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JMJ Marist Brothers Notre Dame of Marbel University City of Koronadal S.Y.

2010-2011

The Adverse Effect of Malathion Pesticide in Mung Beans or “Monggo” (Vigna radiata)

Oscar Anthony Daños Basil Leonard Soldevilla Jed Esperidion S. Jumilla II Proponents

for the inspiration and motivation to do hard work for their academics and for this study. Ms. Emma L. financially and morally. and Mrs. Without the above mentioned important people. Danños. Dorado. and Mrs. for the undying support. and Mr. so this study became a success. Their Parents. this study could not have been completed.ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The researchers would like to thank the following for the success and completion of this research study: The Almighty Father. Soldevilla. and Mrs. Jumilla. . for the encouragement and support. Mr. Mr. for being so generous and powerful for giving the researchers the knowledge and enlightenment for this study. Their professor. Their classmates and friends.

In line with this. Good intentions as what they want but many of them don’t know the side effects of applying pesticides to eradicate plant pests in the plant itself chemically and physically that directly or indirectly will affect humans primarily as they ingest food of plant sources infected with pesticides. Farmers nowadays don’t let their plants grow a natural way because they have the fear of the insects and pests that will invade their plant vegetables. They especially cause mutations to humans and plants among other effects. this research aims to show the effects of pesticide specifically malathion to mung beans or monggo (Vigna radiata) plant and relate this to the effects of pesticide of the same kind to other plants grown for human consumption.CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION In this new era of living in this precious world. innovations and improvisation in agriculture is one of the most common. The use of malathion and monggo as the sole subject of this study is based . Chapter 1. people of great minds made many various innovations. improvisations technological advancements in different things and around their environment with a simple goal of making the lives of people better and much easier however these technological advancements made remarkable disastrous effects to humanity and to the natural environment.1 Objective of the Study With regards to the things discussed above.

2 Review of the Related Literature Mung beans are small green legumes. Unlike many other beans. or at least partially blocking. the mung bean is quite easy on the digestive tract and doesn’t usually cause a gassy reaction. Legumes are seeds from the pods of plants in the Leguminosae family and also the Fabaceae family. Malathion is an insecticide of relatively low human toxicity. plant stomates – the . (http://en. the mung bean can be eaten raw when sprouted. mung beans are usually just called bean sprouts. or else eaten cooked with the skin on or off.wikipedia. Like many other legumes.org/wiki/Malathion) The application of pesticides is often necessary in greenhouse crop production to prevent damage from insect pests that could render the plants unsalable. However. This study also aims to let the farmers and authorities aware of such effects and so they can formulate better idea aside from the use of pesticide to make the plants healthy and safe for human consumption and to provide good exporting quality to uplift the economic status of the country.org/wiki/Mung_bean) Malathion is an organophosphate parasympathomimetic which binds irreversibly to cholinesterase. which may adversely affect plant growth and development. (http://en.wikipedia.on the availability of materials and the span of time for this study and as well as their relationship with other pesticide and plants respectively. When sprouted. It seems plausible that applications of foliar insecticides could adversely affect photosynthesis by clogging. pesticide usage can lead to toxicity issues. Chapter 1.

It has been shown (Ware et al.. This may have further consequences for the entire ecosystem (Pimentel and Edwards.microscopic pores in leaves through which gases (water vapor and CO2) are exchanged. mostly electrophilic. including DNA (Crosby. through the uptake from soil and water. regardless of whether they themselves represent the target organism (e. An important . They are exposed to pesticides from direct application. Toxicity.com/magazine/?storyid=33) Plants are the main recipients of pesticides. and from atmospheric drift. compounds that can react with various nucleophilic centres of cellular biomolecules. this ideal is rarely attained because of similarities in the basic life processes of both target and non-target plants. including formation of metabolic pathways of pesticide degradation. due to the reduced abundance of susceptible species with concurrent increases in naturally tolerant species.. Pesticides tend to be very reactive.greenhousegrower. 1982). both among weeds in a crop field and in natural plant communities. or form even more reactive electrophilic products that either modify cellular components or are metabolized to more or less stable products. 1982). weed) or whether the targets are pests.g. pathogenic fungi. Differential sensitivity of plant species to toxic and genotoxic effects of pesticides has been shown to cause overall changes in species ratios. however. it is mediated by various changes in the metabolism of plants. is the consequence. Ideally. including mutagenicity. pesticides should affect only the target organism. etc. (http://www. 1970) that about half of pesticides applied by aircraft land outside the target cropland or forest and fall out either on adjoining ecosystems or drift into distant ecosystems.

1971. 1974). some herbicides have been found to increase unwanted insects and plant pathogens (Pimentel. 1972. and other carbohydrate components of the cell wall of plants are generally considered to be less toxic to the biosphere than corresponding adducts produced in animal cells (Lamoureux and Rusness. 1982). hemicellulose. Oka and Pimentel. Here. Attention must be given to this problem despite the observation that bound residues incorporated into lignin. For example. 1986). when corn was treated with 2.factor in this situation is the occurrence of herbicide-resistant forms within susceptible plant species. Genotoxic pesticides are potentially able to increase mutations in DNA. corn borers were 26 per cent more abundant and were also 33 per cent larger than the same insects on untreated . Brown. Another important consideration is the possible formation of stable metabolites and their accumulation in plants to such an extent that they can become harmful to both human and animal populations via their respective food chains. Pesticides have also produced changes in plant metabolism and in nutritional patterns that may have secondary effects on the ecology. this volume).4-dichlorophenoxyacetate (2.4-D) at the recommended dosage of 1 kg/ha. Even when applied at recommended dosages. controlling the expression of various qualitative and quantitative traits that could cause genetic instabilities of natural plant populations and in crop varieties (Crosby. 1982a. pesticides can play roles as agents favouring the selection of preexisting resistant mutants and as potential inducers of genetic changes (Grant. the numbers of corn leaf aphids increased by threefold.

the environmental problem in using herbicides may be amplified beyond that of the herbicide itself. (SCOPE 49 . such as insecticides and fungicides.Methods to Assess Adverse Effects of Pesticides on Non-target Organisms) . Increasing insect pest and plant pathogen attacks on crops due to the use of some herbicides may in turn increase the application of more pesticides.1974). The larger size corn borers produced one third more eggs. Thus. and thus contributed to the overall build-up of corn borers in corn fields.corn (Oka and Pimentel.

CHAPTER II MATERIALS AND METHODS The researchers of this study entitled The Adverse Effect of Malathion Pesticide in Mung Beans or “Monggo” (Vigna radiata) used these several materials: -Malathione pesticide -Monggo seeds -Containers (for plantation) -Containers (for malathhione concentration) -Sprayer .

The following methods are then used by the researchers: Formulation of the Study Gathering of the Materials Needed Plantation of Monggo Seeds in three different Containers Let the Seeds Grow for One Week (Span of time wherein the monngo seeds grow just enough for the new seeds not yet to be visible and replicated) Formulate and Mix the malathione with water (For it to have enough dilution the same with the usual usage) Spray the malathione mixture to two of the containers (One will remain growing naturally so that the researchers would have a comparison point to the effects of malthione to the 2 other plants) Observe the plants and the seeds it produced (The observation took 3-5 days) Record the results and interpret the observation .

DISCUSSION AND RECOMMENDATION After the experiment. With regards to this. the researchers recommend especially to the authorities and farmers to formulate new ideas that will eradicate the use of pesticides in plants because of the adverse effects it can make. The infected plant shows many irregularities and deformities which explains the destruction of pesticide in the biochemical components and properties of the plant. there is a possibility that the plant we surely die. The recommendation is strictly for the farmers and authorities because the consumers may not be aware of what they are eating especially if they brought it from the market. It disrupts the normal condition of the plant and clearly shown that some of the chemical components of the pesticide used resides in the plant and transmit it to the seeds in which what the human consumes and this will poison the human being who eat the plant.CHAPTER III RESULTS. In some point of high malathion concentration. the researchers are able to observe the adverse effect of malathion pesticide in monggo plant in comparison with the natural grown monggo plant. . The more serious effect is that it will cause mutations to the infants that will be born if the pregnant mother will ingest the seed in her diet containing chemical agents that could highly cause mutations.

Ann. Biol. J. Weed Sci 29.wikipedia.. 125-146. M. T. L. J. Gentner. 91. pp. J. Toxicol. F. L. Bartsch.com/about_5090744_effect-cigarette-smoke-plant. T. A. W. Physiology. 245-252. (Ed. Aspects Appl. In: Audus. (1968) Influence of various persistent chlorinated insecticides on the macro and micro element constituents of Zea mays and Phaseolus vulgaris growing in soil containing various amounts of these materials. Biochemistry. Plenum Press. Academic Press. (1978) Bioassay of Pesticides in the Laboratory. 1. H. Cole. 95-161.org/wiki/Mung_bean http://en. (Eds) Chemical Mutagens. 55-82. Campbell.. J. and Malaveille. Cole. L. R. L. (1983) The effects of environmental factors on the metabolism of herbicides in plants. (1981) Evaluation of herbicide interactions using linear regression modeling. D. C. A. Appl.ehow.greenhousegrower. Smith. L. Budapest. T. E. and Bergman. Brown.com/magazine/?storyid=33 Banki.html#ixzz1088sIcR9 http://en. 378-381. New York. pp. Mutat. San Francisco. Briza. 4. (1982) Metabolic activation systems in vitro for carcinogen/mutagen screening tests. http://www. London. In: DeSerres. Vol. H. T.. P. Akademiai Kiado. Res. Mackenzie. New York. Cartwright. Kuroki. Ecology.) Herbicides. (1979) The long-term effects of herbicides on weed populations.wikipedia. Gichner. Environ. (1976) General growth responses of plants. 3. and Veleminsky. C. 25-28. Bull. (1984) Somatic mutations in tobacco plants after chronic exposure to maleic hydrazide and its diethanolamine and potassium salts. Chancellor. J..REFERENCES http://www. D. and Danielson. Biol.org/wiki/Malathion . and Hollaender.. Contam.. J. B. 141-153. 139. London. (1992) Chapter 15 in this volume. M. Roberfroid. A.