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Sequential Networks
   

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Timing Methodologies
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Realizing Circuits with Flipflops


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Metastability and Asynchronous Inputs

Self-Timed Circuits

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Inverter Chains
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(* &  Period of Repeating Waveform (  )


Gate Delay ( )

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B 1
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Inverter Chains

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Cross-Coupled NOR Gates

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State State
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State Behavior of R-S Latch

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Theoretical R-S Latch State Diagram

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Observed R-S Latch Behavior

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Definition of Terms

Clock:
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Setup Time (Tsu)


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Level-Sensitive Latch "C
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Latches vs. Flipflops

Input/Output Behavior of Latches and Flipflops

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Behavior the same unless input changes


while the clock is high
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Typical Timing Specifications: Flipflops vs. Latches

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Typical Timing Specifications: Flipflops vs. Latches

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þ-K Latch: Race Condition

Set Reset  Toggle

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Master/Slave þ-K Flipflop
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Edge-Triggered Flipflops
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Edge-triggered Flipflops
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vositive vs. Negative Edge Triggered Devices




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Overview

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For systems with latches:

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For systems with edge-triggered flipflops:

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Cascaded Flipflops and Setup/Hold/vropagation Delays

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Cascaded Flipflops and Setup/Hold/vropagation Delays
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Narrow Width Clocking versus Multiphase Clocking
   
 
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CMOS Dynamic Storage Element


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Narrow Width Clocking for Systems with Latches for State

Generic Block Diagram


for Clocked Sequential 
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Two vhase Non-Overlapped Clocking
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Embedding CMOS storage
element into Clocked Sequential
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Generating Two-vhase Non-Overlapping Clocks

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The vroblem of Clock Skew
 
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Design Strategies for Minimizing Clock Skew
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Choosing a Flipflop
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Characteristic Equations
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Implementing One FF in Terms of Another

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Design vrocedure
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Design vrocedure (Continued)
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Terms and Definitions
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Asynchronous Inputs Are Dangerous!
 
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Handling Asynchronous Inputs

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What Can Go Wrong

Setup time violation!


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impossible state might
be reached!


 

   
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Synchronizer Failure

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Solutions to Synchronizer Failure

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Limits of Synchronous Systems
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Synchronous Signaling

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Asynchronous/Speed Independent Signaling
 
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4 Cycle Signaling/Return to Zero Signaling

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Alternative: 2 cycle signaling
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Self-Timed Circuits

  
       
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