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Variable Attenuator

Variable attenuation levels keeping Ro constant. By varying resistors in T or section attenuators, we can get continuously varying attenuators. But all the three resistors need to change simultaneously. simultaneously This may not be an easy proposition. In I bridged b id d T attenuator, tt t R1 is i independent i d d t of f attenuation, R2 decreases and R3 increases with attenuation. Therefore, R1 can be fixed equal to the value of characteristic resistance. Resistors R2 and R3 can be ganged together to vary them simultaneously

Variable Attenuator
R3 R1 R2 R1

Variable attenuation levels keeping Ro constant. R1 = Ro, R2 = Ro / ( - 1), R3 = ( - 1) Ro

Ex.:

Find Fi d out t th the attenuation tt ti and d image i resistances of given attenuator network. 10K
Vin

20K

Vout

Solution:
Ri1 = RinsRino = 17.32K 17 32K Ri2 = RoutsRouto = 11.55K in dB = 20 log (1+R1/R2) = 3.52

Padding
It is possible to design an attenuator, to be i inserted t d between b t source and d load, l d to t provide id proper matching with the load. Such a use of attenuator is called as padding a source. source In many applications, I li ti th source resistance the it may not match with the load. Attenuators will see different resistances at the input and output. output

How the Symmetrical network work for matching?


RS Source R1 mR1 Rout R1

Rout = R1 + mR1 (R1 + RS) U i T attenuator Using tt t equations, ti Ro = R1 (1+2m)

= [(1 + m + 1+2m ) / m] We get,


R

Rout =

+ 1

K 2 / 1

where K = RS / Ro

Variation of Rout with RS Rout =


+
1

Let RS = 0 i.e. K = 0. Then Rout =


2 + 1 1 2 R
0

For RS = i.e. K = , we get Rout =


+ 2
2 1 1 0 R

Larger is the value of i.e. larger is the attenuation, more closer is Rout to Ro.

K 2

K / 1

Variation of Rout with RS

Rout =

+
1

Let Ro = 50 and = 10. F RS = 0, For 0 Rout = 49 ohms. h For RS = , Rout = 51 ohms. Therefore Th f f any value for l of f RS, Rout lies li between b 49 and d 51 ohms. If is increased further, difference between Rout and Ro will reduce.

0 R

K 2

K / 1

E Example l A signal source with an unknown resistance is to be interfaced with a 600 ohms system using a 12 dB 600 ohms pad. Find out the output resistance for the extreme values of source resistance. Solution Att Attenuator t resistance it and d attenuation tt ti = 4 and Ro = 600 ohms. Rout for Rs between zero and infinite, is 528 and 678 ohms.

R di A Reading Assignment i t
2.2 : Digital-To-Analog Converter 2.3 2 3 : Analog Analog-To-Digital To Digital Converter