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It is a fact that an increasing sequence of real numbers that is bounded above must converge.

The picture shows an increasing sequence that is bounded above by some number M . It seems reasonable that the terms of the sequence will have to start piling up below the line, and at the place where they pile up the sequence will converge. A careful proof of this fact uses a deep property of the real numbers called the Least Upper Bound Axiom.

Suppose

k =1

obviously form an increasing sequence. If the partial sums are bounded above, a1 , a1 + a 2 , a1 + a 2 + a3 , . . . M for some M , then the fact above implies that the series converges.

Now let

k =1

The Ratio Test says: If L < 1, the series converges. If L > 1, the series diverges. If L = 1, the test fails. The reason the test works is that, in the limit, the series looks like a geometric series with ratio L. Look at the case L < 1 by way of example. Choose a positive number so r = L + < 1. For n suciently large, an+1 an+2 , , . . . < r. an an+1 These inequalities give an+1 < ran , an+2 < ran+1 < r 2 an , an+3 < ran+2 < r 3 an , . . . 1

Adding the inequalities yields an+1 + an+2 + an+3 + < ran + r 2 an + r 3 an + . The right side is a convergent geometric series. The inequality shows that its sum is an upper bound for the partial sums of the series on the left. By the fact I stated at the start, the series on the left converges.

k =1

This is a nite number (a1 + a2 + + an ) plus the series an+1 + an+2 + an+3 + , which I know converges. A similar argument works if L > 1. When do you use the Ratio Test? Ratios are fractions, and they tend to simplify nicely if the top and bottom contain products or powers. For example, if the nth term of the series contains factorials, you ought to give the Ratio Test serious consideration.

Example. Does

1 converge or diverge? k! k =1 Ill approach this example as if it didnt appear in a discussion of the Ratio Test. What do you do? The Zero Limit Test is easy to apply. However, since 1 = 0, k k ! lim

the Zero Limit Test fails. The series is not geometric, and its not a p-series. The Integral Test is inapplicable. What would f (x) = x! mean as a continuous function? How would you integrate it? Its possible to apply a comparison test; do you see how? The Ratio Test is probably the easiest way to show that this series converges. One indication that the Ratio Test is worth trying is that n! is a product. The Ratio Test works well with products and powers, ak +1 . because cancellation may occur when you form ak Form the ratio of successive terms: 1 12k 1 ak +1 k! (k + 1)! = = = . = 1 ak (k + 1)! 1 2 k (k + 1) k+1 k! Take the limit as k : lim 1 = 0. k+1

The limit is less than 1. The series converges, by the Ratio Test.

Example. Does

(2n + 1)! converge or diverge? 5n (n!)2 n=1 (2n + 1)! = 1 2 3 (2n)(2n + 1), 2

the product of the numbers from 1 to 2n + 1. For example, if n = 3, 2n + 1 = 7, and (2n + 1)! = 7! = 1 2 3 4 5 6 7. Ill apply the Ratio Test. Note that if I replace n with n + 1 in 2n + 1, I get 2(n + 1) + 1 = 2n + 3. So I have 5n+1 ((n (2n + 3)! 5n (n!)2 (n!)2 (2n + 3)! 5n (2n + 3)! + 1)!)2 = lim n+1 . = lim n+1 2 n 5 (2n + 1)! ((n + 1)!) (2n + 1)! n (2n + 1)! 5 ((n + 1)!)2 5n (n!)2

lim

Ill stop for a second and show the details of the next simplication: (1)(2) (2n)(2n + 1)(2n + 2)(2n + 3) (2n + 3)! = = (2n + 2)(2n + 3), (2n + 1)! (1)(2) (2n)(2n + 1) 5n 5n+1 (n!)2 = ((n + 1)!)2 Thus, my limit is

n

1 , 5

2

n! (n + 1)!

1 . (n + 1)2

4 22 = . 5 5

The limiting ratio is less than 1, so the series converges by the Ratio Test.

Example. Does

k =1

so the Zero Limit Test fails. The series is not geometric, and its not a p-series. I dont think youd want to integrate arctan ex ! And its not clear how to do this using a comparison. Form the ratio of successive terms: arctan e(k +1) ak +1 = . ak arctan ek Take the limit as k : lim arctan e arctan ek

(k +1)

e(k +1) 2(k +1) e2k + 1 e2k + 1 e(k +1) = lim 2(k +1) = lim 1 + e k = e1 lim 2(k +1) = e1 . k k e k k e e +1 +1 e 1 + e2k

n=1

2 n2 + 5 converge or diverge? n4 + 1 3

What happens if I try to use the Ratio Test? The limiting ratio is 2(n + 1)2 + 5 2(n + 1)2 + 5 n4 + 1 2(n + 1)2 + 5 n4 + 1 (n + 1)4 + 1 = lim = lim = 1 1 = 1. lim 2 4 2 n (n + 1) + 1 2n + 5 n n 2n2 + 5 (n + 1)4 + 1 2n + 5 n4 + 1 The Ratio Test fails. In general, the Ratio Test will fail if the general term is a rational function. 2 n2 + 5 2 n2 2 4 = 2 , Ill compare the given 4 n +1 n n

2 converges, since its a p-series with p = 2 > 1. Hence, the 2 n n=1 original series converges by Limit Comparison. The limit is a nite positive number.

The Root Test is similar to the Ratio Test. Instead of taking the limit of successive quotients of terms, you take the limit of roots of terms. Let k =1 ak be a series with positive terms. Compute L = lim The Root Test says: 1. If L < 1, the series converges. 2. If L > 1, the series diverges. 3. If L = 1, the test fails. Heuristically, when k is large, k ak L, so ak Lk . This says that the series is approximately geometric for large k , so it converges if the ratio L is less than 1 and diverges if the ratio L is greater than 1. You might consider using the Root Test if the general term of the series has lots of nth powers, since these will simplify when you take the nth root. 3k converge or diverge? 2k 3 3k 3 = lim = < 1. k k 2 2 2

k

k ak .

k =1

lim

n=1

5n converge or diverge? n!

In this case, the Root Test would probably not be a good choice. Why? Because Id have (n!)1/n on the bottom, and I dont see an easy way to compute the limit of that expression. Instead, the factorial suggests using the Ratio Test. The limiting ratio is 5n+1 n! 5n+1 5 5n+1 n! (n + 1)! lim = lim = lim = 0. = lim n n 5 n n 5n (n + 1)! n n + 1 n (n + 1)! 5 n! Since the limiting ratio is less than 1, the series converges by the Ratio Test.

n=1

2n converge or diverge? 3n

Take the n

th

1/n

(2n)1/n . 3

(2n)1/n . Ill compute the limit of the top. n 3 1/n Let y = (2n) . Then ln 2n . ln y = ln(2n)1/n = n Hence, 2 ln 2n 2 lim ln y = lim = lim n = 0. n n n n 1 Hence, lim (2n)1/n = lim y = e0 = 1. I need to compute lim

n n

Therefore, 1 (2n)1/n = . n 3 3 The limiting ratio is less than 1. Hence, the series converges, by the Root Test. lim

k =1

1 1 k

k2

converge or diverge?

k k2 1/k

1 k

. 5

Let y =

1 k

. Then 1 k ln 1 1 k 1 k

k

1 1 k2 1 k = lim 1 k 2 k

= lim

1 = 1. 1 1 k

It follows that lim y = e1 < 1. Hence, the series converges, by the Root Test.

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