CHAPTER THREE

 CHEMICAL

EQUATIONS & REACTION STOICHIOMETRY

1

Chapter Three Goals
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

Chemical Equations Calculations Based on Chemical Equations The Limiting Reactant Concept Percent Yields from Chemical Reactions Sequential Reactions Concentrations of Solutions Dilution of solutions Using Solutions in Chemical Reactions Synthesis Question

2

Chemical Equations

2. 3. 4.

Symbolic representation of a chemical reaction that shows: reactants on left side of reaction products on right side of equation relative amounts of each using stoichiometric coefficients

3

Chemical Equations
 Attempt

to show on paper what is happening at the laboratory and molecular levels.

4

Chemical Equations
 Look

at the information an equation provides:

Fe 2 O 3 + 3 CO  → 2 Fe + 3 CO 2 

5

Chemical Equations
 Look

at the information an equation provides:

Fe 2 O 3 + 3 CO  → 2 Fe + 3 CO 2 
reactants yields products

6

Chemical Equations
 Look

at the information an equation provides:

Fe 2 O 3 + 3 CO  → 2 Fe + 3 CO 2 
reactants 1 formula unit 3 molecules yields 2 atoms products 3 molecules

7

Chemical Equations
 Look

at the information an equation provides:

Fe 2 O 3 + 3 CO  → 2 Fe + 3 CO 2 
reactants 1 formula unit 1 mole 3 molecules 3 moles yields 2 atoms 2 moles products 3 molecules 3 moles

8

Chemical Equations
 Look

at the information an equation provides:

Fe 2 O 3 + 3 CO  → 2 Fe + 3 CO 2 
reactants 1 formula unit 1 mole 159.7 g 3 molecules 3 moles 84.0 g yields 2 atoms 2 moles 111.7 g products 3 molecules 3 moles 132 g

9

Chemical Equations

Law of Conservation of Matter
– – –

There is no detectable change in quantity of matter in an ordinary chemical reaction. Balanced chemical equations must always include the same number of each kind of atom on both sides of the equation. This law was determined by Antoine Lavoisier.

Propane,C3H8, burns in oxygen to give carbon dioxide and water. ∆ 3 8 2 2 2

C H +5O  → 3 CO + 4 H O

10

Law of Conservation of Matter
 NH3

burns in oxygen to form NO & water You do it!

11

Law of Conservation of Matter
 NH3

burns in oxygen to form NO & water
5 2 ∆

2 NH 3 + O 2  → 2 NO + 3 H 2 O or correctly 4 NH 3 + 5 O 2  → 4 NO + 6 H 2 O
12

Law of Conservation of Matter
 C7H16

burns in oxygen to form carbon dioxide and water. You do it!

13

Law of Conservation of Matter
 C7H16

burns in oxygen to form carbon dioxide and water.

C 7 H16 + 11 O 2  → 7 CO 2 + 8 H 2 O

14

Law of Conservation of Matter
 C7H16

burns in oxygen to form carbon dioxide and water.

C 7 H16 + 11 O 2  → 7 CO 2 + 8 H 2 O
 Balancing

equations is a skill acquired only with lots of practice
work many problems

15

Calculations Based on Chemical Equations
 Can

work in moles, formula units, etc.  Frequently, we work in mass or weight (grams or kg or pounds or tons). ∆ Fe 2 O 3 + 3 CO  → 2 Fe + 3 CO 2 

16

Calculations Based on Chemical Equations
 Example

3-1: How many CO molecules are required to react with 25 formula units of Fe2O3?
3 CO molecules 1 Fe 2 O 3 formula unit

? CO molecules = 25 formula units Fe 2 O 3 × = 75 molecules of CO

17

Calculations Based on Chemical Equations
 Example

3-2: How many iron atoms can be produced by the reaction of 2.50 x 105 formula units of iron (III) oxide with excess carbon monoxide?
5

? Fe atoms = 2.50 × 10 formula units Fe 2 O 3

18

Calculations Based on Chemical Equations
 Example

3-2: How many iron atoms can be produced by the reaction of 2.50 x 105 formula units of iron (III) oxide with excess carbon monoxide?
5

? Fe atoms = 2.50 × 10 formula units Fe 2 O 3 2 Fe atoms × = 1 formula units Fe 2 O 3
19

Calculations Based on Chemical Equations
 Example

3-2: How many iron atoms can be produced by the reaction of 2.50 x 105 formula units of iron (III) oxide with excess carbon monoxide?
5

? Fe atoms = 2.50 × 10 formula units Fe 2 O 3 2 Fe atoms 5 × = 5.00 × 10 Fe atoms 1 formula units Fe 2 O 3
20

Calculations Based on Chemical Equations
 Example

3-3: What mass of CO is required to react with 146 g of iron (III) oxide?

1 mol Fe 2 O 3 ? g CO = 146 g Fe 2 O 3 × 159.7 g Fe 2 O 3

21

Calculations Based on Chemical Equations
 Example

3-3: What mass of CO is required to react with 146 g of iron (III) oxide?

1 mol Fe 2 O 3 3 mol CO ? g CO = 146 g Fe 2O 3 × × 159.7 g Fe 2O 3 1 mol Fe 2O 3

22

Calculations Based on Chemical Equations
 Example

3-3: What mass of CO is required to react with 146 g of iron (III) oxide?

1 mol Fe 2 O 3 3 mol CO ? g CO = 146 g Fe 2O 3 × × 159.7 g Fe 2O 3 1 mol Fe 2O 3 28.0 g CO × = 76.8 g CO 1 mol CO
23

Calculations Based on Chemical Equations
 Example

3-4: What mass of carbon dioxide can be produced by the reaction of 0.540 mole of iron (III) oxide with excess carbon monoxide?
3 mol CO 2 ? g CO 2 = 0.540 mol Fe 2 O3 × 1 mol Fe 2 O3

24

Calculations Based on Chemical Equations
 Example

3-4: What mass of carbon dioxide can be produced by the reaction of 0.540 mole of iron (III) oxide with excess carbon monoxide?

3 mol CO 2 44.0 g CO 2 ? g CO 2 = 0.540 mol Fe 2 O 3 × × 1 mol Fe 2 O 3 1 mol CO 2

25

Calculations Based on Chemical Equations
 Example

3-4: What mass of carbon dioxide can be produced by the reaction of 0.540 mole of iron (III) oxide with excess carbon monoxide? 3 mol CO 2 44.0 g CO 2 ? g CO 2 = 0.540 mol Fe 2 O 3 × × 1 mol Fe 2 O 3 1 mol CO 2 = 71.3 g CO 2

26

Calculations Based on Chemical Equations
 Example

3-5: What mass of iron (III) oxide reacted with excess carbon monoxide if the carbon dioxide produced by the reaction had a mass of 8.65 grams? You do it!

27

Calculations Based on Chemical Equations
 Example

3-5: What mass of iron (III) oxide reacted with excess carbon monoxide if the carbon dioxide produced by the reaction had a mass of 8.65 grams?

1 molCO2 1mol Fe2O3 ? g Fe2O3 = 8.65 g CO2 × × × 44.0 g CO2 3 mol CO2 159.7 g Fe 2O3 = 10.5 g Fe2O3 1 mol Fe2O3
28

Calculations Based on Chemical Equations
 Example

3-6: How many pounds of carbon monoxide would react with 125 pounds of iron (III) oxide? You do it!

29

Calculations Based on Chemical Equations
454 g Fe 2 O 3 ? lb CO = 125 lb Fe 2 O 3 × 1 lb Fe 2 O 3 1 mol Fe 2 O 3 3 mol CO × × × 159.7 g Fe 2 O 3 1 mol Fe 2 O 3 28 g CO 1 lb CO × = 65.7 lb CO 1 mol CO 454 g CO
YOU MUST BE PROFICIENT WITH THESE TYPES OF PROBLEMS!!! Now go to your text and work the problems assigned!

30

Limiting Reactant Concept
 Kitchen

example of limiting reactant concept.

1 packet of muffin mix + 2 eggs + 1 cup of milk → 12 muffins
 How

many muffins can we make with the following amounts of mix, eggs, and milk?

31

Limiting Reactant Concept

Mix Packets Eggs Milk 1 1 dozen 1 gallon limiting reactant is the muffin mix 2 1 dozen 1 gallon 3 1 dozen 1 gallon 4 1 dozen 1 gallon 5 1 dozen 1 gallon 6 1 dozen 1 gallon 7 1 dozen 1 gallon limiting reactant is the dozen eggs

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Limiting Reactant Concept

Example 3-7: Suppose a box contains 87 bolts, 110 washers, and 99 nuts. How many sets, each consisting of one bolt, two washers, and one nut, can you construct from the contents of one box? 87 bolts 1 set = 87 sets 1 bolt 110 washers 1 set = 55 sets 2 washers 99 nuts 1 set = 99 sets 1 nut the maximum number we can make is 55 sets

( ( (

)

)

)

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determined by the smallest number

Limiting Reactant Concept
 Look

at a chemical limiting reactant situation. Zn + 2 HCl→ ZnCl2 + H2

34

Limiting Reactant Concept

Example 3-8: What is the maximum mass of sulfur dioxide that can be produced by the reaction of 95.6 g of carbon disulfide with 110. g of oxygen?

CS2 + 3 O 2 → CO 2 + 2 SO 2

35

Limiting Reactant Concept

Example 3-8: What is the maximum mass of sulfur dioxide that can be produced by the reaction of 95.6 g of carbon disulfide with 110. g of oxygen?

CS2 + 3 O 2 → CO 2 + 2 SO 2 1 mol
36

3 mol

1 mol

2 mol

Limiting Reactant Concept

Example 3-8: What is the maximum mass of sulfur dioxide that can be produced by the reaction of 95.6 g of carbon disulfide with 110. g of oxygen?

CS2 + 3 O 2 → CO 2 + 2 SO 2 1 mol 3 mol 1 mol 2 mol 76.2 g 3(32.0 g) 44.0 g 2(64.1 g)
37

Limiting Reactant Concept

Example 3-8: What is the maximum mass of sulfur dioxide that can be produced by the reaction of 95.6 g of carbon disulfide with 110. g of oxygen?

CS2 + 3 O 2 → CO 2 + 2 SO 2 1 mol CS2 ? mol SO 2 = 95.6 g CS2 × 76.2 g

38

Limiting Reactant Concept
CS2 + 3 O 2 → CO 2 + 2 SO 2 1 mol CS2 ? mol SO 2 = 95.6 g CS2 × 76.2 g 2 mol SO 2 64.1 g SO 2 × × =161 g SO 2 1 mol CS2 1 mol SO 2
What do we do next? You do it!

39

Limiting Reactant Concept
CS2 + 3 O 2 → CO 2 + 2 SO 2 1 mol CS2 2 mol SO 2 64.1 g SO 2 ? mol SO 2 = 95.6 g CS2 × × × = 161 g SO 2 76.2 g 1 mol CS2 1 mol SO 2 1 mol O 2 2 mol SO 2 64.1 g SO 2 ? mol SO 2 = 110 g O 2 × × × = 147 g SO 2 32.0 g O 2 3 mol O 2 1 mol SO 2
   

Which is limiting reactant? Limiting reactant is O2. What is maximum mass of sulfur dioxide? Maximum mass is 147 g.

40

Percent Yields from Reactions

Theoretical yield is calculated by assuming that the reaction goes to completion.

Determined from the limiting reactant calculation.

Actual yield is the amount of a specified pure product made in a given reaction.

In the laboratory, this is the amount of product that is formed in your beaker, after it is purified and dried.

Percent yield indicates how much of the product is obtained from a reaction.

41

actual yield % yield = × 100% theoretical yield

Percent Yields from Reactions
 Example

3-9: A 10.0 g sample of ethanol, C2H5OH, was boiled with excess acetic acid, CH3COOH, to produce 14.8 g of ethyl acetate, CH3COOC2H5. What is the percent yield?

42

Percent Yields from Reactions
CH 3COOH + C 2 H 5OH → CH 3COOC 2 H 5 + H 2 O 1. Calculate the theoretical yield

43

Percent Yields from Reactions
CH 3COOH + C 2 H 5OH → CH 3COOC 2 H 5 + H 2 O 1. Calculate the theoretical yield 88.0 g CH 3COOC 2 H 5 ? g CH 3COOC 2 H 5 = 10.0 g C 2 H 5OH × 46.0 g C 2 H 5OH = 19.1 g CH 3COOC 2 H 5

44

Percent Yields from Reactions
CH 3COOH + C 2 H 5OH → CH 3COOC 2 H 5 + H 2 O 1. Calculate the theoretical yield 88.0 g CH 3COOC 2 H 5 ? g CH 3COOC 2 H 5 = 10.0 g C 2 H 5OH × 46.0 g C 2 H 5OH = 19.1 g CH 3COOC 2 H 5 2. Calculate the percent yield.

45

Percent Yields from Reactions
CH 3COOH + C 2 H 5OH → CH 3COOC 2 H 5 + H 2 O 1. Calculate the theoretical yield 88.0 g CH 3COOC 2 H 5 ? g CH 3COOC 2 H 5 = 10.0 g C 2 H 5OH × 46.0 g C 2 H 5OH = 19.1 g CH 3COOC 2 H 5 2. Calculate the percent yield. 14.8 g CH 3COOC 2 H 5 % yield = × 100% = 77.5% 19.1 g CH 3COOC 2 H 5
46

Sequential Reactions
HNO3 H2SO4 benzene

N O2

Sn aniline

NH2

Conc. HCl nitrobenzene

Example 3-10: Starting with 10.0 g of benzene (C6H6), calculate the theoretical yield of nitrobenzene (C6H5NO2) and of aniline (C6H5NH2).

47

Sequential Reactions
1 mol benzene ? g nitrobenzene = 10.0 g benzene × × 78.0 g benzene

48

Sequential Reactions
1 mol benzene ? g nitrobenzene = 10.0 g benzene × × 78.0 g benzene 1 mol nitrobenzene 123.0 g nitrobenzene × = 15.8 g nitrobenzene 1 mol benzene 1 mol nitrobenzene

Next calculate the mass of aniline produced. You do it!

49

Sequential Reactions
HNO3 H2SO4 benzene N O2 Sn aniline NH2

Conc. HCl nitrobenzene

1 mol nitrobenzene ? g aniline = 15.8 g nitrobenzene × × 123.0 g nitrobenzene

50

Sequential Reactions
HNO3 H2SO4 benzene N O2 Sn aniline NH2

Conc. HCl nitrobenzene

1 mol nitrobenzene ? g aniline = 15.8 g nitrobenzene × × 123.0 g nitrobenzene 1 mol aniline 93.0 g aniline × = 11.9 g aniline 1 mol nitrobenzene 1 mol aniline
51

Sequential Reactions
 If

6.7 g of aniline is prepared from 10.0 g of benzene, what is the percentage yield? You do it!

6.7 g aniline % yield = ×100% = 56% 11.9 g aniline
52

Concentration of Solutions

Solution is a mixture of two or more substances dissolved in another.
– – –

Solute is the substance present in the smaller amount. Solvent is the substance present in the larger amount. In aqueous solutions, the solvent is water.

The concentration of a solution defines the amount of solute dissolved in the solvent.

The amount of sugar in sweet tea can be defined by its concentration.

One common unit of concentration is:

mass of solute % by mass of solute = ×100% mass of solution mass of solution = mass of solute + mass of solvent

53

% by mass of solute has the symbol % w/w

Concentration of Solutions
 Example

3-12: Calculate the mass of 8.00% w/w NaOH solution that contains 32.0 g of NaOH.

100.0 g solution ? g solution = 32.0 g NaOH × 8.00 g NaOH = 400. g sol' n
54

Concentration of Solutions

Example 3-11: What mass of NaOH is required to prepare 250.0 g of solution that is 8.00% w/w NaOH?

 8.00 g NaOH  250.0 g solution   100.0 g solution  = 20.0 g NaOH   

55

Concentration of Solutions

Example 3-13: Calculate the mass of NaOH in 300.0 mL of an 8.00% w/w NaOH solution. Density is 1.09 g/mL. You do it!

1.09 g sol' n ? g NaOH = 300.0 mL sol' n × × 1 mL sol' n 8.00 g NaOH = 26.2 g NaOH 100 g sol' n
56

Concentrations of Solutions
 Example

3-14: What volume of 12.0% KOH contains 40.0 g of KOH? The density of the solution is 1.11 g/mL. You do it!

57

Concentrations of Solutions
 Example

3-14: What volume of 12.0% KOH contains 40.0 g of KOH? The density of the solution is 1.11 g/mL.

100.0 g solution 1 mL solution ? mL solution = 40.0 g KOH × × 12.0 g KOH 1.11 g solution = 300. mL solution

58

Concentrations of Solutions
 Second

common unit of concentration:

number of moles of solute molarity = number of liters of solution moles M= L mmol M= mL

59

Concentrations of Solutions

Example 3-15: Calculate the molarity of a solution that contains 12.5 g of sulfuric acid in 1.75 L of solution. You do it!

60

Concentrations of Solutions
 Example

3-15: Calculate the molarity of a solution that contains 12.5 g of sulfuric acid in 1.75 L of solution. ? mol H 2SO 4 12.5 g H 2SO 4 1 mol H 2SO 4 = × L sol' n 1.75 L sol' n 98.1 g H 2SO 4

61

Concentrations of Solutions
 Example

3-15: Calculate the molarity of a solution that contains 12.5 g of sulfuric acid in 1.75 L of solution. ? mol H 2SO 4 12.5 g H 2SO 4 1 mol H 2SO 4 = × L sol' n 1.75 L sol' n 98.1 g H 2SO 4

0.0728 mol H 2SO 4 = L = 0.0728 M H 2SO 4
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Concentrations of Solutions
 Example

3-16: Determine the mass of calcium nitrate required to prepare 3.50 L of 0.800 M Ca(NO3)2 . You do it!

63

Concentrations of Solutions
 Example

3-16: Determine the mass of calcium nitrate required to prepare 3.50 L of 0.800 M Ca(NO3)2 .

0.800 mol Ca(NO 3 ) 2 ? g Ca(NO 3 ) 2 = 3.50 L × × L 164 g Ca(NO 3 ) 2 = 459 g Ca(NO 3 ) 2 1 mol Ca(NO 3 ) 2
64

Concentrations of Solutions
 One

of the reasons that molarity is commonly used is because: M x L = moles solute and M x mL = mmol solute

65

Concentrations of Solutions

Example 3-17: The specific gravity of concentrated HCl is 1.185 and it is 36.31% w/w HCl. What is its molarity?

specific gravity = 1.185 tells us density =1.185 g/mL or 1185 g/L

66

Concentrations of Solutions

Example 3-17: The specific gravity of concentrated HCl is 1.185 and it is 36.31% w/w HCl. What is its molarity?

specific gravity = 1.185 tells us density =1.185 g/mL or 1185g/L 1185 g solution 36.31 g HCl ? mol HCl/L = × × L solution 100 g sol' n
67

Concentrations of Solutions

Example 3-17: The specific gravity of concentrated HCl is 1.185 and it is 36.31% w/w HCl. What is its molarity?

specific gravity = 1.185 tells us density =1.185 g/mL or 1185g/L 1185 g solution 36.31 g HCl ? mol HCl/L = × × L solution 100 g sol' n 1 mol HCl = 11.80 M HCl 36.46 g HCl

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Dilution of Solutions
 To
– –

dilute a solution, add solvent to a concentrated solution.
One method to make tea “less sweet.” How fountain drinks are made from syrup.

 The

number of moles of solute in the two solutions remains constant.  The relationship M1V1 = M2V2 is appropriate for dilutions, but not for chemical reactions.
69

Dilution of Solutions
 Common

method to dilute a solution involves the use of volumetric flask, pipet, and suction bulb.

70

Dilution of Solutions
 Example

71

3-18: If 10.0 mL of 12.0 M HCl is added to enough water to give 100. mL of solution, what is the concentration of the solution? M 1V1 = M 2 V2 12.0 M ×10.0 mL = M 2 ×100.0 mL 12.0 M ×10.0 mL M2 = 100.0 mL =1.20 M

Dilution of Solutions
 Example

3-19: What volume of 18.0 M sulfuric acid is required to make 2.50 L of a 2.40 M sulfuric acid solution? You do it!

72

Dilution of Solutions
 Example

73

3-19: What volume of 18.0 M sulfuric acid is required to make 2.50 L of a 2.40 M sulfuric acid solution? M 1 V1 = M 2 V2 M 2 × V2 V1 = M1 2.50 L × 2.40 M V1 = 18.0 M = 0.333 L or 333 mL

Using Solutions in Chemical Reactions
 Combine

the concepts of molarity and stoichiometry to determine the amounts of reactants and products involved in reactions in solution.

74

Using Solutions in Chemical Reactions

Example 3-20: What volume of 0.500 M BaCl2 is required to completely react with 4.32 g of Na2SO4?

Na 2SO 4 + BaCl 2 → BaSO 4 + 2 NaCl

75

Using Solutions in Chemical Reactions

Example 3-20: What volume of 0.500 M BaCl2 is required to completely react with 4.32 g of Na2SO4?

Na 2SO 4 + BaCl 2 → BaSO 4 + 2 NaCl 1 mol Na 2SO 4 ? L BaCl2 = 4.32 gNa 2SO 4 × × 142 g Na 2SO 4

76

Using Solutions in Chemical Reactions

Example 3-20: What volume of 0.500 M BaCl2 is required to completely react with 4.32 g of Na2SO4?

Na 2SO 4 + BaCl2 → BaSO 4 + 2 NaCl

1 mol Na 2SO 4 ? L BaCl2 = 4.32 gNa 2SO 4 × × 142 g Na 2SO 4 1 mol BaCl2 1 L BaCl2 × = 0.0608 L 1 mol Na 2SO 4 0.500 mol BaCl2
77

Using Solutions in Chemical Reactions
 Example

3-21: (a)What volume of 0.200 M NaOH will react with 50.0 mL 0f 0.200 M aluminum nitrate, Al(NO3)3?

Al  NO3  3  3 NaOH  Al  OH  3  3 NaNO3 You do it!

78

Using Solutions in Chemical Reactions
 Example

3-20: (a)What volume of 0.200 M NaOH will react with 50.0 mL 0f 0.200 M aluminum nitrate?
Al( NO 3 ) 3 + 3 NaOH →Al(OH)3 + 3 NaNO3 1L 1000 mL 0.200 mol Al(NO3 ) 3 sol' n 3 mol NaOH × × 1 L Al(NO3 ) 3 sol' n 1 mol Al(NO3 ) 3

? mL NaOH = 50.0 mL Al(NO3 ) 3 sol' n ×

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1 L NaOH = 0.150 L or 150 mL NaOH sol' n 0.200 mol NaOH

Using Solutions in Chemical Reactions
 (b)What

mass of Al(OH)3 precipitates in (a)? You do it!

80

Using Solutions in Chemical Reactions
 (b)

What mass of Al(OH)3 precipitates in (a)?

1L ? g Al(OH) 3 = 50.0 mL Al(NO 3 )3 sol' n × 1000 mL 0.200 mol Al(NO 3 )3 1 mol Al(OH) 3 78.0 g Al(OH) 3 × × 1 L Al(NO3 )3 sol' n 1 mol Al(NO 3 )3 1 mol Al(OH) 3 = 0.780 g Al(OH) 3
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Using Solutions in Chemical Reactions
 Titrations

are a method of determining the concentration of an unknown solutions from the known concentration of a solution and solution reaction stoichiometry.
– –

Requires special lab glassware
 Buret,

pipet, and flasks

Must have an an indicator also

82

Using Solutions in Chemical Reactions

Example 3-22: What is the molarity of a KOH solution if 38.7 mL of the KOH solution is required to react with 43.2 mL of 0.223 M HCl?

KOH + HCl → KCl + H 2 O

83

Using Solutions in Chemical Reactions

Example 3-22: What is the molarity of a KOH solution if 38.7 mL of the KOH solution is required to react with 43.2 mL of 0.223 M HCl?

KOH + HCl → KCl + H 2 O 43.2 mL × 0.223 M HCl = 9.63 mmol HCl

84

Using Solutions in Chemical Reactions

Example 3-22: What is the molarity of a KOH solution if 38.7 mL of the KOH solution is required to react with 43.2 mL of 0.223 M HCl?

KOH + HCl → KCl + H 2 O 43.2 mL × 0.223 M HCl = 9.63 mmol HCl 1 mmol KOH 9.63 mmol HCl × = 9.63 mmol KOH 1 mmol HCl
85

Using Solutions in Chemical Reactions

Example 3-22: What is the molarity of a KOH solution if 38.7 mL of the KOH solution is required to react with 43.2 mL of 0.223 M HCl?

KOH + HCl → KCl + H 2 O 43.2 mL × 0.223 M HCl = 9.63 mmol HCl 1 mmol KOH 9.63 mmol HCl × = 9.63 mmol KOH 1 mmol HCl 9.63 mmol KOH = 0.249 M KOH 38.7 mL KOH

86

Using Solutions in Chemical Reactions

Example 3-23: What is the molarity of a barium hydroxide solution if 44.1 mL of 0.103 M HCl is required to react with 38.3 mL of the Ba(OH)2 solution?

Ba(OH)2 + 2 HCl → BaCl 2 + 2 H 2 O

(44.1 mL HCl)(0.103 M HCl) = 4.54 mmol HCl

87

Using Solutions in Chemical Reactions

Example 3-23: What is the molarity of a barium hydroxide solution if 44.1 mL of 0.103 M HCl is required to react with 38.3 mL of the Ba(OH)2 solution?

Ba(OH)2 + 2 HCl → BaCl 2 + 2 H 2 O

(44.1 mL HCl)(0.103 M HCl) = 4.54 mmol HCl 1 mmol Ba(OH)2 4.54 mmol HCl × 2 mmol HCl

88

Using Solutions in Chemical Reactions

Example 3-23: What is the molarity of a barium hydroxide solution if 44.1 mL of 0.103 M HCl is required to react with 38.3 mL of the Ba(OH)2 solution?

Ba(OH)2 + 2 HCl → BaCl 2 + 2 H 2 O

(44.1 mL HCl)(0.103 M HCl) = 4.54 mmol HCl 1 mmol Ba(OH)2 4.54 mmol HCl × 2 mmol HCl = 2.27 mmol Ba(OH)2
89

Using Solutions in Chemical Reactions

Example 3-23: What is the molarity of a barium hydroxide solution if 44.1 mL of 0.103 M HCl is required to react with 38.3 mL of the Ba(OH)2 solution? Ba(OH)2 + 2 HCl → BaCl 2 + 2 H 2 O

(44.1 mL HCl)(0.103 M HCl) = 4.54 mmol HCl 1 mmol Ba(OH)2 4.54 mmol HCl × 2 mmol HCl = 2.27 mmol Ba(OH)2

90

2.27 mL Ba(OH)2 = 0.0593M Ba(OH)2 38.3 mL Ba(OH)2

Synthesis Question
 Nylon

is made by the reaction of hexamethylene diamine

H2N
HO
91

NH2 CH2 CH2 CH2 CH2 CH2 CH2
H2 C H2 C C O

with adipic acid.

O

C

C H2

C H2

OH

Synthesis Question
in a 1 to 1 mole ratio. The structure of nylon is:

*

C O

H2 C

C H2

H2 C

O C

C H2

N H

H2 C

C H2

H2 C

C H2

H2 C

N H

n

*

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where the value of n is typically 450,000. On a daily basis, a DuPont factory makes 1.5 million pounds of nylon. How many pounds of hexamethylene diamine and adipic acid must they have available in the plant each day?

Synthesis Question
Molar mass of 1 nylon molecule = [(12 × 12) + (1× 22) + ( 2 × 14) + (2 × 16)] 450,000                  
C atoms H atoms N atoms O atoms # of units

= [226 g/mol] 450,000 = 1.02 × 108 g/mol nylon molecules

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Synthesis Question
Molar mass of 1 nylon molecule = [(12 × 12) + (1× 22) + ( 2 × 14) + (2 × 16)] 450,000                  
C atoms H atoms N atoms O atoms # of units

= [226 g/mol] 450,000 = 1.02 × 108 g/mol nylon molecules  454 g  1.5 million pounds = (1.5 × 106 lb)   lb  = 6.81× 108 g

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Synthesis Question
Molar mass of 1 nylon molecule = [(12 × 12) + (1× 22) + ( 2 ×14) + (2 ×16)] 450,000                  
C atoms H atoms N atoms O atoms # of units

= [226 g/mol] 450,000 = 1.02 ×108 g/mol nylon molecules  454 g  1.5 million pounds = (1.5 ×10 lb)   lb  = 6.81×108 g
6

 1 mol nylon  # mol of nylon molecules = 6.81×108 g   1.02 ×108 g     = 6.68 mol of nylon

(

)

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Synthesis Question
Because the nylon formation reaction uses 1 mole of adipic acid × 450,000 plus 1 mole of hexamethylene diamine × 450,000 per mole of nylon formed, to make 6.68 mol of nylon requires :

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Synthesis Question
Because the nylon formation reaction uses 1 mole of adipic acid × 450,000 plus 1 mole of hexamethylene diamine × 450,000 per mole of nylon formed, to make 6.68 mol of nylon requires :  1 lb   = 9.66 ×105 lb adipic acid - 6.68 × 450,000 ×146 g/mol = 4.39 ×108 g   454 g   

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Synthesis Question
Because the nylon formation reaction uses 1 mole of adipic acid × 450,000 plus 1 mole of hexamethylene diamine × 450,000 per mole of nylon formed, to make 6.68 mol of nylon requires :  1 lb  5 adipic acid - 6.68 × 450,000 ×146 g/mol = 4.39 ×108 g   454 g  = 9.66 ×10 lb     1 lb  5 hexamethylene diamine - 6.68 × 450,000 ×116 g/mol = 3.49 ×108 g   454 g  = 7.68 ×10 lb   

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Group Activity
Manganese dioxide, potassium hydroxide and oxygen react in the following fashion:

4 MnO 2 + 4 KOH + 3 O 2 → 4 KMnO 4 + 2 H 2 O
A mixture of 272.9 g of MnO2, 26.6 L of 0.250 M KOH, and 41.92 g of O2 is allowed to react as shown above. After the reaction is finished, 234.6 g of KMnO4 is separated from the reaction mixture. What is the per cent yield of this reaction?

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End of Chapter 3

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