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# 𝐹𝑜𝑟𝑐𝑒 𝑁 𝑭 𝑭𝒍

𝑃𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑢𝑟𝑒 = 𝜼= 𝒗𝑨=
𝐴𝑟𝑒𝑎 𝑚3 𝒍 𝚫𝒗
𝐅 𝑽𝒊𝒔𝒄𝒐𝒔𝒊𝒕𝒚
𝐔𝐍𝐈𝐅𝐎𝐑𝐌 𝐅𝐎𝐑𝐂𝐄 𝐎𝐕𝐄𝐑 𝐀𝐑𝐄𝐀 𝐏 = 𝑩𝒆𝒓𝒏𝒐𝒖𝒍𝒍𝒊𝒔 𝑬𝒒𝒖𝒂𝒕𝒊𝒐𝒏
𝐀 Temperature has a srong effect on viscosity
(conservation of energy)
∆𝐅 May depend on the rate of shear strain
𝐍𝐎𝐍 − 𝐔𝐍𝐈𝐅𝐎𝐑𝐌 𝐅𝐎𝐑𝐂𝐄 𝐏 = Assumptions often used in fluid mechanics- 1 1
𝑃1 + 2𝜌1 𝑉1 2 + 𝜌𝑔𝑦1 = 𝑃2 + 2𝜌𝑉2 2 + 𝜌𝑔𝑦2
∆𝐀
*viscosity is constant (Newtonian fluid)
----------------------------------------------------------- *viscosity is 0 (ideal fluid, inviscid fluid, flow is frictionless)
-------------------------------------------------------------- Further common assumptions ONLY FOR SV
𝐦 𝑀𝑎𝑠𝑠 𝐾𝑔 𝑆𝑢𝑟𝑓𝑎𝑐𝑒 𝑇𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝜸 𝑃1 + 𝑃2 = 𝐴𝑇𝑀𝑂𝑆𝑃𝐻𝐸𝑅𝐼𝐶 𝑃𝑅𝐸𝑆𝑆𝑈𝑅𝐸
𝐷𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑖𝑡𝑦 𝛒 = =
∀ 𝑉𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑚𝑒 𝑚3 𝜸=𝑭 𝑳 𝑉1 = 0
𝟑
𝑳 → 𝒎 =× 𝟏𝟎 −𝟑 𝟑
𝒎 → 𝑳 = × 𝟏𝟎 𝟑 --------------------------------------------------------------
Pascals principle --------------------------------------------------------------
----------------------------------------------------------- ‘if an external pressure is applied to a confined fluid, Ideal Gas equation
𝑆𝑝𝑒𝑐𝑖𝑓𝑖𝑐 𝐺𝑟𝑎𝑣𝑖𝑡𝑦 𝑺𝑮 𝑖𝑠 𝑡𝑕𝑒 𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜 𝑜𝑓 the pressure at every point within the fluid increases
𝑑𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑖𝑡𝑦 𝑜𝑓 𝑡𝑕𝑒 𝑠𝑢𝑏𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑐𝑒 𝑡𝑜 𝑡𝑕𝑒 by that amount’ 𝑷𝒗 = 𝑵𝑨 𝒌𝑩 𝑻 = 𝒏𝑹𝑻
𝑑𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑖𝑡𝑦 𝑜𝑓 𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟 𝑎𝑡 4° 𝐶 eg Hydraulic Lift
𝑃1 = 𝑃2 𝑅 = 𝑔𝑎𝑠 𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑡 = 8.3145 𝐽𝐾 −1 𝑚𝑜𝑙−1
𝛒𝐬𝐮𝐛𝐬𝐭𝐚𝐧𝐜𝐞 𝛒𝐬𝐮𝐛𝐬𝐭𝐚𝐧𝐜𝐞 𝐹1 𝐹2 --------------------------------------------------------------
𝐒𝐆 = =
𝛒𝐰𝐚𝐭𝐞𝐫 𝐚𝐭 𝟒° 𝐂 𝟏. 𝟎𝟎𝟎 × 𝟏𝟎𝟑 𝐤𝐠 𝐦𝟑 𝐴1 = 𝐴2
Real Gas equation
Can be used to obtain mechanical advantage
𝐴2
----------------------------------------------------------- 𝐹2 = 𝐹1 𝒑𝑽
Pressure vs depth (incompressible fluids) 𝐴1 =𝒁
Work done is the same by which the surface A2 rises
𝒏𝑹𝑻
𝑊𝑒𝑖𝑔𝑕𝑡 𝑜𝑓 𝑙𝑖𝑞𝑢𝑖𝑑 𝑾 = 𝒎. 𝒈
is smaller than the change in the height of surface
𝑉𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑚𝑒 𝑜𝑓 𝑙𝑖𝑞𝑢𝑖𝑑 𝑽 = 𝑨. 𝒉 Z= compressibility & is dimensionless
with area A
𝑀𝑎𝑠𝑠 𝑜𝑓 𝑙𝑖𝑞𝑢𝑖𝑑 𝒎 = 𝝆𝑽 = 𝝆. 𝑨. 𝒉
𝑭𝟏 𝚫𝒙𝟏 = 𝑭𝟐 𝚫𝒙𝟐
𝐹𝑜𝑟𝑐𝑒 𝑭 = 𝑾 = 𝝆. 𝑨. 𝒉. 𝒈
-------------------------------------------------------------- --------------------------------------------------------------
𝑭 𝝆. 𝑨. 𝒉. 𝒈 Root-mean-square atomic velocity
𝑃𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑢𝑟𝑒 𝑷 = = 𝑨 𝒄𝒂𝒏𝒄𝒆𝒍𝒔 Buoyancy
𝑨 𝑨 Pressure increases with depth. So the pressure at 𝟑𝑲𝑩 𝑻 𝟑𝑹𝑻
∴ 𝐏 = 𝛒𝐠𝐡 the bottom of a floating object is greater than on 𝑽𝑹𝑴𝑺 =
top. Thus the water exerts a net upward force on 𝒎 𝑴
the object. This is the boyant force.
Pressure vs depth (compressible fluids) 𝑤𝑒𝑖𝑔𝑕𝑡𝑜𝑏𝑗𝑒𝑐𝑡 𝑖𝑛 𝑎𝑖𝑟 > 𝑤𝑒𝑖𝑔𝑕𝑡𝑜𝑏𝑗𝑒𝑐𝑡 𝑖𝑛 𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟 T= Temperature Kelvins
𝑃 + ∆𝑃 𝐴 − 𝑃𝐴 − 𝜌𝐴∆𝑕𝑔 = 0 m= mass
(𝑃 + ∆𝑃) − 𝑃 − 𝜌∆𝑕𝑔 = 0 Archimedes’ Principal M= Molar mass of gas
∴ ∆𝐏 = 𝛒𝐠∆𝐡 The boyant force on an object immersed in fluid is -------------------------------------------------------------
----------------------------------------------------------- equal to the weight of fluid displaced by that object.
STP
For pressure of fluid in container with lid open. 𝑭𝑩 = 𝑾′ = 𝒎′𝒈
P=101.325 kPa T=273.15K 22.414L
Assume fluid is incompressible.
--------------------------------------------------------------
𝑊𝑕𝑒𝑟𝑒 𝑃2 = 𝑃𝐴 = 𝑃𝐴𝑡𝑚𝑜𝑠𝑝 𝑕𝑒𝑟𝑒 = 1.01325 × 105 Pressure on the top surface
∆𝑃 = 𝜌𝑔∆𝑕 𝑃1 − 𝑃2 = 𝜌𝑔𝑕 𝑃1 = 𝜌𝐹 𝑔𝑕
∴ 𝐏 = 𝐏𝐀 + 𝛒𝐠𝐡
Force on the top surface
𝐹1 = 𝑃1 𝐴 = 𝜌𝐹 𝑔𝑕2
Mark Riley
----------------------------------------------------------- Pressure on the bottom surface
𝐴𝑡𝑚𝑜𝑠𝑝𝑕𝑒𝑟𝑖𝑐 𝑝𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑢𝑟𝑒 & 𝑔𝑎𝑢𝑔𝑒 𝑝𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑢𝑟𝑒 𝑃2 = 𝜌𝐹 𝑔𝑕2
𝐏𝐚𝐛𝐬𝐨𝐥𝐮𝐭𝐞= 𝐏𝐠𝐚𝐮𝐠𝐞 + 𝐏𝐚𝐭𝐦𝐬 Force on then bottom surface markriley1985@hotmail.com
----------------------------------------------------------- 𝐹2 = 𝑃2 𝐴 = 𝜌𝐹 𝑔𝑕2 𝐴
𝑩𝒖𝒍𝒌 𝑴𝒐𝒅𝒖𝒍𝒖𝒔 𝑚𝑒𝑎𝑠𝑢𝑟𝑒𝑠 𝑡𝑕𝑒 𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑖𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑐𝑒 𝑜𝑓 FB is the net force exerted by the fluid on the
𝑓𝑙𝑢𝑖𝑑𝑠 𝑜𝑟 𝑠𝑜𝑙𝑖𝑑𝑠 𝑡𝑜 𝑐𝑕𝑎𝑛𝑔𝑒 𝑡𝑕𝑒𝑟𝑒 𝑣𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑚𝑒. submerged object
𝐅 𝐹 𝐵 = 𝐹 2 − 𝐹1 = 𝜌𝐹 𝑔𝐴 𝑕2 − 𝑕1 = 𝜌𝐹 𝑔𝐴Δ𝑕
𝐯𝐨𝐥𝐮𝐦𝐞 𝐬𝐭𝐫𝐞𝐬𝐬 𝐀 = − ∆𝐏
𝐁≡ =−
𝐯𝐨𝐥𝐮𝐦𝐞 𝐬𝐭𝐫𝐚𝐢𝐧 ∆∀ ∆∀ 𝑭𝑩 = 𝝆𝑭𝒍𝒖𝒊𝒅 𝑽𝒅𝒊𝒔𝒑𝒈 𝑭𝑩 = 𝒎𝑭𝒍𝒖𝒊𝒅 𝒈
∀𝟎 ∀𝟎
----------------------------------------------------------- --------------------------------------------------------------
𝑉𝑖𝑠𝑐𝑜𝑠𝑖𝑡𝑦 𝑜𝑓 𝑓𝑙𝑢𝑖𝑑𝑠 − 𝐼𝑛𝑡𝑒𝑟𝑛𝑎𝑙 𝑓𝑟𝑖𝑐𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑪𝒐𝒏𝒕𝒊𝒏𝒖𝒊𝒕𝒚 𝒆𝒒𝒖𝒂𝒕𝒊𝒐𝒏
𝒄𝒐𝒆𝒇𝒇𝒊𝒄𝒊𝒆𝒏𝒕 𝒐𝒇 𝒗𝒊𝒔𝒄𝒐𝒔𝒊𝒕𝒚 𝜼 (conservation of mass)
𝑠𝑕𝑒𝑎𝑟 𝑠𝑡𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠 𝐼𝑛𝑐𝑜𝑚𝑝𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑖𝑏𝑙𝑒 𝐹𝑙𝑢𝑖𝑑𝑠 𝜌1 = 𝜌2 𝑜𝑟 𝜌𝑖 = 𝜌𝑜
𝜼= 𝝆𝟏 𝑨𝟏 𝑽𝟏 = 𝝆𝟐 𝑨𝟐 𝑽𝟐
𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑒 𝑜𝑓 𝑐𝑕𝑎𝑛𝑔𝑒 𝑜𝑓 𝑠𝑕𝑒𝑎𝑟 𝑠𝑡𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠
𝑎𝑠 Δ𝑡 𝑡𝑕𝑒 𝑢𝑝𝑝𝑒𝑟 𝑝𝑙𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑠 𝑚𝑜𝑣𝑒 𝑥 𝑑𝑖𝑠𝑡 (𝜌𝐴𝑉)𝑖𝑛 − (𝜌𝐴𝑉)𝑜𝑢𝑡 = 0
Δ𝑥 = 𝑣Δ𝑡 For multiple inputs & outputs
𝑠𝑕𝑒𝑎𝑟 𝑠𝑡𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠 = 𝐴 𝐹
𝝆𝒊 𝑨𝒊 𝑽𝒊 = 𝝆𝒐 𝑨𝒐 𝑽𝒐
𝑆𝑕𝑒𝑎𝑟 𝑠𝑡𝑟𝑎𝑖𝑛 = Δ𝑥 𝑙 𝒊𝒏𝒑𝒖𝒕𝒔 𝒐𝒖𝒕𝒑𝒖𝒕𝒔

Δ𝑥 𝑣Δ𝑡 --------------------------------------------------------------
𝑙= 𝑙
Δ𝑡 Δ𝑡