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(What is chemotherapy)

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(How dose Chemotherapy

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G0 (G0 phase or resting stage) G1 G1 (G1 phase) S (S phase) 1 18-30 18-20 G2 (G2 phase) 2-10 M (M phase) 2 30-60 .

ö÷ü èå úâ â õ å û ûõ (What are the goals of treatment with chemotherapy?) 1. (PALLIATION) .( ) M S 3. (CONTROL) 3. (CURE) 2.

(Neoadjuvant chemotherapy) (Adjuvant chemotherapy) (Neoadjuvant chemotherapy) (Adjuvant chemotherapy) 4. ü øã è å û ûõ (What are the Different types of chemotherapy drug?) .

Alkylating agents - - 5-10 . dacarbazine (DTIC) Ethylenimines thiotepa carboplatin oxalaplatin altretamine The platinum drugs . ifosfamide melphalan .1. carmustine lomustine .Nitrogen mustards Mechlorethamine (nitrogen mustard).Triazines busulfan temozolomide cisplatin.Alkyl sulfonates .Nitrosoureas streptozocin. cyclophosphamide. chlorambucil.

Antimetabolites S 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). gemcitabine (Gemzar).methotrexate.2. Doxorubicin (Adriamycin). capecitabine (Xeloda). Epirubicin and Antracyclines Idarubicin Mitoxantrone Mitoxantrone . cytarabine (Ara-C). 6-mercaptopurine (6-MP). fludarabine pemetrexed (Alimta) 3. Anti-tumor antibiotics Antracyclines Antracyclines Daunorubicin.

Irinotecan(CPT-11). Etoposide(VP-16). Teniposide and Mitoxantrone 5. Topoisomerase inhibitors 2-3 Topotecan. Bleomycin and Mitomycin-C 4. Mitotic inhibitors Mitotic inhibitors Mitosis(M) .Antracyclines Actinomycin-D.

Corticosteroids ( ) Prednisolone. Dexamethasone 7. Docetaxel (Taxotere) Epothilones : Ixabepilone (Ixempra) The vinca alkaloids : vinblastin (Velban) . vinorelbine (Navelbine) Estramustine (Emcyt) 6. Methylprednisolone. a) Targeted therapy . vincristine (Oncovin).Taxanes : Paclitaxel (Taxol).

Exemestane(Aromasin).LHRH agonists : Leuprolide (Lupron). Sunitinib (Sutent). Bortezomib(Velcade) b) Differentiating agents Retinoids. Tamoxifen.Anti-androgens : Bicalutamide(Casodex).Anti-estrogen : Fulvestrant (Faslode). Toremifene(Fareston) . Gefitinib (Iressa). Goserelin(Zoladex) d) Immunotherapy Active Immunotherapy : Passive Immunotherapy : . Bexarotene(Targretin) c) Hormone therapy ( ) .Aromatase inhibitors : Anastozole(Arimidex).Imatinib (Gleevec). Flutamide(Eulexin). Tretinoin(ATRA or Atralin).Estrogens .Progestins : Megestrol acetate (Megace) . Nilutamide(Nilandron) . Letrozole(Femara) . Erlotinib(Tarceva).

Immunomodulating drugs .Non-specific immunotherapies . Interleukin-2(IL-2). â â ë chemotherapy) å û ûõ (Selecting which drugs to use for - . Interferon-alpha Thalidomide ) Lenalidomide(Revlimid) 5.Cancer vaccines ( BCG .. Alemtuzumab (Campath) .Monoclonal antibody therapy (Passive immunotherapies) Rituximab(Rituxan).

- A. E C 6. Drug doses and schedules) (Planning .

(cycle) ( 2-4 ) .

. 7. ùâ å û ûõ (What are the different ways to take chemotherapy?) 1. 2. 8. 3. 5.7. 9. 4. 6. 10. 12. 11.

(Central venous catheters . CVCs) (Central venous catheters . CVCs) - .

å ü õ precaution) ûý û â ù ô ã (Safety - .- 8.

48 2 48 2 .

- 9. . (Bone marrow suppression) 6 120 . 1. ý ã è å èã è å û ûõ (What are the possible side effects of chemotherapy?) . .

000 .000 10.10 3-4 2.000 7-14 37-52% 150.500 6.000 450.

Dolasetron (Anzemet). . . Prochlorperazine (Compazine). Corticosteroids. Metoclopramide (Reglan). . Aprepitant(Emend) 3. Ondansetron (Zofran). Promethazine (Phenergan). Palonosetron(Aloxi). lorazepam (Ativan). Granisetron (Kytril).2. . (Nausea and vomiting) ) 24 ( 24 .

- - 2-3 4. 6 .

. . 5-14 2-3 7. 6. 50% .5. 3 4 . . .

vinblastine 8. 3 vincristine 4 - irinotecan. 5-fluorouracil 9. .

. . . . . . . . .10. . . . . 12. . doxorubicin daunorubicin 1 10 Anthracyclines 11.

14. Vincristine . Bleomycin . 1-2 Cisplatin.13.

. - .- - - - 30 .

Vincristine . Cyclophosphamide. . . . . Streptozocin . Methotrexate. . Cisplatin. Ifosfamide .- - 15. . . . Cytarabine. Streptozocin 2-3 . 16. Methotrexate.

. 3. 4. 2. ifosfamide cyclophosphamide 5.1.

å ÷ øýü å .- 10. å (What Questions should I ask about chemotherapy?) û ûõ . â õ . ÷ ÿø â ú ûâ .

- 11. ý â â ø èâ ÿø â âû (What s new in chemotherapy research?) å û ûõ .

- - (Targeted therapy) Lapatinib (Tykerb) Amifostine .