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**A STUDY ON THREE TYPES OF NONLINEAR KLEIN-GORDON EQUATIONS
**

Yin Zheng and Shaoyong Lai1

Department of Applied Mathematics Southwestern University of Finance and Economics, Chengdu, 610074, China Abstract. A mathematical approach based on the reduction of order for solving ordinary diﬀerential equations has been employed to investigate three forms of nonlinear KleinGordon equations. The analytical expressions of the travelling wave solutions such as compactons, solitons and periodic solutions for the equations are obtained. The results of this work extend parts of those provided by Wazwaz [Chaos, Solitons and Fractals 28(2006) 1005-1013]. Keywords. Klein-Gordon equations, compactons, solitons, periodic solutions, solving integral equations. AMS (MOS) subject classiﬁcation: 35K55, 35B40.

1

Introduction

Many analytical and numerical techniques have been employed to ﬁnd travelling wave solutions of nonlinear partial diﬀerential equations. Rosenau and Hyman [1] used the pseudo spectral methods in space and a variable order, variable time-step Adams-Basford-Moulton method in time to study a family of nonlinear KdV equations, and obtained a class of solitary waves with compact support, which were called compactons. Wadati [2-4] developed the trace method to investigate the exact travelling wave solutions for a modiﬁed Kortweg-de Vries equation. The tanh method developed by Malﬂiet et al. [5-6] is a reliable algebraic technique to obtain exact solutions of many nonlinear equations. Wazwaz [8] used the tanh method to acquire the exact solutions for several forms of nonlinear dispersive partial diﬀerential equations. Making use of the extended tanh method and homogeneous balance method, Fan and Zhang [10] investigated the generalized mKdV equation and the generalized ZK equation. This method was an eﬃcient tool to seek exact solutions of nonlinear equations so that abundant solitary wave solutions were obtained (see [14]). Other approaches include the inverse scattering method, the B¨cklund transformation, the Darboux transformation, the a painlev´ analysis, the tri-Hamiltonian operators, the ﬁnite diﬀerence method, e the Adomian decomposition method, the sin − cos antaze method and so on.

1 Corresponding

Author: laishaoy@swufe.edu.cn

272

Y. Zheng and S. Lai

For details of these methods, the reader is referred to [1-9, 11-12] and the references therein. Dinda and Remoissenet [13] studied a nonlinear Klein-Gordon lattice with a soft on-site substrate potential and showed the existence of a breather with a compact support; i.e., a breather compacton. The discovery in [13] illustrated that the exact analytical compacton solution in the continuum lattice agreed with the exact numerical solution both in the continuum systems and in the highly discrete systems. The numerical experiments were used in [13] to reveal that after several dozens of collisions of compactons, no radiation is observed, indicating that the collisions are elastic. The signiﬁcant discovery that solitary wave solutions may compactify under nonlinear dispersion supported the fact that nonlinear dispersion causes qualitative changes in the nature of nonlinear phenomena. Using the tanh method, Wazwaz [9] obtain several exact travelling wave solutions for the following nonlinear Klein-Gordon equations utt − a2 uxx + αu − βun = 0, utt − a2 uxx + αu − βun + γu2n−1 = 0, and utt − a2 uxx + αu − βu1−n + γun+1 = 0, (3) where a, α, β, γ and n are nonzero constants. Eq.(1)-(3) plays a signiﬁcant role in many scientiﬁc applications such as solid state physics, nonlinear optics and quantum ﬁeld theory (see [9]). Using the tanh method, Wazwaz [9] obtained soliton solutions, periodic solutions, solitary pattern solutions and compacton solutions for Eq.(1), kinks solutions and complex solutions for Eq.(2) and kinks solutions and periodic solutions for Eq.(3). In this paper, by using a mathematical technique diﬀerent from those in previous work [9], we further study Eqs.(1), (2) and (3). Firstly, we will obtain the soliton solutions, periodic solutions, solitary pattern solutions and compacton solutions for Eq.(1) whose analytical expressions are in full agreement with those obtained in [9]. Secondly, under various circumstances, the travelling wave solutions of Eq.(2) are expressed in terms of sin, cos, tan, cot, sinh, cosh, tanh, coth and algebraic proﬁles while those presented in [9] are only in tanh, coth, tan, cot proﬁles. It indicates that we obtain new solutions of Eq.(2), comparing to the results presented in [9]. Finally, we derive the kinks and periodic solutions for Eq.(3) which are the same with those obtained in Wazwaz [9]. (1) (2)

2

Klein-Gordon Equation (1)

We seek the travelling wave solutions for Eq.(1) in the form u = u(ξ) with wave variable ξ = µ(x − ct) where constants µ = 0 and c = 0. The wave

A Study on Three Types of Nonlinear Klein-Gordon Equations

273

variable ξ turns Eq(1) into the following second order ordinary diﬀerential equation (ODE) µ2 (c2 − a2 )uξξ + αu − βun = 0, n = −1. Using transformation

du dξ

(4)

= Z, we change Eq.(4) into the ﬁrst order ODE dZ + αu − βun = 0. du (5)

µ2 (c2 − a2 )Z

**Integrating Eq.(5) and letting the constant of integration to be zero, we have 1 2 2 αu2 β µ (c − a2 )Z 2 + − un+1 = 0, 2 2 n+1 which gives rise to ( du 2 1 2β n+1 ) = 2 u ). (αu2 − dξ (a − c2 )µ2 n+1
**

α−β a2 −c2

(6)

(7)

Case 2.1.If n = 1 and Eq.(1) takes the form

> 0, it follows from Eq.(7) that the solution of α−β (x − ct)], a2 − c2

u = k exp[±

(8)

where k is an arbitrary constant. Case 2.2. If n = 1 and aα−β2 < 0, the solutions of Eq.(1) have the form 2 −c u = A exp[±i β−α (x − ct)], a2 − c2 (9)

**where A is an arbitrary constant. Deﬁning un−1 = V 2 if n = 1, we have u=V du =
**

2 n−1

,

2 n−1 −1

(10) dV. (11)

2 V n−1

**Substituting Eqs.(10) and (11) into (7) yields dV V α−
**

2β 2 n+1 V

=±

n−1 √ dξ. 2µ a2 − c2

(12)

α Case 2.3. n > 1 and a2 −c2 < 0: Solving Eq.(12) and ignoring the integral constant, we have the periodic solutions

u={

α(n + 1) n−1 sec2 [ 2β 2

1 −α (x − ct)]} n−1 a2 − c2

(13)

274

n−1 2 −α a2 −c2 (x

**Y. Zheng and S. Lai
**

π 2,

for |

− ct) |<

and

1 −α (x − ct)]} n−1 a2 − c2

u={ for 0 <|

n−1 2

α(n + 1) n−1 csc2 [ 2β 2 − ct) |< π.

α a2 −c2

(14)

−α a2 −c2 (x

Case 2.4. n > 1 and solutions u={ and u = {−

**> 0: We solve Eq.(12) and get the soliton
**

1 α (x − ct)]} n−1 a2 − c2

α(n + 1) n−1 sech2 [ 2β 2 α(n + 1) n−1 csch2 [ 2β 2

(15)

1 α (x − ct)]} n−1 . a2 − c2

(16)

α Case 2.5. n < 1, n = −1 and a2 −c2 > 0: In this case, we get the solitary pattern solutions of Eq.(1) in the form

u={ and

1−n 2β cosh2 [ α(n + 1) 2 2β 1−n sinh2 [ α(n + 1) 2

a2

1 α (x − ct)]} 1−n 2 −c

(17)

u = {−

a2

1 α (x − ct)]} 1−n . 2 −c

(18)

α Case 2.6. n < 1, n = −1 and a2 −c2 < 0: the compacton solutions take the form 1 u = { 2β cos2 [ 1−n − 2 α 2 (x − ct)]} 1−n , α(n+1) 2 a −c −α (19) | 1−n a2 −c2 (x − ct) |< π , 2 2 u = 0, otherwise

and 1 u = { 2β sin2 [ 1−n − 2 α 2 (x − ct)]} 1−n , α(n+1) 2 a −c −α | 1−n a2 −c2 (x − ct) |< π, 2 u = 0, otherwise.

(20)

Here we state that the mathematical method used here is diﬀerent from that presented in [9]. However, the analytical expressions of solutions from (13) to (20) for Eq.(1) are in full agreement with those obtained for Eq.(1) in Wazwaz [9] in which the tanh method was used.

A Study on Three Types of Nonlinear Klein-Gordon Equations

275

3

**Klein-Gordon Equation (2)
**

µ2 (c2 − a2 )uξξ + αu − βun + γu2n−1 = 0, n = 0, n = −1. (21)

**The wave variable ξ = µ(x − ct) converts Eq.(2) to the ODE
**

du dξ ,

Letting Z =

we have uξξ = Z dZ . It follows from Eq.(21) that du µ2 (c2 − a2 )Z (22)

dZ + αu − βun + γu2n−1 = 0. du Integrating Eq.(22) and ignoring the constant of integration produce µ2 (c2 − a2 )Z 2 + αu2 − which gives ( du 2 u2 2βun−1 γu2(n−1) ) = 2 2 [α − + ]. dξ µ (a − c2 ) n+1 n 2β n+1 γ 2n u + u = 0, n+1 n

(23)

(24)

Case 3.1.If n = 1 and α−β+γ > 0, it follows from Eq.(24) that the solution a2 −c2 of Eq.(2) takes the form u = k exp[± α−β+γ (x − ct)], a2 − c2 (25)

where k is an arbitrary constant. Case 3.2. If n = 1 and α−β+γ < 0, the solution of Eq.(1) has the form a2 −c2 u = A exp[±i where A is an arbitrary constant. Letting W = un−1 if n = 1, we have u = W n−1 , 1 1 du = W n−1 −1 dW. n−1 Substituting (27) and (28) into Eq.(24) yields dW W α−

2βW n+1

1

β−α−γ (x − ct)], a2 − c2

(26)

(27) (28)

n−1 dξ, =± √ γ µ a2 − c2 + nW2

(29)

α Case 3.3. n = 0, n = −1, n = 1, a2 −c2 < 0 and β 2 n − αγ(n + 1)2 = 0: In this case, we integrate Eq.(29) and ignore the constant of integration to get the solutions of Eq.(2) as follows

u={ β±

(n + 1)α

β 2 n−αγ(n+1)2 n α sin[(n − 1) − a2 −c2 (x − ct)]

} n−1

1

(30)

276 and u={ β±

Y. Zheng and S. Lai

(n + 1)α

β 2 n−αγ(n+1)2 n α cos[(n − 1) − a2 −c2 (x − ct)] α a2 −c2

} n−1 .

1

(31)

**Case 3.4. n = 0, n = −1, n = 1, solutions of Eq.(2) have the form u={ β± and u={ β± −β
**

2 n−αγ(n+1)2

> 0 and β 2 n − αγ(n + 1)2 = 0: The

1

(n + 1)α

n

} n−1

α a2 −c2 (x

(32)

sinh[(n − 1)

− ct)]

(n + 1)α

β 2 n−αγ(n+1)2 n

} n−1 .

a2 −c2 α

1

(33)

cosh[(n − 1)

(x − ct)]

+1 In fact, we let β = 0, γ = −β and n = n 2 , then the solutions from (30) to (33) are in full agreement with the results obtained for Eq.(1) in Section 2. α Case 3.5. n = 0, n = −1, n = 1, a2 −c2 > 0 and β 2 n − αγ(n + 1)2 = 0: In this case the Eq.(29) becomes

W

dW n−1 =± √ dξ. √ β µ a2 − c2 ( α − √α(n+1) W )2

(34)

It follows from Eq.(34) that the kink solutions of Eq.(2) take the form u={ and u={ α(n + 1) n−1 (1 ± tanh[ 2β 2 α(n + 1) n−1 (1 ± coth[ 2β 2

α a2 −c2

a2

1 α (x − ct)])} n−1 2 −c

(35)

1 α (x − ct)])} n−1 . a2 − c2

(36)

Case 3.6. n = 0, n = −1, n = 1, obtain the complex solutions u={ and

< 0 and β 2 n − αγ(n + 1)2 = 0: We

1 −α (x − ct)])} n−1 a2 − c2

α(n + 1) n−1 (1 ± i tan[ 2β 2

(37)

1 α(n + 1) −α n−1 (x − ct)])} n−1 . (1 i cot[ (38) 2 − c2 2β 2 a Case 3.7. n = 0, n = −1, n = 1, α = 0 and β = 0: We get the algbraic solitary wave solution for Eq.(2) as follows

u={

u = {−

1 2βn(n + 1)(a2 − c2 ) } n−1 . γ(n + 1)2 (a2 − c2 ) + β 2 n(n − 1)2 (x − ct)2

(39)

A Study on Three Types of Nonlinear Klein-Gordon Equations

277

The solutions of Eq.(2) expressed by (35) to (38) are the same with those obtained in [9] while other solutions obtained in this Section are new ones for Eq.(2).

4

**Klein-Gordon Equation (3)
**

µ2 (c2 − a2 )uξξ + αu − βu1−n + γun+1 = 0, n = −2, n = 2. (40)

The variable ξ turns Eq.(3) into the second order ODE as follows

Setting uξ = Z, we have uξξ = Z dZ . It follows from (40) that du µ2 (c2 − a2 )Z dZ + αu − βu1−n + γun+1 = 0. du (41)

Integrating Eq.(41) and ignoring the integral constant yields Z2 = 1 2βu2−n 2γun+2 (−αu2 + − ). µ2 (c2 − a2 ) 2−n n+2 (42)

**Letting un = T 2 , we have u = T n , du = Eq.(43) makes that Eq.(42) becomes dT
**

2β − 2−n + αT 2 + 2γ 4 n+2 T

2

2 2 −1 T n dT. n

(43)

=±

n √ dξ. 2µ a2 − c2

(44)

If γ =

α2 (n2 −4) , 16β

we know that 2β + n−2 2γ T 2 )2 , n+2 (45)

2β 2γ + αT 2 + T4 = ( n−2 n+2

which produces that the Eq.(44) is solvable. Here we state that we do not 2 2 consider the case for Eq.(3) where γ = α (n −4) . Therefore, in the case where 16β γ=

α2 (n2 −4) 16β

and

α c2 −a2

**> 0, the kink solutions of Eq.(3) are expressed as
**

1 α (x − ct)]} n 2(c2 − a2 )

u = {− and u = {−

4β n tanh2 [ α(n − 2) 2 4β n coth2 [ α(n − 2) 2

(46)

1 α (x − ct)]} n . 2(c2 − a2 )

(47)

**278 If γ = α (n −4) and 16β in the form
**

2 2

**Y. Zheng and S. Lai
**

α c2 −a2

**< 0, the Eq.(3) admits the periodic solutions given
**

1 −α (x − ct)]} n 2(c2 − a2 )

u={ and u={

4β n tan2 [ α(n − 2) 2 n 4β cot2 [ α(n − 2) 2

(48)

1 −α (x − ct)]} n 2(c2 − a2 )

(49)

The solution formulas from (46) to (49) are in full agreement with those obtained in [9].

5

Conclusion

A mathematical method based on the reduction of order for solving ordinary diﬀerential equations is used to study three types of nonlinear Klein-Gordon equations (1), (2) and (3). The travelling wave solutions for these three equations obtained in this paper cover those presented in Wazwaz [9] in which the tanh method was used.

6

Acknowledgements

This work is supported by the SWUFE’s third period construction item funds of the 211 project. Meanwhile, the authors are grateful to the referees whose comments and suggestions led to a number of signiﬁcant improvements.

7

References

[1] P. Rosenau, J.M. Hyman, Compactons: solitons with ﬁnite wavelenths, Phys. Rev. Lett., 70, (1993) 564-567. [2] M. Wadati, Introducton to solitons, Pramana: J. Phys., 57 (2001) 841-847. [3] M. Wadati, The exact solution of the modiﬁed Kortweg-de Vries equation, J. phys. Soc. Jpn., 32, (1972) 1681-1687. [4] M. Wadati, The modiﬁed Kortweg-de Vries equation, J.Phys. Soc. Jpn., 34 (1973) 1289-1296. [5] W. Malﬂiet, W. Hereman, The tanh method:I Exact solutions of nonlinear evolution and wave equations, Phys. Scr., 54 (1996) 563-568. [6] W. Malﬂiet, W. Hereman, The tanh method: Perturbation technique for conservative systems, Phys. Scr., 54 (1996) 569-575. [7] Z. Liu, J. S. Ume and S. H. Kang, On Existence and Iterative Algorithms of Solutions for Mixed Nonlinear Variational-Like Inequalities in Reﬂexive Banach Spaces, Dynamics of Continuous, Discrete and Impulsive Systems-B, 14(1), (2007) 27-45. [8] A.M. Wazwaz, Compactons dispersive structures for variants of the K(n,n) and the KP equations, Chaos, Solitons and Fractals, 13, (2002) 1053-1062.

A Study on Three Types of Nonlinear Klein-Gordon Equations

279

[9] A.M. Wazwaz, Compactons, solitons and periodic solutions for some forms of nonlinear Klein-Gordon equations, Chaos, Solitons and Fractals, 28, (2006) 1005-1013. [10] E.G. Fan, H.Q. Zhang, New exact solutions for a system of coupled KdV equation, Phys. Lett. A, 245, (1998) 389-392. [11] Z. Zhao, Q. Song and Y. Li, Global Exponential Stability and Existence of Periodic Oscillatory Solutions for Reaction-Diﬀusion Generalized Neural Networks with Time-Varying Delays, Dynamics of Continuous, Discrete and Impulsive Systems-B, 14(3), (2007) 371-384. [12] T.A. Burton and A. Somolinos, The Lurie Control Satisﬁes a Lienard Equation, Dynamics of Continuous, Discrete and Impulsive Systems-B, 14(5), (2007) 625640. [13] P. Dinda, M. Remoissenet, Breather compactons in nonlinear Klein-Gordon systems, Phys. Rev. E, 60, (1999) 6218-6221. [14] A. Elgarayhi and A. Elhanbaly, New exact travelling wave solutions for the twodimensional KdV-Burgers and Boussinesq equations,Phys. Lett. A, 343, (2005) 85-89. Received December 2007; revised May 2008. email: journal@monotone.uwaterloo.ca http://monotone.uwaterloo.ca/∼journal/

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