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By Dania Subra Chapter 3 Science FORM 2 ( Biodiversity) SHORT AND COMPACT NOTES

Living thing = organism Differences = variations Habitat = natural place where the living thing lives Classifications of Plants Habitat - Land :- Lallang, Rambutan Tree, Balsam - Water :- Lotus, Water hyacinth, water lily Type of stem - Hard :- Durian tree, Mango tree - Soft :- Yam plant, Balsam plant, Lallang, Maize plant Reprodution method - Sees :- Rambutan tree, Guava tree, Coconut tree - Spores :- Fern, Moss, Mushroom

SYSTEM of Classifications of Animals Vertebrates - Animals WITH BACKBONE - Warm blooded vertebrates (homiothermic) have fixed body temperature - Cold blooded vertebrates (poikilithermic) have body temperature which changes according to its surrounding temperature - Types of vertebrates :(a) (live in WATER, COLD-blooded, have SLIMY SCALES, breathe through GILLS, lay eggs, EXTERNAL fertilisation, e.g. eel, goldfish) (b) (live in WATER & LAND, COLD-blooded, have MOIST SKIN, [tadpole GILLS, adult stage LUNGS, MOIST SKIN], lay eggs [no shell], EXTERNAL fertilisation, e.g toad, frog) (c) (live in WATER & LAND, COLD-blooded, have DRY SCALES, breathe through LUNGS, lay eggs [with shell], INTERNAL fertilisation, e.g. snakes, crocodile) (d) ( live on LAND, WARM-blooded, have FEATHERS, BEAKS & legs are covered with DRY SCALES, breathe through LUNGS, lay eggs [with shell], INTERNAL fertilisation, e.g. eagle, chicken)

By Dania Subra

(e)

( live on LAND, WARM-blooded, have FUR/HAIR, EXTERNAL EARS, SWEAT GLANDS, MAMMARY (milk) GLANDS [to produce milk for its young], breathe through LUNGS, give birth, INTERNAL fertilisation, e.g. whale, rabbit, cat)

Unusual charateristics of some animals Sharks give birth to young (FISH) Rattle snake give birth (REPTILE) Platypuses lay eggs and have beaks like ducks (MAMMAL) Bats have wing and fly like birds (MAMMAL) Whales and dlphins live in the water like fish. (MAMMAL) Porcupines have spines on their body for protection (MAMMAL) Kangaroos and koalas raise the young in their body pouches (MAMMAL) Invertebrates - Animals with NO BACKBONE - Most number of animals in the world are invertebrates - Some have hard external skeleton (exoskeleton) for protection like crabs and bettles. - Some have soft bodies and use their body fluids (hydrostatic skeleton) for body support suck as earthworms and leeches

SYSTEM of Classification of Plants Flowering plants - Produce flowers, seeds and fruits (flowers usually become fruits) - Produce flower for reproduction - Divided into :(a) ( have PARALLEL VEINS, FIBROUS ROOT, seed with ONE COTYLEDON, SOFT stem, have petals in THREE, e.g Maize plant, Coconut tree, Grass, Paddy plant, Oil Palm) (b) ( have NETWORK VEINS, TAP ROOT, seeds with TWO COTYLEDONS, WOODY stem, have petals in FOUR / FIVE, e.g. Rubber tree, Mango tree, Durian tree, Rose plant, Balsam) Non-flowering plants - Do NOT produce flowers, seeds, fruits - Reproduce through SPORES / BINARY FISSION - Algae, mosses and ferns HAVE CHLOROPHYLL to carry out photosynthesis - Divided into :-

By Dania Subra

(a)

( live in WATER/DAMP PLACES on land, have CHOLOROPHYLL, make their OWN food [through photosynthesis], reproduce through BINARY FISSION, do NOT have real stem, leaves and roots, e.g Spirogyra, Chlamydomonas, Seaweed )

(b)

( live in DAMP PLACES, have CHLOROPHYLL, make their OWN food, reproduce through SPORES, HAVE leaves and stems but do NOT have real roots, e.g moss)

(c)

( live in DAMP & SHADY places, have CHLOROPHYLL, make their OWN food, reproduce through SPORES, HAVE real stem, leaves and roots, e.g. Ferns, Birds Nest fern

(d)

( live in DAMP PLACES, do NOT have chlorophyll, get food from living things or dead organisms, reproduce through spores [yeast reproduce through budding], do NOT have real stem, leaves and root, e.g. mushrooms, yeast, mould)