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AC Induction Motors

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Terminal box

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Stator
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Squirrel cage rotor Shaft

Yoke / frame

Stator winding

Main parts of Single Phase Induction Motor


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RUNNING WINDING

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MAIN PARTS OF SINGLE PHASE INDUCTION MOTORS

STARTING WINDING

ROTOR

Main parts of Single Phase Induction Motor


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A. STATOR

B.ROTOR

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Main parts of Single Phase Induction Motor


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Stator
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Part of fixed portion / stationary To set up rotating magnetic field to the rotor Rotating magnetic field is produced by starting and running winding Starting winding is to determine the direction of motor Running winding is to determine the speed of motor.

Rotor
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Rotation part

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Mounted on a shaft
Laminated cylindrical core having parallel slots Copper or aluminum bar is placed in each slot to form squirrel cage. All bars are joined at each end by end rings. The conductor bars become a pathway for induced current.

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The changes in stator magnetic field caused the current to be induced.

Rotor
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Squirrel cage rotor

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End ring

Conductor bar Shaft

Laminated steel Conductor bar

Basics Operation of Single Phase Induction Motor


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(a) Producing Rotating Magnetic Field


IT IR
SW1

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IS

RW1

SW2 C

RW1 Rotor

Producing rotating magnetic field


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Assume that running winding and starting winding are wound in stator. Total current ,IT will distribute starting current Is and running current IR Differences in size and number of winding will create a phase difference between IT and IS. Capacitor in starter winding cause Is and IR 90o out of phase. The combination of both currents will produce a rotating magnetic field. Then, interaction between rotating magnetic field and rotor magnetic field can cause rotor to rotate.

Produce of torque
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Rotating magnetic field is produced in stator Faradays Law - when a conductor bar is placed in a rotating magnetic field, voltage and current will be induced in the bar. Magnetic field is produced in rotor. Interaction between stator magnetic field and rotating magnetic field will produce torque in conductor bar. Torque produces motor rotation.

Types of induction motors


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CAPACITOR RUN

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SINGLE PHASE INDUCTION MOTOR

CAPACITOR START

Basic circuit of induction motor


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(a) Permanent capacitor induction motor IT IR


SW1

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IS

RW1

Starting winding

Running winding

SW2 C
N

RW1
Rotor

Capacitor is connected in series to a starting winding

Basic circuit of induction motor


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b. Capacitor Start Induction Motor


Capacitor, starting winding and centrifugal switch are connected in series.

SW1

RW1

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SW2 Centrifugal switch C Rotor

RW2

Centrifugal switch is used to separate starting winding when a motor reach at 70% to 80% of maximum speed.

Reversing the direction of rotor rotation


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Reversing can be made by changing the connection of running winding or starter winding.

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For permanent capacitor induction motor, reversing can be made by using SPDT switch.

Reversing the direction of rotor rotation by changing running winding connections


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L RW1 SW1

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SW2 C N

Rotor

RW2

The diagram shows the rotor rotates in anticlockwise direction when the connection of running winding (RW1 & RW2) is changed.

Reversing the direction of rotor rotation by changing running winding connections


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L
SW1 RW1

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RW2
SW2 C Centrifugal switch Rotor

The diagram shows the rotor rotates in anticlockwise direction when the connection of starting winding ( SW1 & SW2 ) is changed.

Application
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AIR COMPRESSOR

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LATHE MACHINE

APPLICATION OF SINGLE PHASE INDUCTION MOTORS

GRINDER

REFRIGERATOR

WASHING MACHINE

Universal Motor
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Using AC or DC supply to operate. AC is commonly used because it can generate a high torque to operate bigger load. Using series connection to generate higher torque and easy to control the speed.

Winding Connection

Application
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Application of Universal Motor

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Hand drill

Blender