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Chapter 1- Functions

Lecture 1

MATH10070 - Introduction to Calculus

H. Render

Preliminaries

Chapter 1- Functions

About MATH10070

• MATH10070 is a 5 credit Stage 1 module • This module is offered each semester • This offering (semester 2) of MATH10070 is principally for

B.Agr.Sc. students

Preliminaries Chapter 1.Functions Learning • Lectures: 30 hours • Practicals (tutorials): 5 (every second week) • Begin: next week .

Science Lecture Building) • hermann. School of Mathematical Sciences (2nd ﬂoor.ie • Your programme ofﬁce • Mathematics Support Centre • Course Web Page .Preliminaries Chapter 1.Functions Resources • Lecturer • Dr Hermann Render • Room 23.render@ucd.

Functions Assessment • Final exam: 55% (May 2010) • Mid-term: 30% • Continuous Assessment: 15% Webwork (computer based system) • Homeworks in each tutorial but not part of assessment • Exam questions are based on the homeworks and the Webwork .Preliminaries Chapter 1.

population modelling. . ﬁnance. growth and decay • Introduced by Isaac Newton (1642-1727) (and independently by Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz (1646-1716)) in his study of planetary motion • Initially used primarily in physics and engineering • calculus now used in all physical sciences. and much more.Preliminaries Chapter 1. motion. ecology. .Functions What is Calculus? • Calculus is the quantitative science of change. biology and medicine. .

you should have some understanding of what the calculus is and how it is used. By the end of the course.Preliminaries Chapter 1. .Functions In this course you will get an introduction to some of the basic ideas and techniques of the Calculus. You should have also mastered some of the basic computations and rules of the calculus.

A precise deﬁnition is: • Specify the input set A. .Functions What is a function? Informal deﬁnition: A FUNCTION assigns to each element of an input set a unique element of an output set. • Specify the output set B. Read f (x) as "f of x". also called the domain. • For each x ∈ A we have to deﬁne an element f (x) in the set B. f (x) is called the function value of f at x.Preliminaries Chapter 1.

f (Moe) = Chocolate. . f (Larry) = Vanilla. deﬁne the output set by B = {Chocolate. Deﬁne the domain (input set) by A = {Curly. Now deﬁne a function f : A → B (read: a function f from A to B) by f (Curly) = Chocolate.Functions An example A function from a set A to a set B can be given by explicitly providing a unique element of B for each element of A. Here we think that Chocolate and Vanilla are the favourite ice-cream ﬂavours. Larry}. Vanilla}.Preliminaries Chapter 1. Moe.

Each student in A is asked what he perfers: chocolate or vanilla. We deﬁne a function f : A → B by f (x) := favourite ice-cream ﬂavour of student x ∈ A. If we are dealing with a very big set (e. Vanilla}.Preliminaries Chapter 1. the natural numbers) then this is the only way one can deﬁne a function.Functions Favourite ice-cream ﬂavours for students in MATH10070 Now let us deﬁne A as the set of all MATH10070 students. . Here we deﬁne f (x) by means of a variable x.g. and the output set B = {Chocolate.

• g : Z → N. s(x) = student identity number of x.Preliminaries Chapter 1. h(x) = height of x in metres. f (x) = 2x + 3. • s : {MATH10070 students} → R. • h : {MATH10070 students} → R. • f : R → R.Functions Examples of functions Usually we write: Let f : A → B be a function and let f (x) for x ∈ A be deﬁned by a mathematical formula. g(x) = x 2 + 1. .

. and they seem to scare people! If you see an x or a y in mathematics it is just standing in for an unspeciﬁed number.Functions Variables Letters are used a lot in mathematics. instead of full names. This is a lot like using “he” or “she” in English.Preliminaries Chapter 1.

Functions Z The letters ‘x’ and ‘y ’ and ‘z’ are often used for variables. Functions are usually denoted by f or g and sets by A.Preliminaries Chapter 1. B or C. But there are worse examples: • ε means epsilon • δ means delta • α means alpha • β means beta • γ means gamma .

3} is the set of the elements 1. • Use curly brackets for describing a set.Preliminaries Chapter 1. 2. • Union A ∪ B = {x : x ∈ A or x ∈ B}. • Subset: A ⊂ B means the set B contains all the elements of A. 2. 3. • Example: {1. Cantor 1870). N ⊂ R . • Intersection A ∩ B = {x : x ∈ A and x ∈ B}.Functions Set Notation A set is a collection of well-deﬁned elements (G. • Membership (“is an element of”) 73 ∈ N • Do not confuse ∈ with ε.

division. .Functions 6 + 2 × 3 + 4 =? There are four basic arithmetic operations – multiplication. Z First multiplication and division. So 6 + 2 × 3 + 4 equals 16. then addition and subtraction. addition and subtraction and there is a precedence in the order which these are to be carried out.Preliminaries Chapter 1.

Brackets are especially important when dealing with variables. 3 multiplied by x + y is written 3(x + y ) and not 3 x + y . For example.Preliminaries Chapter 1. Similarly be careful writing fractions: 6 3 +4= 6+4 3 . (6 + 2) × 3 + 4 = 28. brackets are used.Functions To change the order in which operations are performed. . (6 + 2) × (3 + 4) = 56 6 + 2 × (3 + 4) = 20. otherwise we could be replacing 3(4 + 5) = 27 with 3 × 4 + 5 = 17.

.Preliminaries Chapter 1. Note that 3. Can write it as 3(4). .Functions Laziness.4 is a decimal. We don’t often use the multiplication sign ×. But can’t shorten 3 × 4 to 34. The multiplication x × y is usually abbreviated to x · y or just xy ..

Preliminaries Chapter 1. 3(4 + 5) = 3 × 4 + 3 × 5 The general form of the distributive law is x(y + z) = xy + xz and (x + y )z = xz + yz. .Functions Expanding Getting rid of brackets (called EXPANDING) is done by using the distributive law: 3(x + y ) = 3x + 3y . For example.

Functions Example Expand (3 + 4)2 . (3 + 4)2 = (3 + 4)(3 + 4) = (3 + 4)3 + (3 + 4)4 =3·3+4·3+3·4+4·4 = 32 + 3 · 4 + 3 · 4 + 42 = 32 + 2 · 3 · 4 + 42 = 9 + 24 + 16 = 49.Preliminaries Chapter 1. .

. (x + y )2 = (x + y )(x + y ) = x(x + y ) + y (x + y ) =x ·x +x ·y +y ·x +y ·y = x 2 + xy + xy + y 2 = x 2 + 2xy + y 2 .Functions Example Expand (x + y )2 .Preliminaries Chapter 1.

Preliminaries Chapter 1.. Figure: (x + y )2 = x 2 + 2xy + y 2 .Functions Another approach.. There is a geometrical way of looking at the formula (x + y )2 = x 2 + 2xy + y 2 .

h2 = x 2 + y 2 (or h = x 2 + y 2) .Functions Theorem of Pythagoras Figure: Area of Red = Area of Yellow That is.Preliminaries Chapter 1.

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