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Vaporizers are heat exchangers which are specially designed to supply latent
heat of vaporization to the fluid. In some cases it can also preheat the fluid
then this section of vaporizers will be called upon preheating zone and the
other section in which latent heat is supplied; is known as vaporization zone
but he whole assembly will be called upon a vaporizer.
Vaporizers are called upon to fulfill the multitude of latent-heat
services which are not a part of evaporative or distillation process.
There are two principal types of tubular vaporizing equipment used in
industry: Boilers and Vaporizing Exchangers. Boilers are directly fired
tubular apparatus, which primarily convert fuel energy into latent heat of
vaporization. Vaporizing Exchangers are unfired and convert latent or
sensible heat of one fluid into the latent heat of vaporization of another. If a
vaporizing exchanger is used for the evaporation of water or an aqueous
solution, it is now fairly conventional to call it an Evaporator, if used to
supply the heat requirements at the bottom of a distilling column, whether
the vapor formed be stream or not, it is a Reboiler ; when not used for the
formation of steam and not a part of a distillation process, a vaporizing
exchanger is simply called a vaporizer.So any unfired exchanger in which
one fluid undergoes vaporization and which is not a part of an evaporation or
distillation process is a vaporizer.
The commonest type of vaporizer is the ordinary horizontal 1-2
exchanger or one of its modifications, and vaporization may occur in the
shell or in the tubes. If steam is the heating medium, the corrosive action of

air in the hot condensate usually makes it advantageous to carry out the
vaporization in the shell.
In the case of vaporizer, however, operation is often at high pressure,
and it is usually too expensive to provide disengagement space in the shell
m, since the inclusion of disengagement space at high pressures
correspondingly increases the shell thickness. For this reason vaporizers are
not usually designed for internal disengagement. Instead some external
means. Such as an inexpensive welded drum, is connected to the vaporizer
where in the entrained liquid is separated from the vapor.
When a 1-2 exchanger is used as a vaporizer, it is filled with tubes and
cannot be adapted for blowdown, since all the feed to a vaporizer is usually
of value and a rejection as blowdown is prohibitive. If the feed were
completely vaporized in the vaporizer, it would emerge as a vapor and any
dirt which was originally present would be left behind on the tube surface
over which total vaporization of occurred, fouling it rapidly, If the 1-2
exchanger (vaporization) were over-designed, that is, if it contained too
much surface, disengagement would have to occur on the tubes and due to
the excess surface the vapor would superheat above its saturation
The feed to a vaporizer should not be vaporized completely. The value
of this rule is apparent. If less that 100 percent to the feed is vaporized in 1-2
exchangers, the residual liquid can be counted on to prevent the
accumulation of dirt directly on the surface of the heating element. A
maximum of about 80 percent vaporization appears to provide favorable

operation in 1-2 exchanges, although higher percentages may be obtained in

vessels having interval disengagement space.
Forced and Natural circulation Vaporizer. When liquid is fed to is
fed by forced circulation. The circuit consists of a 1-2 exchanger serving as
the vaporizer and a disengaging drum from which the unvaporized liquid is
withdrawn and recombined with fresh feed. The generated vapor is removed
form the top of the drum.
The vaporized may also be connected with a disengaging drum
without the use of a reticulating pump. This scheme is natural circulation. It
requires that the disengaging drum be elevated above the vaporizer. The
advantages of forced circulation or natural circulation are in part economics
and a part dictated by space. The forced-circulation arrangement requires the
use of a pump with its continuous operating cost and fixed charges. As with
forced-circulation evaporators, the rate of feed recirculation can be
controlled very closely. If the installation is small, then use of a pump
preferable. If a natural-circulation arrangement is used pump and stuffing
box problems are eliminated but considerably more headroom must be
provided and recirculation rates cannot be controlled so readily.
The vaporization of a cold liquid coming from storage, the liquid may
not be at its boiling point and may require preheating to the boiling point.
Since the shell of a forced-circulation vaporizer is essentially the same as
any other 1-2 exchangers, the preheating can be done in the same shell as the
vaporization. If the period of performance of a vaporizer is to be measured
by a single overall dirt factor, it is necessary to divide the shell surface into
two successive zones, one for preheating and one for vaporization.

The true temperature difference is the weighted temperature difference for

the two zones, and the clean coefficient is the weighted clean coefficient.
Vaporizers tend to accumulate dirt, and for his reason higher
circulation rates and large dirt factors will often be desirable. Preference
should be given to the use of square pitch and a removable tube bundle.
Although it may reduce the possibility of using a 1-2 vaporizing exchanger
for other services, the baffle spacing can be increased or staggered form inlet
to outlet to reduce the pressure drop of the fluid vaporizing in the shell.

Types of Vaporizers
Vertical Vaporizer
It is widely used for chlorine, ammonia, propane,
methanol, sulfur dioxide, etc. Sizes range from 50, 000 to
15, 000, 000 Btu/h (12,500 to 3, 75, 000 Kcal/h) Very
compact, High productivity, easily combined with built in
super heater with common control. Many heating media can
be used, including steam, hot water, and heat transfer fluids
such as dowthrerm,, therminol, etc, electric heated
vaporizers also available, Small footprint.

Vertical bayonet

Indirect Fluid Heater

Very useful for high pressure or corrosive fluids where special
metallurgy can be used in smaller, less costly containment than traditional
shell side boiling. Heating medium heats an intermediate bath of
water/NH3/Therminol or similar heat-transfer fluid that then heats a second
coil at much lower cost than shell side heating or boiling.

Indirect Fluid Heater

Tubular Low Temperature Vaporizers
Combination of large flow rates liquid heat up and subsequent boiling
or super heating of mixed fluids with diverse boiling points. Needs special
stress analysis and mechanical design? Can preheat, boil, and super heat in
small vessel.

Tubular Low Temperature Vaporizers

Impedance Electric heater

Electric heater for process fluids. Lowest cost heater for life of
equipment. Easily cleanable, very safe, very long life simple maintenance,
good for high temperature boiling. Heat to 2000 0f, very useful for remote
locations of corrosive fluids or gases. Electric current flows though the
containment tube and generates heat that is transferred to the fluid.

Impedance Electric heater

Electric Resistance Vaporizers
Classic reboiler or submerged resistance heating elements in normal
shells for pool boiling duty. Useful for low to medium capacity loads and
more common metals of construction can have combined superheat coils int
eh the same containment vessel.

Electric Resistance Vaporizers

Cryogenic Vaporizer
For boiling very low temperatures [-3270F (-2000C)]. Flare drums
duty, to meet a few second startup emergencies. Heating medium in shell
and boiling fluids inside the tubes. Must be able to copy with thermal
expansion and adjustments in a few seconds with out damaging stresses.
Also must avoid metallurgical problems including fatigue for duties at high
pressure such as ethylene. Etc. Avoid freeze-up problem s and heat up the
fluid to required exit temperatures with no accompanying freeze up
problems. Also, used to heat subzero liquids being distributed on service
grids to multiple users and cold fluids from ships or rail cars needing heat up
to avoid fracture of steel or other non ductile piping systems of user Sizes
can bye up to 12ft (3.6m) in diameter and 40 ft (12m) long. Shells often steel
with tubes of stainless steels 604 / 613.

Extremely Low Temperature Vaporizers



Calculate Heat Duty

Q = Q 1 + Q2
Where 1&2 denote preheating and vaporization zones respectively
Q1= mCp T


Calculate t (weighted) by the temp. differences of preheating

and vaporization.

t, weighted = Q1 Q2
(t )1

(t ) 2

(t)1 = LMTD
(t)2 =

(T1 T2 ) (t1 t 2 )



Assume value of overall H.T. Co-efficient UD from the range

given in the literature


Calculate Heat transfer surface area by the formula


ft 2
U Dassumed t , w

Decide type, size, layout and assign fluids to shell and tube sides.

6. Calculate No. of tubes as:

No. of tubes =

Heat.Transfer . Area
( Surface. per.linear. ft ) lenght.of .tubes

7. Find out shell diameter, (For corresponding no. of tubes).

8. Estimate
Tube side film Co-efficient (hi)
hi =JH K/De (Cu/K)1/3
9. Estimate shell side preheating film Co-efficient (ho)
ho = JH K/De (Cu/K)1/3 s
10.Find out over all clean co-efficient for preheating zone.
U1 =

hio ho
.B.t.u. / hr
hio ho

ft2 F0

11.Calculate clean surface required for preheating


A1 = U .(t ) . ft

12.Estimate shell slide vaporization film co-efficient( h0' )

h0' = Jh K/De (Cu/K)1/3
13. Find out over all clean co-efficient for vaporization zone.
U2 =

hio h ' o
. B.t.u./hr
hio h ' o

ft2 Fo

14. Calculate clean surface required for vaporization


A2 = U (t ) . ft
15. Calculate total clean surface required


Ac = A1 + A2

16. Calculate weighted overall clean co-efficient

Uc, w =

u1 A1 . .u 2 A2
A1 A2


ft2 Fo

17. Calculate over all H.T. Co-efficient including dirt factor.


. Rd

18. Pressure drop calculations

For tube side
fGt2 Ln
Pt =
5.22 1010 D s t

For preheating zone

fGt2 Ln
Psl =
5.22 1010 De s s

Lp(length of preheating zone)=Lt A1/Ac

Number of crosses, (N + 1) =

12 L p

For vaporization zone

f ' G s2 Ds ( N 1) '
Ps2 =
5.22 1010 De s ' s

S` = Mean specific gravity for vapor liquid mixture.

Lv (length of vaporization zone)=Lt A2/Ac
No. of crosses, (N + 1) = 12Lv/B
Ps=Psl+ Ps2


966.7 lb/hr

Sat. Vaps

Sat. liquid


266o F

266o F
150.8o F

2501 lb/hr

233.6o F


Sat. Vaps


Heat Duty
Qt = Q1 + Q2
1)=> Preheating

2)=> Vaporization

= mCpT
= 1135.8 0.87 (112-66)
= 45454.7 Kmol/hr = 180.375.8 Btu/hr

Q2 = Qalcohol + QH2O
Latent heat of vaporization of H2O = 185.32 Kcal/Kg
Latent heat of vaporization of alcohol = 500 Kcal/Kg
Q2 = 863.2 + 45.43 + 500
Q2 = 182685 Kcal/hr = 724942.5 Btu/hr
Qt = Q1 + Q2
= 228140.2 Kcal/hr
= 905318.7 Btu/hr


T1 = 130o C = 266 oF

For steam

T2 = 130o C = 266 oF
For process fluid,
T1 = 66o C = 150.8 oF
T2 = 112o C = 233.6 oF
t1 = LMTD

266 233.6 266 50.8

266 233.6

266 150.8


= 65.27 oF
For Vaporization Zone
t2 = 266 233.6 = 32.4 oF
t, weighted =

t, w =

t 1



180375.8 724942.5

t, w = 36 oF
assume UD = 95 Btu/hr. oF. ft2
as Qt = UD A t, w

95 36

= 264.71 ft2

Exchange Layout
1-2, shell & tube heat exchanger
OD, 1 sq. pitch,
A = at Nt Lt
A = 0.1963 ft
Lt = 5 ft.
A = 0.1963 8 Nt
Nt =

= 168
0.1963 8

Nt = 166

(Nearest count)

A = 260.68 ft2
UD = 96 Btu/hr. ft2. oF

Shell Side

Tube Side

17 , C = 0.25

OD, 1 sqr. Pitch

B = 4 in

16. BWG

Calculations (Tube Side)

at =

0.302 166
= 0.174 ft2
144 2

Ft = m/at = 966.7/0.174 = 5555.74 lbm/hr. ft2

D = (I.D)Tube/2 = 0.62/12 = 0.052 ft
R,t = DGt/

T = 130o C = 266 oF

= 0.014 Cp = 0.03388 lb/ft hr

Re,t =

0.052 5555.74
= 852.7

For condensing steam,

hio = 1500 Btu/hr. ft2 oF
Shell Side Calculations
as =


17.25 0.25 4
144 1

= 0.119 ft2

Gs = m/as = 2501.76/0.119 = 21023 lb/hr ft2

Res = De Gs/
De = 0.95/12 = 0.079167 ft
(for liquid) = 0.25 Cp
= 0.25 2.42 = 0.604 lb/hr. ft
Re,s =

0.079167 21023

= 2745

JH = 29
ho = JH (K/De)(C/K)1/3
= 78 Btu/hr.ft2 oF

= hioho/ho + hio


= 74 Btu/hr.ft2 oF



= 37 ft2

For vaporization zone

(at 112o C for vaps)

= 0.012 Cp
= 0.012 2.42 = 0.029 lb/hr. ft

Re,s = DeGs/ =

0.079 21023

= 57269

JH = 140

= JH(K/De)(c/K)1/3
= 141.8 Btu/hr.ft2 oF


h io ho
h io ho

=129.5 Btu hr. ft2 oF

Clean surface required for vaporization
A2 = Q2/U2(t)2
A2 = 172.78 ft2
Total clean surface required
Ac = A1 + A2
= 37 + 172.78
Ac = 209.78 ft2
Weighted clean overall co-efficient
Uc,w =

U1A1 U 2A 2
A1 A 2

= 119 Btu/hr. ft2 oF



1/UD = 1/UC + Rd

88 Btu/hr ft2 oF


Tube side Pressure Drop


Re,t = 8527
f = 0.00028

Specific volume of steam at 39 Psi

= 10.854 ft3/lb

10.854 ftlb 62.5 ftlb

s = 0.00147
Gt = 5555.7 lb/hr. ft2
Pt = 1/2
= 1/2

fG 2tL n

5.22 1010 0.052 0.00147 1

100028 5555374 2 8 2

5.22 1010 0.052 0.00147 1

Pt = 0.035 Psi
Shell Side Pressure Drop
For preheating zone
At Re,s = 2745

f = 0.0027

Length of preheating zone = LP = L t


= 1.41 ft
No. of crosses, (N + 1) =

12 1.4
= 4.2

s = 0.81
Ds = 17.25/12 = 1.44 ft

Ps1 =

f G s2D3 N 1

5.22 1010 s s

Ps1 = 0.22 Psi

For vaporization zone
At Re,s = 57269

f = 0.0018

Length of vaporization zone) = Lv = L t A

= 6.6 ft
No. of crosses, (N+1)

= 12


= 19.74
outlet liquid = 0.81 62.5 = 50.625
outlet varps = PM/RT =

44.1 42.3
10.73 693.6
= 0.25

soutlet mix =





= 0.005
smean =

0.81 0.005

N 1 2

Ps2 =

= 0.4

fG s2 Ds N 1 2
5.22 1010 De s 1

= 1.08 Psi

Ps1 + Ps2


1.3 psi






Item No.



Forced Circulation

No. of Item

To vaporize the alcohol stream.

Operation Continuous
Heat duty

905318.7 Btu/hr

Heat transfer area

260.7 ft2

Overall heat transfer coefficient

88 Btu/hr-ft2 oF

Dirt factor

0.003hr-ft2 oF/Btu

Shell side
Fluid circulated
Ethyl alcohol
Flow rates
2501.76 lb/hr
Inlet = 150.8 oF
Outlet = 233.6 oF
44.1 psi
Pressure drop
1.3 psi
Material of construction Carbon steel
I.D = 17.25 in
C = 0.25 in
B = 4 in

Tube side
966.7 lb/hr
266o F
39 psi
0.035 psi
Carbon steel
OD = in 16 BWG
Pitch = 1 in
Square arrangement,
Length = 8 ft
Nt = 166