Spring 2001 EE 8223 − Analog IC Design Page 43
Current Sources and Sinks
The Current Mirror
An ideal current source/sink has infinite output impedance and,
subsequently, provides constant current over a wide operating voltage range.
The reality, however, is finite output impedance and limited output voltage
swing. Also, for current mirrors, minimum input voltage requirements.
If M1 and M2 are perfectly matched, then the simple current mirror provides
2 1
1 2
1
2
1
2
L W
L W
I
I
I
I
in
o
D
D
· · ·
β
β
(since V
GS1
=V
GS2
)
if channel length modulation and mobility modulation are neglected, and SI
saturation operating is assumed. In addition, if V
SS
= 0V, then
THN GS in
V V V > ·
1 min ,
, ( )
M2
, 2 min , sat DS THN GS out
V V V V · − · ,
and
o
o
I
r
λ
1
·
Normally the values for V
GS
and L are selected and then W is used as a
current scaling factor. Typically V
GS
is chosen to provide V
DS,sat
of several
hundred millivolts. Often times the chosen L value is 2 to 5 times greater
than the minimum L
dra
to help minimize the channel length modulation and
mobility modulation effects.
Spring 2001 EE 8223 − Analog IC Design Page 44
From the figure below, note the output voltage value at which I
D1
= I
D2
and
the effect of finite output resistance.
Example 20.2 illustrates how multiple ratioed currents are mirrored. In this
example oxide encroachment has been neglected! Layout techniques that
compensate for this will be discussed soon.
Example of how the basic current mirror can be utilized in biasing schemes:
Spring 2001 EE 8223 − Analog IC Design Page 45
Obviously nchannel transistors are used to implement current sinks whereas
pchannel transistors are used to implement current sources.
The Cascode Current Mirror
The cascode configuration is used to increase the output resistance of the
current sink/source.
Note that the cascode current sink requires more output voltage overhead,
i.e., larger V
out,min
(say to stay in SI saturation) than the simple (basic)
current sink.
Spring 2001 EE 8223 − Analog IC Design Page 46
An alternate cascode sink that provides V
out,min
= 2∆V is shown below. Note
the relationship between the transistors’ aspect ratios.
The output resistance of the cascode configuration (Fig. 20.5) can be
determined from the smallsignal model.
( )
2
4 2 2 4 4
1
o m o o m o o
r g r r g r R ≈ + + · [r
o
= r
o2
= r
o4
, SI sat.]
Spring 2001 EE 8223 − Analog IC Design Page 47
For the general case (replacing r
o2
with an arbitary R):
( ) ( ) R g r R R g r R
m o m o o
+ ≈ + + · 1 1
This general description of output resistance, ( ) R R g r R
m o o
+ + · 1 , can used
to quickly estimate the output resistance of other cascode circuits such as the
triple cascode (Fig. 20.9 and equation 20.13).
Sensitivity of the Basic Current Sink/Source
By definition, the sensitivity of the basic current sink’s output current to
VDD is given as
VDD
I
I
VDD
VDD
VDD
I
I
S
o
o
o
o
VDD
I
VDD
o
∂
∂
⋅ ·
∆
∆
·
→ ∆
lim
0
In this same manner, I
o
’s sensitivity to other inputs or component values can
be (individually) obtained.
If I
D1
= I
D2
(= I
o
) and V
GS
changes very little with variations in VDD, then
R I
VDD
S
o
I
VDD
o
1
⋅ ≈
The percentage change in I
o
is described by
VDD
VDD
S
I
I
o
I
VDD
o
o
∆
⋅ ·
∆
Spring 2001 EE 8223 − Analog IC Design Page 48
For computer simulations of circuit sensitivity (a necessity for large
circuits), the excerpt shown below from the HSpice manual regarding
sensitivity analysis might be helpful.
.SENS Statement − DC Sensitivity
General form
.SENS ov1 <ov2 ...>
ov1 ov2 ... Branch currents or nodal voltage for DC
component sensitivity analysis.
Example
.SENS V(9) V(4,3) V(17) I(VCC)
If a .SENS statement is included in the input file, HSPICE determines the DC
smallsignal sensitivities of each specified output variable relative to every
circuit parameter. The sensitivity measurement is the partial derivative of
each output variable with respect to the value of a given circuit element, taken
at the operating point, and normalized to the total change in output
magnitude. (Therefore, the sum of the sensitivities of all elements is 100%).
Sensitivities for resistors, voltage sources, current sources, diodes, and BJT’s
are calculated.
Only one .SENS analysis may be performed per simulation. If more than one
.SENS statement is present, only the last will apply.
Note: The .SENS statement can generate large amounts of output for large
circuits.
Temperature Analysis of the Basic Current Sink/Source
The simple current mirror/sink’s temperature coefficient is described by
( )
o
I
T
o
o
o
S
T T
I
I
I TC ⋅ ·
∂
∂
⋅ ·
1 1
where
R
VSS V VDD
L W
L W
I
GS
o
− −
⋅ ·
2 1
1 2
Substituting, we obtain
( )
]
]
]
∂
∂
⋅ +
∂
∂
⋅ ⋅ − ·
T
R
R
I
T
V
R L W
L W
I
I TC
o GS
o
o
1 1
2 1
1 2
Recognize that
T
R
R ∂
∂
⋅
1
is the resistor’s temperature coefficient.
Spring 2001 EE 8223 − Analog IC Design Page 49
To determine
T
V
GS
∂
∂
, the (temperature dependent) expression for V
GS
must be
considered:
( )
( )
2
2
2 1
1 2
2
2
2
L
W
T KP R
VSS V VDD
L W
L W
V
I
V V
GS
THN
o
THN GS
⋅ ⋅
− −
⋅ + · + ·
β
If VDD − VSS >> V
GS
, then (after some calculus)
( )
( ) ( )
( )
]
]
]
∂
∂
+
∂
∂
⋅
,
`
.

− ⋅
⋅
−
⋅ +
∂
∂
·
∂
∂
T
R
R T
T KP
T KP T KP R
VSS VDD
W
L
T
V
T
V
THN GS
1 1
2
1 2
1
1
Using
THN THN
THN
TCV V
T
V
⋅ ·
∂
∂
≈ −2.4mV/°C and
( )
( )
T T
T KP
T KP
5 . 1 1 −
·
∂
∂
⋅ ,
TC(I
o
) becomes
( )
( ) T
R
R T T
R
R T KP R
VSS VDD
W
L
R R
TCV V
L W
L W
I
I TC
THN THN
o
o
∂
∂
−
]
]
]
]
]
]
]
−
∂
∂
⋅ ⋅
−
−
⋅
⋅ − ·
1 5 . 1 1
2
1 1
1
1
1 1
2 2
This expression is used in Example 20.6. Note that the calculated value of
TC(I
o
) changes with temperature. Also note that the TC(I
o
) expression can
be set equal to zero to determine the value of I
o
and R needed for the basic
current sink to have a temperature coefficient of zero (see equ. 20.27).
note the output voltage value at which ID1 = ID2 and the effect of finite output resistance.
Example 20.
Example of how the basic current mirror can be utilized in biasing schemes:
. In this example oxide encroachment has been neglected! Layout techniques that compensate for this will be discussed soon.Spring 2001
EE 8223 − Analog IC Design
Page 44
From the figure below.2 illustrates how multiple ratioed currents are mirrored.
i.. larger Vout.
.
The Cascode Current Mirror The cascode configuration is used to increase the output resistance of the current sink/source.
Note that the cascode current sink requires more output voltage overhead.min (say to stay in SI saturation) than the simple (basic) current sink.e.Spring 2001
EE 8223 − Analog IC Design
Page 45
Obviously nchannel transistors are used to implement current sinks whereas pchannel transistors are used to implement current sources.
Note the relationship between the transistors’ aspect ratios.min = 2∆V is shown below. SI sat.Spring 2001
EE 8223 − Analog IC Design
Page 46
An alternate cascode sink that provides Vout.5) can be determined from the smallsignal model.
2 Ro = ro 4 (1 + g m 4 ro 2 ) + ro 2 ≈ g m 4 ro
[ro = ro2 = ro4.
The output resistance of the cascode configuration (Fig.]
. 20.
20. Sensitivity of the Basic Current Sink/Source By definition. can used to quickly estimate the output resistance of other cascode circuits such as the triple cascode (Fig. If ID1 = ID2 (= Io) and VGS changes very little with variations in VDD. the sensitivity of the basic current sink’s output current to VDD is given as
∆I o Io VDD ∂I o Io SVDD = lim = ⋅ I o ∂VDD ∆VDD→0 ∆VDD VDD
In this same manner. Ro = ro (1 + g m R ) + R .9 and equation 20. Io’s sensitivity to other inputs or component values can be (individually) obtained.13). then
o SVDD ≈
I
VDD 1 ⋅ Io R
The percentage change in Io is described by
∆I o ∆VDD Io = SVDD ⋅ Io VDD
.Spring 2001
EE 8223 − Analog IC Design
Page 47
For the general case (replacing ro2 with an arbitary R):
Ro = ro (1 + g m R ) + R ≈ ro (1 + g m R )
This general description of output resistance.
(Therefore. taken at the operating point.SENS V(9) V(4. Only one .. HSPICE determines the DC smallsignal sensitivities of each specified output variable relative to every circuit parameter. The sensitivity measurement is the partial derivative of each output variable with respect to the value of a given circuit element.. voltage sources. R ∂T
.Spring 2001
EE 8223 − Analog IC Design
Page 48
For computer simulations of circuit sensitivity (a necessity for large circuits).
Temperature Analysis of the Basic Current Sink/Source The simple current mirror/sink’s temperature coefficient is described by
TC (I o ) = 1 ∂I o 1 I o ⋅ = ⋅S I o ∂T T T
where
Io =
W2 L1 VDD − VGS − VSS ⋅ W1L2 R
Substituting.. the sum of the sensitivities of all elements is 100%).3) V(17) I(VCC) If a .> ov1 ov2 . If more than one . only the last will apply. Note: The .SENS statement is included in the input file. diodes. the excerpt shown below from the HSpice manual regarding sensitivity analysis might be helpful. Branch currents or nodal voltage for DC component sensitivity analysis..SENS ov1 <ov2 .SENS Statement − DC Sensitivity General form . we obtain
TC (I o ) = − 1 W2 L1 1 ∂VGS I o ∂R ⋅ ⋅ + ⋅ I o W1 L2 R ∂T R ∂T
Recognize that
1 ∂R ⋅ is the resistor’s temperature coefficient.SENS statement can generate large amounts of output for large circuits. Sensitivities for resistors.
.SENS statement is present. current sources.
Example .SENS analysis may be performed per simulation. and BJT’s are calculated. and normalized to the total change in output magnitude.
then (after some calculus)
∂VGS ∂VTHN 2 L1 (VDD − VSS ) 1 1 ∂KP (T ) 1 ∂R + = + ⋅ ⋅− ⋅ ∂T ∂T W1 R ⋅ KP (T ) 2 KP(T ) ∂T R ∂T
Using
∂VTHN 1 ∂KP(T ) − 1. 20. Also note that the TC(Io) expression can be set equal to zero to determine the value of Io and R needed for the basic current sink to have a temperature coefficient of zero (see equ.Spring 2001
EE 8223 − Analog IC Design
Page 49
To determine considered:
∂VGS . Note that the calculated value of TC(Io) changes with temperature.4mV/°C and ⋅ = .5 = VTHN ⋅ TCVTHN ≈ −2.5 1 ∂R ⋅ − − − I o W1 L1 R R W1 2 ⋅ R ⋅ KP (T ) R ∂T T R ∂T
This expression is used in Example 20. the (temperature dependent) expression for VGS must be ∂T
VGS = VTHN +
Io β2 2
= VTHN +
W2 L1 (VDD − VGS − VSS ) ⋅ W W1 L2 R ⋅ KP (T ) ⋅ 2 2 L2
If VDD − VSS >> VGS. ∂T KP(T ) ∂T T
TC(Io) becomes
TC (I o ) = − 1 W2 L2 VTHN ⋅ TCVTHN 1 L1 VDD − VSS 1 ∂R 1.27).
.6.