and former U.!. !e#retary of !tate /eorge P. !h%ltH (far right wearing a *ow tie) who attended the third 0hinaCU.!. Tra#k Two "ighC level Dialog%e *efore an event marking the 5@th anniversary of former U.!. President 7i#hard EiJonKs visit to 0hina and the release of the !hanghai 0omm%ni1%e in Bei2ing 0omm%nist 0hina on &an%ary (: '@('. (9inh%a;Li 9%eren)

Communist C ina,s +resident ;i ?in!ing meets wit *ormer U.S. Secretary o* State Henry Qissinger, a mem)er o* t e Bilder)erg 0rou! and t e Trilateral Commission, at t e 0reat Hall o* t e +eo!le in Beijing, Communist C ina on A!ril "M, "<$>. '+ otoF tt!F11www.*m!rc.gov.cn1eng1LAAA1t$<>@&<M.s tml(

+resident o* Communist C ina ;i ?in!ing meets wit *ormer U.S. Secretary o* t e Treasury Henry +aulson 'le*t( at t e 0reat Hall o* t e +eo!le in Beijing, Communist C ina on A!ril "M, "<$>. Henry +aulson is a mem)er o* t e Council on .oreign Belations, a !rivate !olitical organiLation located in New Yor6 City. '+ otoF tt!F11www.*m!rc.gov.cn1eng1LAAA1t$<>@&<M.s tml(

+resident o* Communist C ina ;i ?in!ing meets wit *ormer U.S. +resident Eilliam ?. 2Bill9 Clinton 'le*t( at t e 0reat Hall o* t e +eo!le in Beijing, Communist C ina on Novem)er $&, "<$>. Bill Clinton is a mem)er o* t e Council on .oreign Belations, a !rivate !olitical organiLation located in New Yor6 City. '+ otoF tt!F11www.c ina/em)assy.org1eng1LmgAss1t$$<<@#%. tm(