Global Vision International, Kenya Report Series No.

00X ISSN XXXX-XXXX (Print)

GVI Kenya
Wildlife Research Marine Mammal Studies and Community Development

Phase Report 072 April – June 2007

GVI Kenya Wildlife Marine Mammal Studies and Community Development Expedition Report 071 Submitted in whole to Global Vision International Kenya Wildlife Service One Earth Safaris Submitted in part to World Society for the Protection of Animals Kenya Sea Turtle Conservation Committee Produced by Rachel Crouthers – Expedition Leader Hugo Felix and Sam Meyler – Marine Officers Jake Bicknell – Terrestrial Officer Alex Mayers– Community Officer Amdeep Sanghera – Community Development Officer And
Wyndham Blagden Sophie Brown Janae Choquette Emma Dawes Jason Decker Annabelle Edmond Emily Gibson Eve Hadshar Jessica Hill Ashley Inslee Galia Kaplan Hridi Karim Roos Kok Expedition Member Expedition Member Expedition Member Expedition Member Expedition Member Expedition Member Expedition Member Expedition Member Expedition Member Expedition Member Expedition Member Expedition Member Expedition Member Sarah Martin Linzi Mcdonald Mirka Meyer Mohamed Namuna Hannah Oakley Thomas Phillips Kathrin Roelli Jade Root Sarah Sparrow Tajiri Mohamed Tajiri Sarah Townsend Gemma Western Expedition Member Expedition Member Expedition Member National Scholarship Expedition Member Expedition Member Expedition Member Expedition Member Expedition Member National Scholarship Expedition Member Expedition Member

Edited by Graham Corti – Country Director GVI Kenya Wildlife Marine Mammal Studies and Community Development Address: PO BOX 1032, Ukunda, 8400, Kenya Email: Kenya@gvi.co.uk Web page: http://www.gvi.co.uk and http://www.gviusa.com

Executive Summary
The sixth 10-week phase of the Kenyan Global Vision International (GVI) Expedition has now been completed. The expedition has maintained working relationships with local communities through both English classes and local community events. The expedition has continued to work towards the gathering of important environmental scientific data whilst working with local, national and international partners. The following projects have been run during Phase 072:

Supplied manpower and training to Kenya Wildlife Service, and alternative income and indirect funding to members of the Mkwiro community.

Provided free local capacity building in terms of English language lessons, environmental education, development of alternative income generation and training in scientific survey techniques.

Cetacean monitoring programme in collaboration with Kenya Wildlife Service (KWS)

Marine mega fauna surveys in collaboration with Kenya Sea Turtle Conservation Committee and KWS.

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Wetland Avian Species list in collaboration with KWS. Coastal forest primate populations, faunal biodiversity, floral biodiversity and levels of human resource use in collaboration with KWS.

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Initiated and supported ecological and cultural tourism initiatives. Developed working relationships with Kenya Sea Turtle Conservation Committee (KESCOM), World Society for the Protection of Animals (WSPA) and a number of community based organisations to support and develop scientific research and local capacity building.

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Facilitated promotion of local community based organisations’ ventures Participated as primary partners on the Year of the Dolphin committee. Enabled local communities to benefit from support provided by EMs on their return to their home countries through fund-raising And donations.

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Table of Contents
1. Introduction ................................................................................................................. 5 1.2 Global Vision International Kenya ..................................................................... 5 2. Marine Research Programme ...................................................................................... 6 2.1 Introduction ....................................................................................................... 6 2.2 Aims ................................................................................................................. 7 2.3Training ............................................................................................................. 8 2.4 Methods ........................................................................................................... 9 2.4.1 Vessel based forms and methodology.................................................... 12 2.4.2 Habitat surveys ...................................................................................... 14 2.4.3 Land based surveys and forms .............................................................. 14 2.5 Results ........................................................................................................... 17 2.5.1 Landbase and Boat-Based Surveys ....................................................... 21 3. Terrestrial Research Programme............................................................................... 24 3.1 Introduction ..................................................................................................... 24 3.1.1 Background............................................................................................ 24 3.1.2 Study area ............................................................................................. 24 3.2 Aims ............................................................................................................... 26 3.3 Methods .......................................................................................................... 27 3.3.1 Line transect sampling ........................................................................... 27 3.3.2 Primate community survey ..................................................................... 28 3.3.3 Primate behavioural surveys .................................................................. 29 3.3.4 Bird point counts .................................................................................... 30 3.3.5 Canopy survey ....................................................................................... 31 3.3.6 Fruit and flower survey ........................................................................... 31 3.3.7 Butterfly community survey .................................................................... 31 3.3.8 Disturbance survey ................................................................................ 32 3.3.9 Casual observations............................................................................... 32 3.4 Results ........................................................................................................... 32 3.4.1 Primate community survey ..................................................................... 32 3.4.2 Primate behavioural survey .................................................................... 33 3.4.3 Bird point counts .................................................................................... 34 3.4.4 Canopy surveys ..................................................................................... 35 3.4.5 Fruit and flower survey ........................................................................... 35 3.4.6 Butterfly community survey .................................................................... 36 3.4.7 Disturbance survey ................................................................................ 37 3.4.8 Casual observations............................................................................... 37 3.5 Discussion ...................................................................................................... 38 3.5.1 Primate community survey ..................................................................... 38 3.5.2 Primate behaviour survey....................................................................... 38 3.5.3 Bird point counts .................................................................................... 39 3.5.4 Canopy surveys ..................................................................................... 39 3.5.5 Fruit & flower .......................................................................................... 40 3.5.6 Butterfly community survey .................................................................... 40 3.5.7 Disturbance survey ................................................................................ 41 3.5.8 Casual observations............................................................................... 41 3.6 Conclusions, Recommendations and Future Work ......................................... 41 4. Community Development Programme ....................................................................... 44

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4.1 Introduction ..................................................................................................... 44 4.2 School Education ............................................................................................ 46 4.3 Adult Education............................................................................................... 46 4.4 Al Hanan Orphanage ...................................................................................... 47 4.5 Satellite Camp ................................................................................................ 47 4.5.1 Kidong Satellite Camp............................................................................ 47 4.5.2 Mahandikini Satellite Camp .................................................................... 48 4.5.3 Kasaani Satellite Camp .......................................................................... 48 4.5.4 Mtakuja Satellite Camp .......................................................................... 48 4.6 Capacity Building ............................................................................................ 50 4.7 Employment.................................................................................................... 51 4.8 GVI Charitable Trust ....................................................................................... 52 4.9 Summary ........................................................................................................ 52 5. References ....................................................................................................... 53 6. Appendices ............................................................................................................... 56

List of Figures
Figure 2-1. Dolphin spatial distribution on sightings for Expedition 072. Figure 2-2. Distribution of Bottlenose Dolphin sightings Figure 2-3. Dolphin sightings on flood and ebb tides. Figure 2-4. Number of encounters by group size for the different dolphin species. Figure 2-5. Number of sightings by effort hour for the different dolphin species. Figure 2-6. Average hours spent searching per dolphin encounter on vessel and landbase surveys. Figure 3-1. Survey transects on the Shimoni peninsular. Figure 3-2. Frequency of perpendicular distances at which C. a. palliatus groups were detected during primate community surveys Figure 3-3. Mean canopy cover for transect sections. Figure 4-1. A beach clean for Dive into Earth Day. Figure 4-2. Expedition members working together with Kasaani Group members during the letter-writing exercise Figure 4-3. Emma takes Chapatti classes from the ladies from the village

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List of Tables
Table 2-1 . Dolphin and Turtle species present in Kenya coast Table 2-2. Vessel based sightings and photo ID surveys Table 2-3. Land base sightings on flood and ebb

Table 3-1. Summary of transects in the Shimoni area. Table 3-2. Summary of primate community surveys. Table 3-3. Percent time spent in each behaviour state Table 3-4. Summary of fruit and flower surveys. Table 3-5. Butterfly species caught and number of individuals.

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1. Introduction
1.1 Global Vision International Kenya The Global Vision International Kenya expedition was initiated in January 2006 and is based on Wasini Island on the South coast of Kenya, in the community of Mkwiro village. Wasini Island lies approximately 1km South of the Shimoni peninsula in Kwale District, Coast Province, close to the border with Tanzania. Expedition activities are centred around the Kisite-Mpunguti Marine Protected Area (KMMPA), which lies to the South of Wasini Island, and falls under the jurisdiction and management of Kenya Wildlife Service (KWS). The marine research activities are undertaken within the KMMPA and surrounding areas incorporating Wasini Channel, Funzi Bay and Sii Island. The terrestrial research is focused on an area of coastal forest in the South-East corner of Shimoni peninsula, close to Shimoni village. The majority of activities under the community programme are focused on Mkwiro village, with some activities that support community initiatives in Shimoni village. Community development activities are also undertaken in Kidong, Mahandakini, Kasaani and Mtakuja. These are rural villages based near Taveta (Taveta – Taita district), between the Western boundary of Tsavo West National Park and the border of Tanzania.

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2. Marine Research Programme
2.1 Introduction Kisite-Mpunguti Marine Protected Area (KMMPA) lies south of Wasini Island and covers an area of 39 square kilometres. The KMMPA includes the National Park surrounding Kisite Island and the Marine Reserve surrounding the Mpunguti islands. The KMMPA and the marine wildlife it contains are an important tourist attraction and, as a result, an important resource for Shimoni and surrounding communities. The islands within the KMMPA are surrounded by coral reefs attracting divers and snorkelers to the area. Almost every day dolphin-watching companies operating from Shimoni travel through Wasini Channel to the KMMPA (Emerton and Tessema 2001). These tourist dhows most frequently encounter Indian Ocean bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops aduncus), and less frequently, Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins (Sousa chinensis). Currently, there is neither a code of conduct to follow when manoeuvring around the dolphins nor are levels of interaction monitored or regulated in any way. The impact these activities may be having is unknown. In particular, it’s not known whether increased or even current levels of dolphin tourism are sustainable with respect to local dolphin populations. Very little scientific research has been conducted on the cetaceans of East Africa and little information is available on even the baseline ecology of these species. Baseline data is required before the impact of dolphin tourism can be accurately assessed (Stensland et al. 1998). The main objectives of the marine research programme are to obtain baseline ecological and demographic data on the dolphin species that occur in the KMMPA and surrounding waters. The study area encompasses a wide range of habitats including mangrove forests, coral reefs, inter-tidal rocky reefs, sea grass beds and offshore areas. GVI Kenya’s main working partner is the Kenya Wildlife Service (KWS). The research conducted by GVI is shaped to satisfy the objectives of KWS, so as to assist them towards improved management of the area. All data collected thus far is made available to KWS to aid in management plans of the study area.

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The Marine Programme is supporting KWS to collate data by conducting vessel and land-based surveys. The marine programme focuses primarily on the ecology of humpback and bottlenose dolphins and the biodiversity of marine mega fauna. The collection of this data will provide important information on the ecology of dolphins and mega fauna within the area and improve the scientific basis and baseline data for management strategies. This information can support long-term sustainability of cetacean-based tourism and other human activities within the KMMPA and Shimoni area. During the initial phase of the marine programme research has focussed on assessing dolphin species abundance. Later, parameters such as demographic composition, residency and diel movement patterns will be analysed.

Mega fauna species are also attractive to tourists and as such a valuable resource for the Shimoni and Wasini Island communities. Their conservation is important for the protection of marine biological diversity on a number of levels. Another objective of the marine research programme is to obtain information on the occurrence of marine mega fauna within the study area. This information can then be utilised by our working partners to manage the area accordingly.

2.2 Aims During the first year of operations the marine programme of GVI Kenya has completed initial research activities to determine species distribution within the KMMPA and surrounding areas. Research questions were established to ensure that all the research methodologies used were able to obtain the relevant information to satisfy objectives set by KWS.

The marine programme aims to collect data to address the following questions on dolphins and mega fauna in Kisite-Mpunguti Marine Protected Area and its surrounding areas.

From vessel based surveys:

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       

Abundance and habitat occupancy Demographic composition Residency Habitat-activity relationships Diel movement & activity Population structure Rates of human-induced injury & mortality Mega-fauna presence and behaviour

From land-based surveys:      Dolphin tidal and diel movement Diel activity Dolphin behaviour from an unbiased platform Boat traffic within the area Mega-fauna presence

2.3Training All Expedition Members (EMs) are trained for a two-week period in Dolphin Behaviour and identification of Dolphins and Turtles (Table 2-1). The training includes lectures, organised study groups and in-field practice, EMs have to pass a theoretical exam on a set species list and form usage prior to collecting data on surveys. Written exams are followed by continuous practical assessments by staff.

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Common Name Indian Ocean Bottlenose Dolphin Indo-Pacific Humpback Dolphin Spinner Dolphin Common Dolphin Rough Toothed Dolphin Risso Dolphin Striped Dolphin Pantropical Spotted Dolphin Hawksbill Turtle Green Turtle Olive Ridley Turtle Loggerhead Turtle Leatherback Turtle

Abbreviation BND HBD SPD COD RTD RSD STD PTD -

Scientific name Tursiops aduncus Sousa chinensis Stenella longirostris Delphinus delphis Steno bredanensis Grampus griseus Stenella coeruleoalba Stenella attenuata Eretmochelys imbricata Chelonia mydas Lepidochelys olivacea Caretta caretta Dermochelys coriacea

Table 2-1. Dolphin and Turtle species present in Kenya coast. (Peddemonns 1999; Richmond 2002) Highlighted in bold the dolphin species encountered up to date.

2.4 Methods During expedition 072 GVI East Africa used one research vessel, Stingray a 5.83m catamaran style power vessel with two, 85 horsepower Yamaha two-stroke motors. Photographs were taken using a Canon EOS 350D digital camera (75-300 ml lens). All depths were taken with a Speedtech depth sounder. Regular binoculars were used for land base surveys. All geographical positions and speeds were taken with a Garmin Etrex GPS.

Photo-identification Photo-identification (Photo-ID) refers to the identification of individuals by distinctive features (shape, outline, natural markings and scarring) of their dorsal fins, flanks and flukes. Some scars will be retained through life, whereas others will be added and may fade through life. The depth and severity of the wound will determine the length of time this may be used for identification. These features allow known individuals to be re-

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sighted. The re-sighting rate can be plotted on a discovery curve, the plateau of which suggests population size. Photo-ID can also be used to determine residency and demographic data such as inter-birth intervals, patterns of ranging and mortality. Photographs can also help to determine sex of individuals by noting mother and calf pairs (Parsons 2001).

Photo-ID survey times vary and are dependant on group size, activity and environmental conditions. All photographs are taken from the vessel as it manoeuvres into position to get the best angle, lighting and clear shot of dorsal fins. During a photo ID survey the photographer informs the scribe of spacer shots (to separate groups or surveys) and number of shots taken in order to separate frames into individuals. The aim during a photo ID survey is to photograph the right and left flank of each individual. Making note of frame numbers and groups of dolphins assists with latter analysis of photographs from different surveys (Parsons 2001).

The primary aim of photo-ID in this study will be to determine population size for the different dolphin species and habitat use for the KMMPA area. Once photographs are downloaded onto the computer they are saved into the photo-ID database. For the first year this database was copied into various users, and analysed individually by all users. Each user quality grades the photos into categories including: deleted, tail flukes, spacer shots, and quality categories which range from 0 (poor quality, distant, out of focus, partial images) to 3 (perfect photo-ID shots). Users then identify individuals by using permanent identifying marks or features. Once the users agree on the recognition of individuals a photo-ID catalogue will be created in which individuals are given unique ID numbers and names. This is an important procedure allowing for future re-sighting of individuals on a long-term basis (Parsons 2001). Over time the information from this database will provide additional information such as associations and calving intervals.

Mark-Recapture Mark-recapture methods can be used to calculate population size from the proportion of known individuals re-sighted over the study period. In order for mark-recapture methods to yield accurate results a number of conditions must be met:

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A marked animal will always be recognised if it’s seen again. In order to satisfy this assumption; only stable, long-term distinguishing features should be used to recognise individuals.

Samples of individuals must be representative of the population being estimated. If ‘marked’ individuals (recognisable individuals that have been photographed) do not mix fully with the rest of the population this assumption is violated.

‘Marking’ (photographing) an individual does not affect the probability of that individual being recaptured.

Within one sampling occasion, every individual in the population should have the same probability of being ‘captured’ (photographed). To reduce the risk of this assumption being violated as many individuals should be captured as possible.

The population must be closed i.e. no emigration or immigration.

Initially, a sample of individuals is photographically ‘captured’ (n1) of which a number, and on a subsequent occasion, a second sample of individuals is ‘captured’ (n 2) of which a number were already identified in the first sample (m 2). The proportion of individuals that are marked in the second sample can be equated with the proportion in the overall population (N) (Evans and Hammond 2004). The mark-recapture formulas are as follows:

Equation 1

(m2) = n1 n2 N

The number of individuals captured and marked is known which allows the population size to be estimated (Ň):

Equation 2

Ň = n 1 n2 m2

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2.4.1 Vessel based forms and methodology Three forms were used to incorporate the above methodologies and collect information on population size and demographics, these forms are: the Event Log, Sightings form, and the Photo ID form, a fourth form comes into place when mega fauna is sighted the Mega fauna Survey form. Event Log Throughout the survey day an Event Log (Appendix A) is completed. On this data sheet the search effort throughout the day is recorded along with number of surveys completed and changes in environmental conditions, course and speed. Alongside these features the scribe continues to record all conditions every quarter of the hour. Every half hour observers rotate roles and ’view points’, every two hours each observer receives a half hour eye break as Event log scribe. If dolphins are spotted all observers maintain the same position, until the survey is over.

The information recorded on the Event log is:

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

Date Vessel name Time (24 hour clock) Co-ordinates (GPS) Event (see Appendix A) Dolphin Survey number (each day surveys begin as DS01, DS02, etc.) Vessel speed (using GPS) Environmental conditions (see Appendix A) Additional comments

Sightings Form The Sightings form (Appendix B) is used to record sightings of dolphins and mega fauna. This form was put into place to gather information about habitat distribution and in the future study distance sampling data (distance and angle of the sighting). The recorder notes if the sighting occurred due to exterior factors (e.g. presence of tourist vessels or land base information). This information is then included in the analysis to note any

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sightings that may have been missed by the naked eye or if the vessel was simply not in the same area as the sighting.

Once dolphins or mega fauna are sighted, the recorder documents the following data into the sightings form.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12.

Time (24 hour clock) GPS Co-ordinates of the vessel Effort type during the sighting Sighting number and survey number Distance and angle to sighting (no data for expedition 071) Tidal state upon sighting Species sighted Group size on sighting Whether the sighting was biased, or not Whether a Photo ID survey was conducted or not Number of boats present (not counting research vessel) Comments

Photo ID Form Staff members perform all photographic documentation in the field. During photo-ID the vessel manoeuvres into a better position to obtain the optimum distance and angle for photographs to be taken (Parsons 2001).

During a photo-ID survey the photographer tells the photo-ID scribe the frame numbers, spacer shots, recognizable or distinct individuals and the number of shots taken (Appendix C).

Mega Fauna Survey Form

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Mega fauna surveys record primarily the identification of the animal(s), then documents habitat notes and position of sighting and if possible behaviour notes. (Appendix D)

After the sightings form is completed the recorder documents:

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12.

Time Vessel GPS Co-ordinates General location Depth Beaufort Tide Species Habitat Number of individuals present Photos taken Additional notes

2.4.2 Habitat surveys Habitat surveys came into place this expedition as a trial, to gather information about turtles species and their habitat use in the KMMPA and surrounding areas. The surveys consisted in five-minute snorkels in specific points around the Mpunguti Islands and south side of Wasini Island. This survey obtained habitat notes, which can be linked with turtle sightings in the area and will be helpful for the future turtle studies in the KMMPA.

2.4.3 Land-based surveys and forms Land-based studies were conducted throughout the mornings. The site is located at S 04.65860º E 39.40076 º on an elevated cliff at approximately 9.7m from sea level on the North East end of Wasini Island. This location was chosen because it covers both coastal and deeper waters. Land based research platforms are ideal for studies of

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anthropogenic impact without any direct influence (Bejder and Samuels 2003). In addition to this, land-based surveys record also environmental conditions and their change.

Surveys were conducted during the daylight hours from 7:30 to 12 am in the second five weeks of expedition. There are two primary observers and one scribe present on every survey. The three recorders rotate every 15 minutes to ensure that each person receives a 15-minute eye break every half hour. One observer uses binoculars, scanning an area of approximately 1.5km to 3km from the land-based location. The second observer scans an area approximately 0-1.5km from the same location using the unaided eye. The third person is scribing, noting any environmental changes, the number of tourist dhows travelling from West to East towards the marine park, dolphin or mega fauna presence and dolphin behaviour, all the information is recorded in 3 forms and a map, to plot dolphin movements during the observation period and mega fauna sightings.

The forms are: 1. 2. 3. Environment and Boat Event Log Sightings form (including Map) Dolphin Behaviour form

Environment and Boat Event Log During the land based survey the Environment and Boat Event Log (Appendix E) is completed on the quarter of the hour and when environmental conditions change.

The scribe makes note of the following data: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Date Time (24hr clock) Observers Environmental conditions (Appendix G) Number of vessels Vessel type Proximity of tourist dhows to the dolphins

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8. 9.

Swim with dolphin occurrences Additional comments

Land-Based Sighting Form When dolphins or mega fauna are sighted, the scribe documents the following information into the sighting form (Appendix F):

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

Time Observers Bearing and distance to sighting Species Group size Dive type Duration of dive Spread Number in correlation to plotted on chart Additional information

Map A map of the area is present during land base surveys, for the pinpoint of sightings and record dolphin movement.

Dolphin behaviour and vessel interaction form This data sheet was introduced on 6th June 2006 to gain a greater insight about dolphin behaviour before, during and after vessel presence. Observations were recorded every 5 minutes from the initial sighting (Appendix G). The recorder documents the following data:

1.

Time

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2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11.

Dive type (Appendix G) Dive duration Species Group size Number of vessels present Vessel type Number of Tourist vessels Number of dhow conducting swim with dolphins If dolphins split into sub groups If their view is obstructed

2.5 Results The data here analysed corresponds to the non-training period of the expedition. During Expedition 072 there was a total effort of 69 hours and 5 minutes spent on vessel surveys, 20 hours and 14 minutes on land-based surveys. Results for all surveys are summarised below. Vessel based sightings and Photo ID surveys (Table 2-2.) and landbased sightings during flood and ebb tides (Table 2-3.).
Sightings BND HBD Unk Turtle Total 13 5 13 18 Photo ID surveys 11 4 0 15

Table 2-2. Vessel based sightings and photo ID surveys

BND HBD Unk Turtle Unk Dolphin Total

Sightings 5 0 8 0 13

Ebbs 0 0 7 0 7

Flood 5 0 1 0 6

Table 2-3. Land-based sightings on flood and ebb

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The dolphin spatial distribution for the research area is shown in Figure 2-1. A large number of the T. aduncus encounters were found within the Wasini Channel, with S. chinensis being found inside the channel and further north towards Funzi Bay. Interestingly, only one encounter occurred within the Marine Protected Area.

Dolphin sightings in relation to tide were examined with T. aduncus more frequently sighted on the flood. The number of encounters with S. chinensis in this expedition was not enough for any relevant discussions or conclusions (Figure 2-2.).

Figure 2-1. Dolphin spatial distribution on sightings for Expedition 072. Bottlenose (Purple, n= 13) and Humpback (Red, n=4)

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Figure 2-2. Distribution of Bottlenose Dolphin sightings (n=13). Contours are plotted to show the location of 50%, 75% and 90% harmonic mean isopleths using Kernal Home Range (Worton 1989)

10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 Bnd Hbd

Sightings

Figure 2-3. Dolphin sightings on flood and ebb tides. Blue shows ebb tides and grey flood tides.

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Dolphin group size was estimated during vessel based sightings surveys (Figure 2-4.). The most likely number to be encountered for T. aduncus was between 1-5 and 6-10. S. chinensis had sightings in the 1-5 and 11-15 range. The average group size encountered for T. aduncus was 6, and 8 for S. chinensis.

8
Surveys

6 4 2 0 1-5 6-10 Group Size 11-15

Figure 2-4. Number of encounters by group size for the different dolphin species. BND (T. aduncus )in blue and HBD (S. chinensis) in grey.

For the different dolphin species the number of sightings was linked with vessel effort hours (Figure 2-5.). T. aduncus sightings were highest in the 11:01-12:00 time frame with a second peak between 8:01-9:00. S. chinensis was more frequently sighted in the 9:01-10:00 time frame.

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6 5
Encouters

4 3 2 1 0
8 79 1:0 8 0 -1 01 9: 1 -1 01 : 10 2 -1 01 : 11 3 -1 01 : 12

Time of encounter (24h)

Figure 2-5. Number of sightings by effort hour for the different dolphin species. BND in blue and HBD in grey.

2.5.1 Land-based and Boat-Based Surveys Figure 2-6. shows the average amount of hours spent searching (per dolphin sighting) in both land-based and boat surveys. The results were almost identical, with the search effort per sighting on boats averaging at 3 hours and 52 minutes and the search effort at land-based averaging at 4 hours and 3 minutes.
10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0
Landbase Boat

Figure 2-6. Average hours spent searching per dolphin encounter on vessel and land-based surveys.

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2.6 Discussion This expedition continued to collect baseline ecology information on dolphin and turtles within the KMMPA and surrounding waters. There was a marked decrease in the number of sightings in this expedition, but a yearly report is required to investigate this further and understand if seasonal fluctuations might exist in this region. Unfortunately the encounter rate in this expedition was too small to draw any concrete conclusions or to test for significance. For this reason no further discussion on Humpback dolphins will be included (with only 5 encounters).

A distinct area of concentrated sightings (areas bordered by 50% harmonic isopleths) was found within the Wasini Channel between Eastern Wasini Island and the mainland (figure 2-2.). It will be interesting to compare these findings with sightings from other expeditions to see if this is suggestive of an ongoing pattern. However, without standardised routes/line transects or another method of weighting the recorded sightings this data is not sufficiently strong to find habitat preferences. In this case it can be explained by the fact it is the closest area to G.V.I. base camp and therefore would be searched the more times during an expedition.

Bottlenose dolphin group size was most commonly found in the 1-5 and 6-10 categories, and the average group size was 6. The author currently lacks information on group size of T.aduncus in other parts of the world, however this number does agree with several coastal studies of T. truncatus around the world, which reveal relatively small groups that vary with activity (Shane 1990, Rogan et al 2000, Meyler 2006, Ingram 2000). Further study to examine if group size changes with activity would be an important and interesting part of any baseline data study, however attempts to introduce behavioural studies in this area have so far been unsuccessful due to the particular limitations of our research. Further understanding and information of T. aduncus group size in other coastal studies of the world would be helpful for comparison.

The average search effort per encounter on land-based and boat were roughly around the 4 hour mark per sighting. At first glance this does suggest that non-intrusive landbased data can complement our boat surveys. Non-intrusive land-based studies have

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been used in several studies to investigate preliminary population estimates (Berrow 1996, Ingram 2000) and/or changes in behaviour (including dive times) with and without presence of boats (Acevedo 1991, Shane 1990).

However neither is possible to investigate in this expedition. Land-based population estimates require the whole researched area to be in view (which is not currently the case). Besides land-based survey forms and event logs are currently not sufficiently detailed to allow investigation of changes in behaviour or dive times. However it is worthy of note that expedition 072 occurred during the tourist low season which meant a significantly reduced number of tourist boats, and therefore a significantly reduced number of opportunities to study changes in dive times etc due to boat interference. There is potential for land-based studies to be introduced seasonally, coinciding with the tourist high season, but for this a more efficient methodology is required.

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3. Terrestrial Research Programme
3.1 Introduction 3.1.1 Background The Eastern Arc forests of Kenya and Tanzania are an internationally recognised biodiversity hotspot (Myers et al 2000). They support high levels of endemism and important populations of species that have wide-ranging, but fragmented distributions, and so remain vulnerable. Tanzania’s Eastern Arc mountains are renowned for their communities of endemic amphibians, reptiles and mammals. The coastal forests of Kenya form the northern fringe of the Eastern Arc forests, however much less is known about these unique and important, yet diminishing forest habitats.

The coastal forests around Shimoni and Wasini Island form a thin strip of ‘coral rag forest’, officially labelled Northern Zanzibar-Inhambane Lowland Coastal Forest. This forest zone is found along the coastal areas of Kenya, Tanzania and Somalia, and is formed on ancient coral reef exposed by falling sea levels, leaving limestone rock and shallow soils. In conjunction with relatively high salinity levels and coastal climatic influences, the plant community and the structure of the forest favour shallow root systems, which reduce stability. This makes these forest habitats highly susceptible to erosion processes and hence at risk from the influences of deforestation in the wider Shimoni area. The specialised flora that is found in these habitats supports and sustains rare and endemic species which are of particular interest to biological conservation, and sustainable livelihoods through responsible tourism.

3.1.2 Study area Primary research is conducted in Shimoni forest (east) on the Shimoni peninsula, positioned between Shimoni village to the west (04º64’900”S, 39º38’600”E) and the coast of the Indian Ocean to the south and east (04º64’300”S, 39º40’300”E), (Figure 31.). The forest is locally known as ‘Mbuyu Tundu’, and will hereafter be referred to as ‘Shimoni forest (east)’.

Shimoni forest (east) represents an important fragment of indigenous coastal forest, linked in part to the larger extents of the Kwale district forests. Currently used for

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resource extraction and the clearing of land for farming; the area is at threat from the continuing development of Shimoni village, particularly on coastal land plots. This area of forest was selected for biological research, primarily because it represents a valuable area for biodiversity and in particular supports an important population of the Angolan Black and White Colobus (Colobus angolensis palliatus). Discussions with communitybased organisations in Shimoni village highlighted the importance of the forest to the wider community and in particular Shimoni Youth Conservation Project were keen to seek protection and promote sustainable management. As a result, GVI have developed the terrestrial research programme to support local stakeholders. On a more practical level, the forest is readily accessible and GVI are logistically able to support long-term and wide ranging biodiversity surveys and monitoring of the area.

This expedition, research also began in KWS owned forest land, west of Shimoni village. The area represents the south eastern portion of the larger Shimoni forest (west), and will hereafter be referred to as ‘KWS forest’. The Shimoni forest (west) wider forest fragment has recently been highlighted as at threat from habitat destruction. Despite this, the survey area is privately owned by KWS and is therefore an important part of this coastal forest fragment, and may act as a refuge for populations of species found in that fragment.

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Figure 3-1. Survey transects on the Shimoni peninsular.

3.2 Aims The aims of the terrestrial research programme are to monitor primate community dynamics, densities, distribution, habitat use and time budgets, with particular interest in C. a. palliatus. These surveys are complimented and quantified by the monitoring of habitat variation through analysis of floral composition, disturbance and seasonal change. Vegetation surveys are utilised to assess floristic diversity, canopy height, canopy cover and seasonality of fruits and flowers. Monitoring of floral regeneration in relation to disturbance levels are used to assess forest recovery rates, and resource consumption including extraction of poles and timber in addition to other forms of anthropogenic activity. Butterfly surveys are additionally used to examine forest diversity

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and the effects of differing levels of disturbance on the butterfly community. Bird diversity and habitat use is also used to assess resource competition between certain avian and primate species. Biodiversity is additionally monitored by the recording of casual observations, used to assess and gauge species richness and the presence of other rare and endangered plants and animals.

The eventual aim for this research is to support the Shimoni Youth Conservation Project in their petition for community management of forest resources, and build capacity within the community for responsible resource use and monitoring. With community management status obtained, the research can be used to suggest management protocols whereby resource use is acceptable at specified levels, and re-plantation initiatives are utilised to ensure the long-term sustainability of forest resources for both the human and wildlife communities. Additional forms of income may also be derived from the forest through responsible tourism. C. a. palliatus is a beautiful and charismatic primate, and can be easily located on most days. Guided tours through the forest may in the future provide a source of income for the local community, and the data from these surveys may be used to suggest the location for trails through the forest.

3.3 Methods 3.3.1 Line transect sampling The overall methodology for the terrestrial research programme is structured around a transect grid system utilising east-west straight line transects (Figure 3-1). Parallel transects are spaced at 200 metre intervals, facilitating a 100 metre survey distance either side of the transects. This follows the Tropical Ecology, Assessment and Monitoring (TEAM) Initiative Primate Monitoring Protocol (Lacher 2005).

Transects are divided into 50m sections to enable the survey data to be categorised accurately, and facilitate distribution mapping. A north-south ‘spine’ is used to ensure the 200m separation between parallel transects and to aid access.

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The Shimoni forest (east) study area contains six transects; transect 1, the furthest south, runs approximately 100 metres from the coastal edge. The total survey area for Shimoni Forest (east) is 220ha or 2.2km2. The KWS forest area contains just one 400m transect which runs north to south, comprising 8ha. Table 3-1 summarises the total number of sections and lengths of each transect.

Forest Shimoni forest (east) Shimoni forest (east) Shimoni forest (east) Shimoni forest (east) Shimoni forest (east) Shimoni forest (east) Shimoni forest (east) KWS forest

Transect 1 2 3 4 5 6 Total 7

Sections 17 34 48 43 39 38 219 8

Length (m) 850 1700 2400 2150 1950 1900 10950 400

Table 3-1. Summary of transects in the Shimoni area.

3.3.2 Primate community survey Three species of anthropoid coexist in the survey area. The Angolan Black and White Colobus (Colobus angolensis palliatus), the Syke’s Monkey (Cercopithecus mitis albogularis), and the Yellow Baboon (Papio cynocephalus). The primate community surveys are based on distance sampling methods, utilising two nominated observers whilst additional members of the team ensure they do not draw attention to primates undetected by the observers. This maintains consistency of effort, to enable the quantifiable analysis of data used in estimating primate densities (Buckland et al 2001).

Primate surveys are conducted along one transect at a time, during the mornings when primates are more likely to be active. When groups of primates are spotted, the sighting distance (distance from the observer to the first detected individual) is estimated and recorded. Distance sampling requires the perpendicular distance. This is calculated using trigonometry, hence the sighting angle (using a compass) and distance from the observer is measured.

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Distance sampling requires a number of assumptions to be met, including the random distribution of the surveyed objects. In order to meet this assumption for social species such as primates, groups rather than individuals are recorded. It is also necessary to be confident that any group positioned 0 metres from the transect line has a 100% probability of detection. Since the species surveyed in this study are not particularly cryptic, it is unlikely that such groups would go undetected; hence this assumption can be upheld with confidence.

The behaviour of a primate group when first observed is recorded, along with primate species and group size. Where possible, time is taken to summarise the demography of the group. Sex and age class is most easily recognized in C. a. palliatus; 0-3 months (infant), 3-6 months (juvenile) and >6 months (adult). Age classes were selected on the basis of pelt colouration enabling confidence in accurate categorisation rather than attempting to estimate using relative body size. Ages classes and sexes were not assumed in C. m. albogularis and P. cynocephalus except where young were seen in close association with an adult.

3.3.3 Primate behavioural surveys Behavioural surveys of C. a. palliatus are used primarily to investigate time budgets. However, habitat use, group structure, and group interactions, are also derived from the data collected. Through habituation, and the identification of group territories, these surveys will also support the development of tourism initiatives to gain sustainable income from the forest wildlife. Continuous, focal individual sampling is adopted in order to establish C. a. palliatus time budgets. Time budgets can be used to establish conditions and constraints under which animals are living. The most suitable conditions promote greater carrying capacities and hence higher densities (Fimbel et al 2001), as well as less vulnerability to changes in habitat condition. Time budgets can also be used in examining predator pressures by analysing the relative time spent being vigilant. This data will then be used to compare between populations, forest types, and at different levels of disturbance. Data may also be used in comparison with studies on the other sub-species of C. angolensis.

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Focal individuals are surveyed in ten-minute blocks, measuring behaviours which are broken into states and events. States are measured in real-time durations, as opposed to events which are recorded only as frequencies logged within each ten-minute time block. States represent behaviours of longer durations; for example feeding, sleeping, resting etc. Events represent shorter, instantaneous behaviours; for example scratching, yawning, urinating. Some tactile signals and postures are included in this survey for use in the analysis of group interactions. These include stiff-legs display, which has been identified as an agonistic display between males of different groups of black and white colobus (Estes 1991). At the end of each time block, a scan sample is conducted to identify the overall group state (>50% of the group); this is used in the analysis and discussion of the circumstances under which different individual behaviours occur.

States and events are categorised under strict parameters, and outlined in the ethogram which is used to ensure consistency between observers and comparability between surveys.

Surveys are conducted at all times of the daylight hours in order to measure a representative portion of time budgets throughout the day. Data recording is only initiated after a period of at least 10 minutes to reduce bias caused by the arrival of the observers. If the focal individual moves out of view and observers are unable to confidently identify the same individual upon reappearing, the survey is ended. There is no set survey time limit.

3.3.4 Bird point counts Bird species diversity, abundance and density are estimated through the use of bird point counts. East Africa represents one of 218 worldwide Endemic Bird Areas, (Stattersfield et al. 1998) and birds are important components of forest ecosystems as well as indicators of habitat disturbance. Many bird species are dependent on readily available stocks of fruits, flowers and seeds, and the presence or absence of seasonal birds indicate the seasonality of these forest commodities. Birds such as large raptors also represent the only existing predators of primate species in the area.

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Early morning point count surveys are conducted along the transect lines at 100 metre intervals. The point count is delineated by a 50m x 50m x ∞ box. Numbers and species of birds which enter this box are recorded for ten minutes before moving onto the next point count. A five minute settle-down period of silence precedes each recording period. 3.3.5 Canopy survey Canopy cover is recorded in order to enable analysis of seasonal change and to describe the forest profile. This is in turn used to compliment primate and other faunal distribution surveys. Estimations of the canopy cover are recorded every 10 metres of each 50 metre section, enabling five recordings to be averaged for the section. Cover is recorded by looking straight up through inverted binoculars, estimating the percentage of the area blocked by tree canopy foliage and branches, to the nearest 5%.

3.3.6 Fruit and flower survey Fruits and flowers are surveyed in an effort to measure tree species seasonality, and the distribution of fruits and flowers throughout the survey area. Many forest animals rely on fruits and flowers as vital food sources; and most significantly for the aims of this project, they are vital dietary components of the primates found in the Shimoni forests.

Fruits and flowers are identified along the transect lines, recording trees within 10m of the transect line. Trees in fruit or flower are identified and their DBH recorded in order to assess age structure. Only woody vegetation with a DBH over 5cm is recorded. 3.3.7 Butterfly community survey Butterflies (Order: Lepidoptera) offer an excellent indicator taxon of plant species diversity, habitat diversity and disturbance levels. Butterfly canopy traps are utilised, baited with mashed banana that has been allowed to ferment for at least 3 days. Traps are baited and left for approximately 24 hours before checking, three canopy traps are used simultaneously on each trapping day. Traps are placed at three heights; ground, understorey, and mid-canopy. Photographs of each individual are taken for identification using Larsen (1996).

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3.3.8 Disturbance survey Disturbance levels are monitored on all transect sections, recording various different human induced parameters of disturbance. Disturbance is measured in a two metre transect, positioned 2m north of the transect line. This avoids recording disturbance caused by the clearing of the transect line. Cutting of poles (5 - <15cm DBH), and timber (>15cm DBH) are counted within each transect section, and further classified as ‘old’ and ‘new’. Signs of fire (predominantly for charcoal), and bails of firewood are recorded as well as snares, shelters and pit saws. Where absolute clearing occurs, the number of poles and timber are not recorded, but the length of transect cleared is measured. 3.3.9 Casual observations During all observer time in the forest, records are also made of other fauna observed and identified in the field, noting species, location, habitat, group size and other applicable notes. Indirect observations of animals such as tracks or dung are also recorded as indicators of presence. Where possible, unknown species are photographed for later identification. 3.4 Results 3.4.1 Primate community survey Primate community and distance sampling was completed once across all transect sections. Using the population estimation program ‘Distance 5.0’ (Thomas et al 2006), the total C. a. palliatus population for the Shimoni forest (east) survey area is estimated at 235 individuals ± 90 S.E. (CI 95%: 109 – 510), at densities of 109 ind/km2 ± 41 S.E. (CI 95%: 49 – 231). These estimates are derived using the distance sampling data from this expedition only. The input data does not include sightings of solitary individuals. Table 3-2. summarises the data from distance sampling of primate groups.
C. a. palliates Area surveyed (km²) Number of groups Number of individuals Average group size 2.2 20 61 3.1 C. m. albogularis 2.2 11 13 1.2

Table 3-2. Summary of primate community surveys.

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The data set for the primate community survey records perpendicular distances. These are necessary for distance sampling analysis in order to produce density and population estimates. Figure 3-2. shows the distance categories at which C. a. palliatus were detected.

9 8 7

Number of sightings

6 5 4 3 2 1 0 0 - < 10 10 - <20 20 - <30 30 - <40 40 - <50

Perpendicular distance

Figure 3-2. Frequency of perpendicular distances at which C. a. palliatus groups were detected during primate community surveys only (n=20).

3.4.2 Primate behavioural survey A total of 25 hours of behavioural surveys were conducted on 7 different groups of C. a. palliatus. Table 3-3. summarises the total time budgets for all individuals. The exact number of individuals studied is unknown due to the problems associated with the identification of specific individuals. Both adult males and females were studied, and females carrying young also. Numerous notable behaviours were recorded, including social grooming, social playing, stiff legs display and copulation. Aggressive encounters

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were not observed during survey, either between or within groups. However, agonistic behaviour was witnessed between groups of C. a. palliatus and C. m. albogularis.

One individual of particular interest was a badly injured male, who was discovered with a large open wound on his left bicep, and a significantly disintegrated tail. Attempts at darting the individual for capture and treatment with the Colobus Trust, were unsuccessful. Upon return to the same location the next day, the male could not be found. Wardens from the Colobus Trust suggested that the monkey had been electrocuted on the un-insulated power cables. Informal interviews with a local masai, said that the individual had separated himself from the rest of the group two days prior. Behaviour surveys on the individual whilst waiting for the Trust to arrive yielded high levels of stress related behaviour, including increased vigilance and frequency of scratching. The individual later washed up dead on a near-by beach.

Behaviour Resting Feeding Travelling Sleeping Grooming active Staring Grooming passive Alert Self grooming Stiff-legs display

Percent time 64 18 4 3 3 3 2 2 0.1 0.1

Table 3-3. Percent time spent in each behaviour state (n = 71,111seconds)

3.4.3 Bird point counts Bird point counts were conducted between the hours of 06:30 and 09:00 on all transects. The time required for access meant that most surveys were restricted to sections within close proximity to the north/south ‘spine’. A total time of 22hrs was surveyed covering 42 transect sections; forming a total survey area of 105,000m2. 104 birds were spotted from 29 different species. Silvery-cheeked hornbills (Bycanistes brevis), crowned hornbills (Tockus alboterminatus suahelicus), common cuckoo (Cuculus canorus) and collared sunbird (Hedydipna collaris), were among the most abundant species.

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3.4.4 Canopy surveys Canopy cover was recorded every ten metres across all transect sections. The average canopy cover for one section varied from 0% to 100%, the total average for the Shimoni forest (east) was 77% and 83% in the KWS forest (Figure 3-3).

7

6

5
Transect number

4

3

2

1

0 -20 -10 0 10 Section number
Figure 3-3. Mean canopy cover for transect sections. Lighter colours (transects 1 – 6) represent Shimoni forest (east). Darker colour (transect 7) represents KWS forest. Largest circle size = 100% cover.

20

30

40

3.4.5 Fruit and flower survey All transect sections were surveyed for fruits and flowers, over a total duration of 40hrs. 417 trees were recorded in fruit or flower throughout the total survey areas. 10 species were identified. Most numerous fruits were represented by Trichilia emetica (130), Millettia usaramensis (77), Adansonia digitata, and various Ficus spp. (Table 3-4.).

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Tree species 1 Adansonia digitata Caesaphina insolita Celtis mildbraedii Delonix spp. Ficus sansibarica Ficus spp. Mallotus oppositifolius Millettia usaramensis Monathotaxis spp. Rourea spp. Trichilia emetica 15 3 1 5 45 2 3 5 1 14 3 23 3 3 1 1 26 -

Transect 4 4 1 3 2 10 5 3 5 4 2 3 15 6 2 2 35 1 41 7 3

Total

27 4 5 2 2 23 3 77 2 10 130

Table 3-4. Summary of fruit and flower surveys.

3.4.6 Butterfly community survey A total of 72 trapping days (where one trapping day is counted as one trap baited for a 24 hour period) were completed this expedition. Each transect in the Shimoni forest (east) was sampled with 12 trapping days. Transect 7 in the KWS forest was not surveyed. Table 3-5. summarises the species found and in what abundances.

Subfamily Charaxinae Charaxinae Charaxinae Charaxinae Charaxinae Charaxinae Nymphalinae Nymphalinae Nymphalinae Satyrinae Satyrinae Total caught Number of species

Species Charaxes brutus Charaxes candiope candiope Charaxes varanes vologeses Charaxes cithaeron Charaxes jahlusa kenyensis Euxanthe wakefieldi Eurytela dryope angulata Euphraedra neophron Junonia oenone Bicyclus safitza safitza Melanitus leda

Number caught 67 8 8 1 1 3 8 2 1 12 22 133 11

Table 3-5. Butterfly species caught and number of individuals.

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3.4.7 Disturbance survey Disturbance monitoring was completed for all transect sections during this expedition. Table 3-6. shows the highest levels of disturbance were found in transects 2, 3 and 4 where the greatest extent of clearing occurred. The least amount of clearing occurred in transects 5 and 6. The average number of other disturbance parameters differed very little between transects in the Shimoni forest (east), but were much lower in the KWS forest.
Transect New poles Old poles Old timber New timber Firewood Fires Number of clearings Shelters Pit saws Snares Total Average per section Total clearing (m) % clearing 1 19 20 14 3 56 3.29 15 1.76 2 17 61 31 1 1 6 117 3.44 94 5.53 3 23 79 15 5 1 0 5 9 137 2.85 170 7.08 4 11 61 43 0 4 4 1 124 2.88 190 8.84 5 4 56 28 11 6 0 3 3 111 2.85 12 0.62 6 17 25 39 13 3 1 6 6 110 2.89 14 0.74 7 9 1 10 1.25 6 1.50

Table 3-6. Summary of disturbance surveys.

3.4.8 Casual observations A total of 200 hours or 37,424 man hours was spent on casual observations of fauna during this expedition. 39 species of birds, 12 species of mammals, 8 species of reptile, and 3 amphibian species were identified. Species previously not recorded include the tambourine dove (Turtur tympanistria), Diederik cuckoo (Chrysococcyx caprius), common kestrel (Falco tannumculus), Green mamba (Dendroasbis angusticeps), and the speckle-lipped skink (Mabuya maculilabris).

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3.5 Discussion 3.5.1 Primate community survey Distance frequency of primate group detection, as expected, is greater at closer proximity to the transect line with a detection probability of 1 up to 17m. This kind of distance sampling analysis has not previously been applied to this forest patch despite being part of an area wide census of C. a. palliatus during 2001. The census utilized transects spaced at 100m intervals, and surveyed the entire Shimoni forest (east) fragment (414ha). The census data set, before distance sampling analysis showed lower encounter rates than this project has been finding since its inception in 2006. This may suggest a population increase during the last six years. A follow-up census is due to go ahead during July - October 2007 which may confirm this. Density estimates seem high when compared with Thomas (1990) and Anderson (2001). The area surveyed by Thomas (1990) is unlike the Shimoni survey area in that it holds 12 sympatric anthropoid primates which may reduce the density of each species through competition. When compared with Anderson however, the increased densities seen in the Shimoni survey areas seem less easily explained. The high densities are more comparable to figures seen for C. guereza (Fashing & Cords 2000).

3.5.2 Primate behaviour survey C. a. palliatus rely almost entirely on leaves for sustenance (Kingdon 1997). A preference for mature leaves enables this species to live in high densities, sympatric with other folivorous primates who favour younger leaves, and fruits (Fimbel et al. 2001). Because these mature leaves are of poor quality and require effective detoxification (Kay and Davies 1994), C. a. palliatus seem to exhibit energy economy and spend the majority of the time inactive. It is therefore expected that 64% time spent resting is normal for this species. The minimal time spent travelling may be best explained by the group size found in this area. Smaller groups, deplete food sources less quickly and therefore can afford to remain in one area for long periods (Fimbel et al. 2001). Groups were easily located as their movements seemed minimal, and groups were sometimes found in one or two trees for weeks at a time.

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C. a. palliatus spent more time doing all types of grooming, including scratching during this expeditions survey period. This is likely due to the increase in the rains causing higher levels of skin parasites, or general irritation due to a greater concentration of moisture on the skin.

Behaviour surveys were concentrated around 3 groups. Attempts at surveying groups whose territory was further from the local community mostly failed. These groups readily dispersed when under constant observation by the survey team. Some data was however collected on these groups following several failed attempts. It would seem that habituation of most groups will not be a problem if patience is applied. Levels of vigilance related activities seemed lower this expedition which may show that groups are becoming more relaxed with constant observation.

3.5.3 Bird point counts Avian diversity and abundance seems low, however this may be explained by the small sample size and the visual constraints in dense forest of this kind. The species discovery curve is so far growing exponentially, and with a greater sample size, will in future be used in estimates of species diversity. A box size of 50m x 50m x ∞ limits data recording, yet is essential for estimates of densities in forest habitats. This box size is chosen by the average maximum visibility in the forest. In some areas, visibility is much greater but recording numbers without area limitations would make these areas appear to contain greater densities, and most likely greater diversity as well. Casual observations can be used to increase the bird species list, and point counts can therefore be used in estimating densities, and drawing comparisons between microhabitats. A trial-run of afternoon bird surveys, yielded even lower sightings than mornings. These may therefore be unbeneficial to the survey program, and concentration on afternoon primate behaviours more worthwhile.

3.5.4 Canopy surveys Canopy surveys continue to provide valuable data on seasonality of canopy density in support of primate surveys. Mean canopy cover was higher than in previous expeditions, and may be explained by two factors. The marked increase in rain during the previous

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four months has caused greater canopy densities. Clearing of the forest for farmland has not been so intense since the rains, so average canopy cover has not been significantly reduced by this clearing.

Figure 3-3. shows a consistency of canopy across transects 5 & 6. This seems due to low levels of clearing in these areas, which are further from the local communities. Transects 2, 3 & 4 show decreases in percent cover around the north/south spine. In this area extensive clearing for farmland has occurred.

3.5.5 Fruit & flower Work with a local botanist has proven successful with a number of species confirmations and work towards a photo key begun, covering the major phenology of the survey area. Trichilia emetica was found in high abundance throughout the survey area, with the exception of highly disturbed re-growth forest. Millettia usaramensis was found in flower for two weeks during May, and in fruit from May until June. Fruiting and flowering Adansonia digitata was observed throughout the study area but in low densities.

3.5.6 Butterfly community survey Butterfly populations seem healthy in the survey area. Bicyclus safitza safitza, the most numerous species during January to March, was not caught in such high numbers during April to June. This may show a seasonal variation in this species. Species diversity may be difficult to obtain from just one catching method, yet does give ideas about seasonal variations, and maybe more quantifiable data in relation to disturbance levels. Trapping with this method and bait continues to yield new species, with Euphaedra neophron caught for the first time during this expedition on transect 6. Euphaedra are most commonly found in the densest parts of forests, and in areas where figs are most abundant (Larson 1996).

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3.5.7 Disturbance survey Disturbance and canopy cover surveys correlate when looking at the extent of clearing. This clearing has taken place in the parts of the forest most easily accessed by the local community of Shimoni village. It is however, evident that the cutting of poles and timber is not restricted to these areas. This may be due to the selective targeting of tree species for specific uses. Although the KWS forest is closest to the village community, it is protected, and although not regularly patrolled, the forest is adjacent to the KWS Shimoni headquarters. Hence illegal logging in this area would be more than risky. Despite this, Anderson (2001) found no significant differences in levels of disturbance between protected and un-protected forest fragments of Kwale district. 3.5.8 Casual observations Although bird species diversity was somewhat low during bird survey, casual observations have increased estimates of diversity quite considerably. This may be due to the fact that casual observations take place at all times of day, as opposed to bird point counts which are restricted to the morning hours. Also, with casual observations there are no parameter limits on sighting distance, and many bird species appear to be particularly shy of human presence. Numerous sightings of the Zanj elephant shrew (Rhynchocyon petersi) continue to be of particular interest, due to its rare and datadeficient status. Camera trapping has begun its trial phase, with no formal transects utilized. The first film to be developed yielded only yellow baboons.

3.6 Conclusions, Recommendations and Future Work Trapping of butterflies should be continued in Shimoni throughout the course of the year to ensure representative sampling of the different micro-habitats and to assess seasonal variation in the butterfly community. Casual observations show that a large number of butterfly species present in the forest did not frequent the traps; it seems likely that they are not attracted to the bait. Complimenting the canopy traps with other survey methods, such as sweep netting should also be considered.

Casual observations continue to reveal greater faunal diversity. Although some of the large terrestrial mammals have been identified, it is thought many nocturnal species are

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yet to be spotted. After this trial phase of camera trapping, seven traps will be placed in the survey areas during the following expedition. It is hoped that difficult to observe small to medium sized mammals such as ground pangolin (Smutsia temminckii), aardvark (Orycteropus afer), various genets and civets (Family: Viverridae), aardwolf (Proteles cristata), and various mongooses (Family: Herpestidae) may be recorded in this way.

Bird surveys using the current methodologies seem to yield low density and biodiversity figures. This is likely due to the problems with visibility in the forest. In many areas the maximum visibility is less than 25m and birds may also be shy to human presence. Next expedition a trial phase using bird calls will be adopted to contribute to visual identification. This will be done by recording the call in the field and then identifying the species from CDs after.

Future work is summarised as follows:  During July – October 2007 the survey program aims to take part in a follow-up, area wide census of C. a. palliatus. The census will cover all of the forested patches in Kwale district, and what is thought to be the entire population of C. a. palliatus in Kenya.  Continue primate behavioural surveys on C. a. palliatus, attempting to habituate more groups.  Expand behaviour surveys into new study areas, to be used in comparison between forests of different floral composition and different levels of disturbance.  Photo identification may be possible for a few troops of C. a. palliatus, where the time budgets and individual behaviour patterns of specifics may be analysed.  Continue with evenly distributed sampling of sections for vegetation and regeneration surveys until representation analysis indicates a leveling of the species discovery curve.  Continue seasonal repetition of canopy surveys to support primate community surveys.  Continue butterfly trapping, across seasons, and trial different baits. Pilot complimentary methods of sampling the butterfly population, such as sweep netting.

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Pilot surveys of the Zanj elephant shrew (Rhynchocyon petersi) may include nest surveys and flush netting.

The Shimoni forest (east) continues to be under threat from human disturbance. The ‘Shimoni Youth Conservation Project’ are a group of self-formed Shimoni residents who have submitted a proposal for the community management of the forest, and for the cessation of extensive deforestation and un-sustainable timber harvesting for commercial purposes. It is hoped that the data derived from these surveys will be highly beneficial in the formation of management plans for this forest, in an effort to benefit both the areas biodiversity and local human community.

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4. Community Development Programme
This element of the programme falls broadly into 4 main areas; TEFL teaching in Mkwiro Primary School; TEFL teaching in adult classes to local community members; orphanage development and sustainable community projects. 4.1 Introduction With regard to the TEFL teaching, the EMs received the 2-day training course on TEFL on arrival in Mkwiro focusing not only on the adult classes, but also on TEFL for children. In the first phase, the EMs designed an environmental education lesson on marine pollution to give to the primary schools at Mkwiro, Shimoni and Wasini to combine with a Dive into Earth Day beach clean (figure 4-1.). The second phase EMs designed a short 15 minute lesson for the Nursery School students and designed a word poster so they could teach a nursery rhyme. This training was very successful with several EMs feeling confident enough to present classes as the lead-teacher. The main community stakeholder we have been working with this expedition with TEFL is the Mkwiro Primary School. During this expedition, all of GVI’s classes with Standards 5-8 at Mkwiro Primary School have been arranged in double lessons and lessons with Standard 1-4 have been single lessons.

The adult classes have included simultaneous beginners and advanced men’s classes as well as the women’s group. These classes continued to be very popular and have continued to help build capacity for tourism, enterprises and build confidence within the village. Visits to the Al-Hanan Orphanage have been three times weekly since the start of the school term and we have been involved with the orphanage throughout the expedition with help and support as needed. Various community projects have been started or continued during this expedition, and we have worked alongside the Mkwiro Youth Conservation Group, Village Committee, Dispensary Committee and Tumaini Women’s Group to work on aspects such as fundraising, developing capacity for tourism, the village tour and developing markets and revenue for local enterprises.

GVI have been an official member on The Year of the Dolphin Committee and will continue to be a key community stakeholder this year. EMs provided environmental education to standard s 6, 7 and 8 through the school holidays, topics involved dolphin

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ecology and the marine ecosystem, in preparation for the monthly competitions on poem writing and the art competition. Adult education has also included topics such as threats to dolphins. EMs have helped the children prepare for the choir and acrobatic show which they presented at the official launch held in Haller Park, Mombasa. Various schools from the Kenyan coast delighted the audience with choirs, plays, raps, mosaics in Kiswahili and English providing a powerful message about the value of dolphins and threats which exist and how they as a community should conserve these animals. Other guests that attended included the assistant director from TUI, Assistant Director of KWS, Executive secretary from Convention of Migratory Species (CMS) and alongside local operators. GVI provided a presentation the following day about their participation in partnership with KWS and the communities, KWS then officially presented the Code of Conduct for Kisite Mpunguti Marine Park.

The volunteers had the chance to participate in a World Environment Day exhibition at the start of June in Haller Park, Mombasa. The theme was focused on Climate change, with the logo ‘plant a tree’. EMs developed resources such as educational posters and games, such as food web pyramids. They also designed activities for the schools involving colouring-in monkey masks, education on dolphin species and sustainable livelihoods using natural resources.

Figure 4-1. A beach clean for Dive into Earth Day.

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4.2 School Education Following the Kenyan syllabus, we have been working on the New Progressive Primary Schools English syllabus books (teacher and student copies), and have been using these as the basis around which our lessons are planned. With Standards 7-8, we have covered 2.5 chapters each, and we have covered 1.5 - 2 chapters with Standards 4-6. We have conducted more than 42 hours of English lessons and 1 hour of P.E. lessons. We have also conducted 6 hours of Environmental Education lessons during the school holidays in Mkwiro Primary School covering topics such as dolphin ecology, primate ecology, coral reef ecology, bird identification and marine pollution. In terms of extracurricular activities, we have conducted 8 hours of tutorial work with Standard 8 helping them to prepare for their final exams. We started special reading lessons with the Standard 6-8 students where they come individually to our base for one-on-one reading time. This has benefited more than 50 of the learners so far, and the individual time has really motivated both the EMs and the students. We have been recording the levels of the students so that we can target the slower readers in the future.

4.3 Adult Education 4During this expedition, we have conducted 28 hours of classes to the women’s class and the beginners and advanced men’s class. These have covered topics as diverse as dolphin ecology, sustainable waste solutions, marketing and advertising strategies as well as developing more cookery and recipe ideas with the women. With the beginners men’s class, we have been working on emotions, weather, general conversation as well as vocabulary and skills relating to the student’s jobs. Half of the Adult Education time has been used for computer lessons covering topics like formal letter writing, a typing speed challenge and typing up recipes to make a cookbook. We have continued to offer lessons to the teachers from Mkwiro Primary School, but they have been unable to come due to their time constraints in the school.

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4.4 Al Hanan Orphanage We have been visiting the orphanage every Monday, Wednesday and Friday for an hour and a half each day. We have spent more than 36 hours at the orphanage during this expedition. Activities have included papier-mâché, games, homework, reading help, sports, drawing and painting

4.5 Satellite Camp Working in collaboration with the World Society for the Protection of Animals (WSPA) and the Kenyan Wildlife Service (KWS), GVI successfully completed its third series of satellite camps with 4 ex-poaching communities in the Taveta district. The 4 communities (Kidong, Mahandikini, Kaasani and Mtakuja) had historically poached wildlife for their own subsistence purposes, while also supplying the local and transboundary bush meat demand. The top threat to wildlife sustainability in the nearby Tsavo West national park and local non/protected areas is, however, the bush meat trade - an increasingly destructive and lucrative international practice surpassing habitat loss as the greatest threat to tropical wildlife (Bennet et al. 2006 as cited by Omonde 2006). Therefore, in order to negate the impact of this trade on local wildlife, and to simultaneously improve the livelihood options for ex-poaching communities, GVI continue to implement capacity-building exercises in each of the four villages. It is anticipated that, through the promotion of environmental awareness and creation of alternative livelihood opportunities, the ex-poaching communities will play a key role in the long-term sustainability of their natural resources.

Overall, GVI delivered approximately 56 hours of lessons to the 4 communities. These lessons also involved close guidance and supervision from 24 expedition members. Attendance was generally excellent, with classes comprising between 15 – 25 members. Summaries from each satellite camp will now be presented. 4.5.1 Kidong Satellite Camp The Kidong Conservation and Development Community-based Organisation (herein Kidong group) are aspiring to create a cultural centre, with the hope that tourism revenues provide a viable alternative income. Therefore, the satellite camp concentrated

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on giving formal letter-writing and proposal-writing lessons – fundamental and essential skills for the Kidong group in realising their aim. The expedition members were also actively involved in researching the culture and practices of the Kidong group members, with the collected data anticipated to form part of the cultural information stand within the centre. The next satellite camp in expedition 07-03 will concentrate on developing the cultural information stand, while also assisting and supervising the Kidong group to complete actual funding proposals for prospective donors. 4.5.2 Mahandikini Satellite Camp The Mahandikini Youth Network for Animal Welfare and Rights (herein Mahandikini group) are looking to substitute poaching with poultry farm and bee-keeping enterprises. These themes were therefore prominent in the formal letter-writing and proposal –writing lessons. Resolving conflict with wild animals was also a matter that community members wanted to explore, as their crops were regularly being raided by wildlife. So, issues surrounding human-wildlife conflict were debated, with the expedition members actively involved in researching the conflict being experienced by the Mahandikini group members. The Mahandikini group are looking to tackle the problem of deforestation (primarily caused by charcoal burning) and soil erosion in their area, so the next satellite camp will focus on setting up tree nurseries and soil conservation 4.5.3 Kasaani Satellite Camp The Kasaani Group for Animal Protection (herein Kasaani group) are keen to initiate a bee-keeping project in their locality. So, along with teaching formal letter-writing skills, the satellite camp concentrated on teaching the basics of writing funding proposals, with the theme of bee-keeping in mind (fig 2-11.). Encouragingly, a Kenyan-based honey company are showing interest in starting a bee-keeping venture in Kasaani. With the group also concerned about local soil erosion, a lesson on conservation agriculture was given. The next satellite camp will have a strong agricultural emphasis to it, with topics such as mulching, agricultural pest control and human-wildlife conflict being introduced. 4.5.4 Mtakuja Satellite Camp The Mtakuja Animal Advocates Group is primarily concerned with bee-keeping and water projects. These were therefore the principal topics for the formal letter-writing exercise. Encouragingly, the honey company which has shown interest in Kasaani is

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also interested in a Mtakuja venture too. As Mtakuja village is located on the boundary of Tsavo West national park, the group members are experiencing high amounts of crop raiding by, amongst other animals, elephants. Therefore, the topic of human-wildlife conflict was debated and discussed with emphasis on local conditions. Group members were also trained in recording and monitoring the wildlife conflict occurring in their local area. Along with identifying conflict hotspots and areas for preventative measures, the collected data will also make it possible to quantify the crop damage in economic terms; this will provide the Mtakuja group with a strong platform if they wish to apply for funding for preventative measures. The next satellite camp involving the Mtakuja group will involve lessons on proposal-writing along with the introduction of methods for reducing human-wildlife conflict.

Fig 4-1. Expedition members working together with Kasaani Group members during the letterwriting exercise

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4.6 Capacity Building The EMs have spent their Interest Group time helping the Mkwiro Youth Conservation Group develop the Mwauzi Tumbe Tour. Meetings have been arranged to discuss the proposed restaurant banda and toilets at the beach facing the marine park. The problem of finding sustainable building materials remains an issue, but it is hoped to be resolved soon. EMs have also used their time to speak with the Tumaini Women’s Group to try to develop their markets with stalls in Shimoni, through shops in local hotels and through a special ‘Made in Mkwiro’ exhibition in Mombasa. We hope to help continue this with the women into the peak tourist season next expedition. A proposal written with the help of EMs last expedition for the women’s group has resulted in 58,000ksh being donated from the Department of Social Services to help the women to develop the chicken farm. Towards the end of the expedition, we received notification for GVI CT that that the proposal written with the help of GVI Kenya had been accepted by Timberland Clothing Company. An expedition member from 062 who works for the company was able to help the dispensary by securing the donation of £4075 (about 530,000 KSH). The money is to be used to by an emergency transfer boat for the dispensary. The boat will be used as a ferry for locals and tourists to enable easier access to the village. The money from this service will be used to fund the nurse’s salary and medicines for the dispensary. We have taken on two local Kenyans as part of the National Scholarship Programme this expedition. Mohamed Namuna, a marine park ranger based in Shimoni, has come to us from KWS for training in the programme which can be passed back to KWS. Our second NSP was Tajiri Mohamed Tajiri, a local secondary school leaver. He is from Mkwiro village, and has benefited from learning research skills as part of the programme, developing computer and teaching skills. Hopefully through learning these skills his knowledge can then be passed back to the community as well as generally strengthening the relationship between GVI and Mkwiro village.

Between week 5 and week 9 of the expedition, we were able to bring Isaac Mutua, the leader of the Kidong Ex-poachers Group, to the GVI base in Mkwiro to help develop his capacity building, English, computer and community development skills. He was able to

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spend a long time working through ideas with staff on base, and used the opportunity to develop his English with the EMs. The EMs also learned a lot from him about the history of the area and the plans for the future at Kidong.

4.7 Employment Currently, there are several local staff employed by GVI: Marine staff: 1

Boat drivers/security: 5 Base security: 2

The expedition members get a great deal of added enjoyment and understanding of the local culture and way of life by working closely with these local staff. We are also helping to build capacity within our local staff by helping them to improve their English and offering computer lessons and practice when machines are available. GVI also supports local enterprises in the community including bread and samosa makers, the village tailor and curio sellers who brings a stall to base. (Figure 4-3.). EMs have also paid local ladies to give them chapatti-making classes, helping to build the capacity of these ladies to offer the lesson commercially.

Fig 4-3. Emma takes Chapatti classes from the ladies from the village

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4.8 GVI Charitable Trust GVI has helped to sponsor 5 children to secondary school in full or in part this

expedition through donations to the expedition through GVI CT. During the expedition, £1000 has been given to the orphanage through the Trust. Part of this money has been used to fund the salary of the dispensing clinician and the rest has been used on developing the buildings in the orphanage compound. The Orphanage committee have given a proposal requesting for the remainder of the money to go towards building a new classroom block. Our relationship with the orphanage remains strong and all parties are very appreciative of GVI CT. Some of our EMs used their Interest Group time to investigate further fundraising for the orphanage, dispensary and other projects in the village.

4.9 Summary GVI’s involvement in the local community in Mkwiro as well as in Shimoni and Wasini through English teaching, capacity building and help with the orphanage has made a tangible difference to the lives of the community members. Combining the community capacity building and the current scientific research, we have finished the structure of our Information Banda on base. This will contain info on all elements of our project and can be used in the future by the local community as part of village tours. We will continue to develop this in the future. In the next expedition, we hope to develop career information presentations for the students to learn more about the opportunities open to them after school.

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5. References
Anderson, J., 2001. Status, distribution and conservation of the Angola black-and-white colobus (Colobus angolensis palliatus) in coastal Kenya. A report for Wakuluzu, Friends of the Colobus Trust, P.O. Box 5380, 80401, Diani Beach, Kenya.

Acevedo, A., 1991. Behaviour and movements of bottlenose dolphins, Tursiops truncatus, in the entrance to Ensenada De La Paz, Mexico. Aquatic Mammals 17(3), 137-147.

Bejder L., Samuels A., 2003. Evaluating the effects of nature-based tourism on cetaceans. 229 – 256.

Berrow, S. D., Holmes, B. and Kiely, O.R., 1996. Distribution and abundance of bottlenose dolphins Tursiops truncatus in the Shannon Estuary. Biology and Environment: Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy.

Buckland, S.T., Anderson, D.R., Burnham, K.P., Laake, J.L., Borchers, D.L. and Thomas, L., 2001. Introduction to distance sampling: estimating abundance of biological populations. Oxford University Press. New York.

Emerton L., Tessema Y., 2001. Economic constraints to the management of marine protected areas: the case of Kisite Marine National Park and Mpunguti National Reserve, Kenya. IUCN – The World Conservation Union, Eastern Africa Regional Office, Nairobi, Kenya.

Estes, R. D. 1991. The behaviour guide to African mammals: including hoofed mammals, carnivores, primates. University of California Press. California.

Evans, P.G.H., Hammond, P.S., 2004. Monitoring cetaceans in European waters. Mammal Review. 34,1, 131-156.

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Ingram, S., (2000). The Ecology and Conservation of Bottlenose Dolphins in the Shannon Estuary, Ireland. Submitted as P.H.D. to N.U.I., Cork.

Fashing, P.J., Cords, M., 2000. Diurnal primate densities and biomass in the Kakamega Forest: An evaluation of census methods and a comparison with other forests. American Journal of Primatology. 50, 139-152.

Fimbel, C., Vedder, A., Dierenfeld, E., Mulindahabi, F. 2001. An ecological basis for large group size in Colobus angolensis in the Nyungwe Forest, Rwanda. African Journal of Ecology. 39, 83-92.

Kay, R.N.B., Davies, A.G. Digestive physiology. In: Davies, A.G., Oates, J.F. (Eds.) 1994. Colobine monkeys: their ecology, behaviour, and evolution. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge. Kingdon, J., 1997. The Kingdon field guide to African mammals. Academic Press. London. Larsen, T.B. 1996. Butterflies of Kenya and their Natural History. Oxford University Press. New York.

Lehmann, I., Kioko, E. 2005. Lepidoptera diversity, floristic composition and structure of three Kaya forests on the south coast of Kenya. Journal of East African Natural History 94, 121-163.

Mann, J., 2000. Unravelling the dynamics of social life: long-term studies and observational methods, in: Connor, R.C., Tyack, P.L., H. Whitehead. (Eds.), Cetacean Societies: field studies of dolphins and whales. University of Chicago Press, pp.44-64.

Martin, P., Bateson, P., 1993. Measuring Behaviour: An introductory guide, 3rd edn. Cambridge University press. Cambridge.

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Meyler, S., 2006. Aspects of the behaviour of bottlenose dolphins, Tursiops truncates, in the Shannon Estuary. National University of Ireland, Library Journal 24(4).

Myers, N., Mittermeier, R.A., Mittermeier, C.G., da Fonseca, G.A.B., Kent, J. 2000. Biodiversity hotpots for conservation priorities. Nature. 403, 853 – 858.

Omondi, R., 2006. A project proposal for the Tsavo West National Park Community Game Scouts. Kenyan Wildlife Service. Parsons, K.M., 2001. Procedural guideline No. 4-5 Using photo-ID for assessing bottlenose dolphin abundance and behaviour, in: Marine JNCC Marine Monitoring Handbook. 1-21.

Richmond, M.D.. (Ed.) 2002. A Field Guide to the Seashores of Eastern Africa and the Western Indian Ocean Islands. Sida/SAREC – University of Dar es Salam, pp. 461.

Shane, S. H.,1990. Behaviour and Ecology of the bottlenose dolphin at Sanibel Island, Florida., in: Leatherwood, S and Reeves, R.R. (Eds.)The Bottlenose Dolphin. Academic Press, Inc. San Diego, pp. 245-266.

Stattersfield, A.J., Crosby, M.J., Long, A.J., Wege, D.C. 1998. Endemic Bird Areas of the World. Birdlife International, Cambridge, UK.

Stensland, E., Berggren, P., R, Johnstone., 1998. Marine Mammals in Tanzanian waters: urgent need for status assessment. Ambio. 27-8, 771-774.

Thomas, S.C. 1990. Population densities and patterns of habitat use among anthropoid primates in the Ituri Forest, Zaire. Biotropica. 23, 68-83. Thomas, L., Laake, J.L., Strindberg, S., Marques, F.F.C., Buckland, S.T., Borchers, D.L., Anderson, D.R., Burnham, K.P., Hedley, S.L., Pollard, J.H., Bishop, J.R.B. and Marques, T.A. 2006. Distance 5.0. Release 2. Research Unit for Wildlife Population Assessment, University of St. Andrews, UK. http://www.ruwpa.st-and.ac.uk/distance/

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6. Appendices

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Appendix A

EVENT LOG
DATE: Time (24hrs) Event VESSEL: South 04° STAFF (Initials): East 039° OBSERVERS (Initials): PAGE ______OF______ Environmental Conditions Precip T I Wind D Comments

Effort Trans Bearing WPT Speed Cloud Swell BFT Vis Tide #

Events: 01 - Start of survey day 02 - Change in effort type 03 - Sighting (DS OR MFS) 04 - Start of transect 05 - End of transect 06 - Change of course 07 - Bft/Env/Spd change 08 - Other/15 minute recording 09 - End of survey day

Effort Type: Beaufort Cloud Cover: LT - Line Transect 0 - Glass Measure in eigths CW- Casual watch 01- Ripples e.g. 0/8 - clear DS - Dedicated search 02 - small waveletss 4/8 - half sky o/c PI - Photo ID 03 - occasional whitecaps 8/8 - over cast 04 - Frequent whitecaps Visibility (km): 05 - Many whitecaps Boat Speed: Swell: 0-1 heavy rain (use GPS) 0 - no/weak swell 1-10 1 - intermediate swell >10 2 - strong swell

Precipitation Type N - None R - Rain

Tide: Ebb - High to low Flood - Low to High

ENTERED ON COMPUTER

- Intensitity I - Intermittent C - continuous

CHECKED Initials

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Appendix B

Sightings Form
Date: Vessel: Skipper: Recorder:

Entered onto computer □
CHECKED (initials)

Group size Survey number Distance Angle to Tide to sighting Ebb/Flo Latitude Longitude Effort Sighting MFS/ sighting (P or S) od Time South 04° East 039° type number DS Species Min Max Best

Spotted because PhotoDhows? ID? Yes/No Yes/No

Number of Boats Comments

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Appendix C

Date (YYYYMM-DD) Roll #:

Photographe rs Initials

DS or MFS #

Vessel Initials (SR or ET)

Photo- ID Data Sheet
Date: Survey Number (MFS or DS): Start time: End time: Photographer: Camera: Scribe: Frame # Notes

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Appendix D

Megafauna Survey Form (10/06)
Date Staff South 04 Recorder Species East 039 Start End

Vessel: General Location

Entered Closest

Checked

MFS#

Wpt # Depth Temp Bft

Habitat Notes

Tide: Ebb Flood

Number Present

NOTES

Roll 2: (date/ID): Photo Notes:

Frames:

Spacers(s):

Megafauna Survey Form (10/06)
Date Staff South 04 Recorder Species East 039 Start End

Vessel: General Location

Entered Closest

Checked

MFS#

Wpt # Depth Temp Bft

Habitat Notes

Tide: Ebb Flood

Number Present

NOTES

Roll 2: (date/ID): Photo Notes:

Frames:

Spacers(s):

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Appendix E

LAND BASED SIGHTINGS: ENVIRONMENT AND BOAT
DATE: Time (24hrs) OBSERVERS: Environmental Conditions Wind Swell BFT Direction PAGE ______OF______ Vis Tide Precip T I No. of Vessels Boat Traffic Number of each type of vessel i.e. Comments

Observers

Cloud

Cloud Cover: Beaufort: 0 - Glass Measure in eigths e.g. 0/8 - clear 01- Ripples 4/8 - half the sky overcast- small waveletss 02 8/8 - over cast 03 - occasional whitecaps 04 - Frequent whitecaps Swell: 05 - Many whitecaps 0 - no/weak swell 1 - intermediate swell 2 - strong swell
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Visibility (km): 0-1 heavy fog 1-10 >10

Precipitation Type N - none R - rain

Tide: Ebb - High to low Flood - Low to High

Intensitity I - intermittent C - continuous

Vessel Type SR - Stingray CF - Fishing Canoe CS - Sailing Canoe D - Power Dhow (non-tourist) TD - Tourist Dhow SD - Sailing Dhow (non-tourist) C - canoe (paddling) S - Sailboat P - Powerboat

Entered on computer

Checked (Initials)

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Appendix F
LAND BASED: SIGHTINGS
DATE: Sighting Time (24 hrs) observer's initials OBSERVERS (Initials): Dolphins and Megafauna Bearing Sighting Distance Species Min Group size Max Best Tide (ebb or flood) Plot # on chart PAGE ______OF______

Comments

Bearing Read by observer from compass at bottom of binocular view

Distance Use reticles in binoculars counting down from the top of the horizon or shoreline

Dolphin species (Spp) Bnd - Bottlenose Hbd - Humpback Spd - Spinnner Rsd - Risso's Cod - Common Count short reticles as StD - Striped halves PtD - Pan-tropical Spotted Unk - unknown species

Tide: E - Ebb - High to low F - Flood - Low to High

ENTERED ON COMPUTER

Checked (Initials)

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Appendix G
LANDBASE SURVEY: DOLPHIN BEHAVIOUR PAGE: OF DATE: OBSERVERS: Record every 5 min./after each dive cycle from 1st sighting # Group size Vessel #Tourist Vessels Dive Dive type dhows Time Spp Spread present Type Duration Min Max Best

# dhows swim with dolphins

Split into View subObstructed groups by boats (Yes or (Yes or No) No)

Comments

Dolphin species (Spp) Bnd - Bottlenose Hbd - Humpback Spd - Spinnner Rsd - Risso's Cod - Common StD - Striped PtD - Pan-tropical Spotted Unk - unknown species
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Dive Type Rg - Regular Td - Tail-out Pd - Peduncle Rs - Rapid Surface Rt - Rooster Tail Lp - Leap Pp - Porpoise Snag - Snag

Spread Tig - Tight (< 2 m) Mod - Moderate (2 - <5 m) Spr - Spread (5 -10 m) Wsp - Widespread (>10 m)

Vessel Type SR - Stingray CF - Fishing Canoe CS - Sailing Canoe D - Power Dhow (non-tourist) TD - Tourist Dhow SD - Sailing Dhow (non-tourist) C - canoe (paddling) S - Sailboat P - Powerboat

ENTERED ON COMPUTER

Checked (Initials)

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Appendix H

Date:

Time start:

Time finish:

Weather: Wind: still / light breeze / firm breeze / storm Cloud cover (0/8-8/8):

Team's full names: GPS start: GPS finish:
Time sighted Common name

Location:

Precipitation: dry / rain / showers

Scientific name

No. individuals

Notes / description (if unsure I.D.)

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