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# MODULE 2.

## Three-Dimensional Stress Analysis

Example 2.1 The state of stress (in MPa) at a point is given by  x  14 ,  y  10 ,
 z  35 ,  xy   yx  7 ,  yz   zy  0 . Determine the normal and shear stresses for a
2 1 3
plane whose normal is defined by l  ,m   and n  . What is the
14 14 14
direction of the shear stress acting in this plane?

## Substituting the stress components into equation

   xl 2   y m 2   z n 2  2 lm x y  mn yz  ln zx 
 4  1  9   2   3   6  
 14 x   10 x    35 x   2   7    0    7 
 14   14   14   14   14   14  

5 45
 4 
7 2

## Now, the x, y and z component forces are

 2   1   3 
S x  l x  m xy  n xz   14   7   7  0
 14   14   14 

 1   3   2  4
S y  m y  n yz  l yx   10   0   7 
 14   14   14  14

 3   2   1  91
S z  n z  l zx  m zy   35   7   0 
 14   14   14  14

## Then, the shear stress acting along the plane is

2 16 912
 2  Sx  Sy  Sz  2  0    223.62
2 2

14 14

from which  = 14.95 MPa. The direction cosines for this shear stress are

  2  
l s  S x  l   /    0    x19.21 / 14.95  0.678
  14  
 4  1  
ms  S y  m /       x19.21 / 14.95  0.415
 14  14  
 91  3  
ns  S z  n  /      x19.21 / 14.95  0.597
 14  14  

##  s  cos 1 (0.687)  133.4

 s  cos 1 (0.415)  65.5
 s  cos 1 (0.597)  53.37

## Principal Stresses and Invariants

Example 2.2 At a point in a loaded material, a resultant stress of magnitude 216 MPa
makes angles of  r  43 ,  r  75 and  r  50.88 with the coordinates x, y and z
respectively. Find the normal and shear stress on a plane whose direction cosines
are l  0.387 , m  0.866 and n  0.3167 . Given that the applied shear stresses
are  xy  23 ,  yz  3.1 and  xz  57 (MPa) , determine  x ,  y ,  z , the invariants and
the principal stresses.

Resolve the resultant S (stress S acting on unit area ABC) in the x, y and z directions to
give

S x  Sl r  S cos  r
S y  Smr  S cos  r
S z  Snr  S cos  r

##   S x l  S y m  S z n  S l cos  r  m cos  r  n cos  r 

 2160.387 cos 43  0.866 cos 75  0.3167 cos 50.88  152.71 MPa

## Now, the shear stress is

 2  S 2  2    216 2

 152.712  152.76 MPa
Substituting

S x  l x  m xy  n xz

## 216 cos 43  0.387 x  0.866 x 23  0.3167 x57 

 x  310.1MPa

S y  m y  n yz  l yx

## 216 cos 75  0.866 y  0.3167 x3.1  0.387 x 23

 y  55.41MPa

S z  n z  l zx  m zy

 z  369.15MPa

## Substituting, the invariants are

J1   x   y   z

## J 1  310.1  55.41  369.15  734.66

J 2   x y y z   x z   xy   y z   zx
2 2 2

## J 2  310.1x55.41  55.41x369.15  369.15 x310.1  23   3.1  57   148323.05

2 2 2

310.1 23 57
J 3  det 23 55.41  3.1  5956556.22
57  3.1 369.15

The roots are

## Directions of Principal Stresses

Example 2.3. Find the principal stresses and their directions, given the following stress
components:  x  3 ,  y  0 ,  z  0 ,  xy   yx  1 ,  yz   zy  2 (KN/m2). Show that the
principal directions are orthogonal.

## Substitute values to the following matrix

 x    xy  xz
 yx  y     yz
 zx zy  z   

## The determinant becomes

3    1 1
det 1 0    2 0
1 2 0   

Principal stresses are found from the expansion of the above equation

1     4  2  0
The roots are principal stresses  1  4 ,  2  1 and  3  2 KN / m 2

## Substituting to the following equations

l ( x   )  mx y  n xz  0  l (3   )  m  n  0
l yx  m( y   )  n yz  0  l  m  2n  0
l zx  m zy  n( z   )  0  l  2 m  n  0

Above equations supply direction cosines for each principal stress. Substituting
  1  4

 l1  m1  n1  0
l1  4m1  n1  0
l1  2m1  4n1  0
Because only two of the above equations are independent, we can let any vector
A  Ax u x  Ay u y  Az u z , lie in one direction. Thus the unit vector for the 1-direction
becomes

u
u

u
Ax Ay Az
1  l1 x  m1 y  n1 z  x  y  z
A A A

hence

Ax Ay Az
l1  , m1  , n1 
A A A

 l1  m1  n1  0   Ax  Ay  Az  0
l1  4m1  n1  0  Ax  4 Ay  2 Az  0
l1  2m1  4n1  0  Ax  2 Ay  4 Az  0

1
We solve by setting Ax  1 to give Ay  Az 
2
3 2 1
Then A  thus giving l1  m1  n1 
2 3 6

## The unit vector aligned with the 1 – direction becomes

2 1 1
u1  ux  uy  uz
3 6 6

The direction cosines for the 2 and 3 – directions are similarly found by substituting,
stresses in turn,    2  1 and    3  2 . The unit vectors for these directions are

1 1 1
u2  ux  uy  uz
3 3 3

1 1
u3  uy  uz
2 2

## The directions are orthogonal as u1  u 2  u1  u 3  u 2  u 3  0

Maximum Shear Stress

Example 2.4. The given matrix of stress components  ij (MPa) describes the stress state
at a point. Find, in magnitude and direction, the normal and shear stress on a plane whose
unit normal vector equation is u N  0.53u x  0.35u y  0.77u z . Determine the principal
stresses, the greatest shear stress and the stress state on the octahedral plane.

6 2 2
 ij  2 0 4
2 4 0

## Substituting x  6,  y  0,  z  0 ,  xy  2 ,  xz  2 and  z  4 (MPa) in

 
   xl 2   y m 2   z n 2  2 lm x y  mn yz  ln zx with l  0.53 , m  0.35 and n  0.77
gives

2

## S x  l x  m xy  n xz  0.53 x6   0.35 x 2   0.77 x 2   5.42 MPa

S y  m y  n yz  l yx  0.35 x0   0.77 x 4   0.53 x 2   4.14 MPa
S z  n z  l zx  m zy  0.77 x0   0.53 x 2   0.35 x 4   2.46 MPa

## Then the shear stress

2
 2  S x  S y  S z   2  5.42 2  4.14 2  2.46 2  6.216 2  13.93
2 2

  3.732 MPa

## The direction of  is defined by directions supplied from the following equations

l s  S x  l   /  
5.42  0.53x6.216  0.57
3.732
ms  S y  m /  
4.14  0.35 x6.216  0.526
3.732
n  S  n   /  
2.46  0.77 x6.216  0.623
s z
3.732

## These cosines may be checked from l s  m s  n s  1

2 2 2
The unit vector in the direction of  with respect to x, y and z becomes
u

u
s  ls x  ms y  ns z  0.57u x  0.526u y  0.623u z

## The principal stresses are found from the determinant:

6    2 2
det 2 0    4 0
2 4 0   

  42     8  0
 1  8 ,  2  2 and  3  4 MPa

## The greatest shear stress is found from

 max 
1
 1   3   1 8   4  6 MPa
2 2

1 1
which acts along the plane defined by the normal l  , m  0 and n  , relative to
2 2
the principal directions 1, 2 and 3.

## The normal stress acting on the octahedral plane is found from

 o   1   2   3  / 3  8  2  4  / 3  2 MPa

1
which acts in the direction of the normal l  m  n  . The octahedral shear stress is
3
found from

2 2 2

MPa

## with direction cosines

l o  ( 1   o ) / 3 o  8  2  / 3 x 4.9  0.707
mo  ( 2   o ) / 3 o  2  2  / 3 x 4.9  0
no  ( 3   o ) / 3 o   4  2  / 3 x 4.9  0.707
Matrix and Tensor Transformations of Stress

A
u

u
Example 2.5. Given the following matrix S of stress components, determine S’ when the
coordinates x1 and x2 are aligned with the vectors  1  2 2  3 3 and
B
u
u
 1 2 3 u

 1 5  5
S   5 0 0  x10  4
 5 0  1

B
First, divide the vector equations by their respective magnitudes  14 ,  3 , to
give the unit vectors

1 2 3
u1'  u1  u2  u3
14 14 14

1 1 1
u 2'  u1  u2  u3
3 3 3

u u

u u

u u

u u

## 1'  l11 1  l12 2  l13 3

2 '  l21 1  l22 2  l23 3

1 2 3
l11  , l12  , l13 
14 14 14
1 1 1
l 21  , l 22  , l 23  
3 3 3

The cosines for the third orthogonal direction x 3 are found from the cross product. Thus,
if a vector C lies in x3 then by definition

u1 u2 u3 u1 u2 u3
C  AxB  A1 A2 A3 = 1 2 3
B1 B2 B3 1 1 1
u

u
u

C  (2  3) 1  (1  3) 2  (1  2) 3  5 1 4 2  3

5 4 1
u 3'  C / C  u1  u2  u3
42 42 42
u

u
and from equation 3'  l31 1  l32 2  l33 3

5 4 1
l31  , l32  , l33  
42 42 42

## l11 l12 l13   11 12 13  l11 l 21 l31 

S'  l 21 l 22 l 23   21  22  23  l12 l 22 l32 
l31 l32 l33   31  32  33  l13 l 23 l33 

 1 2 3   1 1 5 
   
 14 14 14   1 5  5  14 3 42 
 1 
5 0 0  
1 1 2 1 4 
S'   
 3 3 3   14 3 42 
 5 4 1  
  5 0  1 
  3 1 1 
   
 42 42 42   14 3 42 

 1 2 3  4 11 20 
  
 14 14 14   14 3 42   1.286 1.389 1.980 
 1   25  
6.667  2.762
1 1 5 5
S'     1.389
 3 3 3  14 3 42 
 5 4  1  8 4 26   1.980  2.762  5.381
  
 42 42 42   14 3 42 

## The Strain and Rotation Matrices

Example 2.6. Find the principal strains and their directions for the following plane strain
state. Show that the principal strain directions are orthogonal.

 x  xy  xz  65 33 0
 
 i j   yx y  yz   33  73 0 x10  4
 zx  zy  z   0 0 4

4
Substituting the strains  x  65 x 10 ,  y  73 x10 4 ,  z  4 x10 4 ,
 xy   yx  33 x10 4 and  xz   yz  0 into equation  3  I1 2  I 2  I 3  0 leads to the
principal strain cubic
 3  4 x10 4  2  5049.3 x10 8   20069.2 x10 12  0

For the plane strain condition, the absence of shear strains  xz and  yz is a consequence of
the absence of associated shear stresses  xz and  yz . Thus the normal strain  z  4 x10 4 is
a principal strain and a root of the principal strain cubic. It follows that

  4 x10 a
4 2
    
 b  c [  3  4 x10 4  2  5049.3 x10 8   20069.2 x10 12  0

Equating coefficients,

 : a  1
3

 : b  (4 x10
2
)  4 x10 4 ,  b  8 x10 4
4

##  : c  (4 x10 4 b)  5049.3x10 8 ,  c  5017.3x10 8

The remaining two principal strains become the roots to the quadratic:

 
 2  8 x10 4   5017.3 x10 8  0

giving   75 x10 4 and 67x10 4 . The principal strains 1 >  2 >  3 are then

## 1  67 x10 4 ,  2  4 x10 4 ,  3  75 x10 4

As the direction of  2   z  is parallel to the z-direction, it follows that the cosines are
l 2  0 , m2  0 and n2  1 . The strain equivalent to equation,

l ( x   )  mx y  n xz  0
l yx  m( y   )  n yz  0
l zx  m zy  n( z   )  0

## together with equation, l 2  m 2  n 2  1

enables a calculation of the cosines for the remaining two directions. That is,

2l ( x  )  m x y  n xz  0
l yx  2m( y  )  n yz  0
l zx  m zy  n( z  )  0

Only two of the above equations are independent. Substituting   67 x10 4 and given
strain components leads to the three simultaneous equations:
 4l1  33m1  0 , 33l1  280m1  0 and  126n1  0

Thus n1  0 and l1  8.25m1 . As l1  m1  n1  1 , this gives the direction cosines for the
2 2 2

2 2 2

## Substituting equations l yx  2m( y  )  n yz  0 and l zx  m zy  n( z  )  0 into the

the following equations
u u u

u u u

u u u

u u 2u

1  l1 x  m1 y  n1 z

2  l2 x  m2 y n z

3  l3 x  m3 y  n3 z

## u1  0.993u x  0.120u y , u2  uz and u 3  0.120u x  0.993u y

These are orthogonal when the dot product of any two unit vectors in the 1, 2 and 3
directions are zero. Clearly u1  u 2 = u 1  u 3  u 2  u 3  0
Strain Tensor Transformation

Example 2.7. Find, for the given tensor of microstrains (1 = 1x10-6),

##  100 100  100

 i j   100 200 200 
 100 200 200 

## (a) the normal strain in a direction defined by the unit vector:

u

2 1 2 u
V  1  2  3
3 3 3

Substituting 11  100 ,  22  200 ,  33  200 , 12  100 , 13  100 ,  23  200
into
 i ' j '  lipl jq pq E’ = LELT

 VV  l ip l iq  pq  lip  pq l1q 
T

##  11 12 13  l11 

 VV  l11 l12 l13  21  22  23  l12 
 31  32  33  l13 

 VV  l11 11  l12  22  l13  33  2l11l12 12  l12 l13  23  l11l13 13 
2 2 2

2 2 2

 VV  2 / 3 100  1 / 3 200  2 / 3 200  2 (2 / 3)(1 / 3)100  (1 / 3)(2 / 3)200  (2 / 3) 2 (100)  196.7 
u

(b) the shear strain between the normal vector in (a) and a perpendicular direction
defined by a unit vector: 2 '  0.25 1  0.942 2  0.221 3

2 1
The unit vectors’ equations below yield the direction cosines l11  , l12  ,
3 3
2
l13  , l 21  0.25 , l 22  0.942 and l 23  0.221 .
3
u u u

u u u

u u u

u u u

## 1'  l11 1  l12 2  l13 3

2 '  l21 1  l22 2  l23 3

## 3'  l31 1  l32 2  l33 3

Substituting these into

##  11 12 13  l 21 

 V2'  l11 l12 l13  21  22  23  l 22  .
 31  32  33  l 23 

 V2'  l11l 2111  l12 l 22  22  l13 l 23  33  l11l 22  l 21l12 12  l12 l 23  l 22 l13  23  l11l 23  l 21l13 13

##  V2'  2 / 3(0.25)100  1 / 3(0.942)200  2 / 3(0.221)200  (2 / 3)(0.942)  (0.25)(1 / 3)100

 (1 / 3)(0.221)  (0.942)(2 / 3)200  (2 / 3)(0.221)  (0.25)(2 / 3)(100)  213.05

## The principal strains may be found from the cubic equation

 3  I1 2  I 2  I 3  0 . When the roots are exact it is easier to find them by
expanding the following determinant and factoring:

## 100    100  100

100 200    200 0
 100 200 200   

##   400  100  200  0

1  400 ,  2  200 and  3  100

## The maximum shear strain expression applies when 1 >  2 >  3

 max  1   3 
1 1
2 2

## The normal strain on this plane is


1
1   3   100
2
(e) the octahedral normal and shear strains

## The mean or hydrostatic strain in the normal direction is

m 
1
1   2   3   (400  200  100) / 3  166.7
3

## The octahedral shear strain is

 o  2 / 3 1   2   ( 2   3 ) 2  1   3 
2 2

2 2

## This is a radian measure of the angular change between two perpendicular

directions: one aligned with the normal to the octahedral plane and the other
aligned with the direction of the shear stresso in that plane

## (f) the elastic dilation and mean strain.

V / V  1   2   3   3 m  500

Which equals the strain invariant IV and from which the mean strain
3 m  166.7

## (g) the deviatoric strains

Deviatoric strains will remain when the mean or hydrostatic strain 3m has been
subtracted from the normal strain components. Correspondence with equation
ij’ = ij - ijm = ij – 1/3ijkk gives the strain deviator tensor

 i j '   ij   i j  m

##  z '   y   m  200  166.7  33.3  z

These normal deviators, together with the given tensor shear strains constitute the
deviatoric strain tensor  i j ' . The six independent deviatoric components of strain
define unsymmetrical distortion.