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THE SCHOOL

AS A
SYSTEM
Dominique Excelsis J. Degamo

Two Views of the School


as a Social System
The school may be viewed as a social system in
two different ways.

Actual interacting persons (Ex. The GetzelsGuba-Thelen Model)

Analytical abstractions (Ex. The Parsons Model)

The Getzels-Guba-Thelen
Model

an example of a framework for viewing


the school as a social system in terms
of actual interacting persons.

This model was originally developed by


Getzels (1972), with later contributions
made by Guba (1957), and Thelen
(1960).

Major Elements in the


Getzels-Guba-Thelen Model
Nomothetic
Dimension
Institutio
n

Role

Social System

Individu
al

Role
Expectations
Observed
Behavior

Personali
ty

Idiographic
Dimension

Needdispositions

According to Getzels (1960), a social system


involves two classes of phenomena whose
interactions comprise what we call the
social behavior.
1. Nomethetic or Normative Dimension
-The institutions with certain roles and expectations
that will fulfill the goals of the system.

2. Idiographic or Personal Dimension


-The individuals with certain personalities and
need-dispositions inhabiting the system.

The More Complete Version of


the Getzels-Guba-Thelen Model
Ethos

Climat
e

Individu
al

Personali
ty

Organis
m

Constitutio
n

Expectations

Intention
s
Need
s
Potentialiti
es

Rationali
ty

Grou
p

Rol
e

Values

Belongingness

The
Class as
a Social
System

Instituti
on

Mores

Goal
Behavio
r

t
n
e
Id

on
i
t
a
fc

The Parsons Model

Developed by Parsons and his


associates is in terms of analytical
abstractions.

Not based on concrete elements.

According to Parsons (1968),


- Role have effect to the interactive
process of the social system.
- Action includes four 4 generic types of
subsystems:
- the organism
- the social system
- the cultural system, and
- the personality

1. The organism
Treated as the concrete entity in one set
of terms.
2. The Social system
Process of interaction among individual
units.

3. The Cultural system


Organized about the specific characteristics'
of symbols and the exigencies of forming
stable system of them.
4. The Personality
Must be understood in terms of the cultural
and social content of the leaned patterning's
that make up his behavioral system.

Human Interrelatedness:
The Thrust of Social Systems Theory

Based on Getzels-Guba-Thelen Model, that there are


interrelationships among all fifteen aspects of the
five dimensions of the model.

Based on Parsons Model, the role choices of


individuals are not random; rather they are
cumulative and balanced and result from
selections which are stabilized and reinforced by the
institutionalization of value patterns. In addition,
Parsons calls attention to the interrelatedness,
interaction, and interaction of social system and the
different types of environment.

Systems Theory

suggests that human behavior can be


understood only when viewed within
the context of the situation in which it
occurs, and particularly within the
context of its human system.

Concept of Social System

means that the behavior of an individual is not an isolated


phenomenon but rather occurs as part of a system and is
intertwined with the behavior of others.

When behavior is considered as an individual


phenomenon, symptomatic behaviors are often
mistakenly identified as being causal.

When behavior is viewed as a system phenomenon,


individual behavior can be perceived as being
symptomatic of the system, and causal elements can more
readily be identified. (Newell, 1978)

Implications of Systems Theory


for the Administrator
Supra System (Society)
The countrys educational
system
Subsystem (National
Capital Region)
Subsubsystem (Division of City
Schools, Manila)
Subsubsubsystem (Arellano
High School)

Interrelationship Between and Among


Systems

1.

The concept systems stresses the


interrelationships among the behavior of
individuals.

2.

Systems concepts suggest that the effects of


actions are more far-reaching than is generally
realized.

3.

Administrators can usually anticipate the shortrange consequences of their own and others
actions in the organization, but they need to
devote greater attention to the far-reaching
consequences of administrative and
organizational actions.

4.

Systems theory implies that stress is a function


of the system rather than of a single
interpersonal relationship.

5.

The concept of human systems underscores the


far-ranging effects of administrative actions.

6.

Systems theory suggests that an important task


of an administrator is to provide leadership in
the integration of the system, both internally
and with external and superordinate systems.

7.

And because of the interrelationships in a


system, change in a school organization needs
to be viewed in terms of the organization as a
whole. Change on the part of individual faculty
members is most likely to occur if the whole
faculty is involved in change.

8.

One of the most effective ways of promoting


change in an organization is seeing new
relationships among various parts of the
organization. This new relationships can enable
the organization to utilize its resources more
creatively.

9.

In an institution such as school, in which


education is the supreme mission, an increase
in human resources is crucial.

10.

In elementary and secondary schools,


organizational subsystems which cut across
traditional lines such as those of departmental
or grade-level units are also needed.

11.

From a systems point of view, the school or the


school system should be defined in much
broader terms than is often done.

12.

An administrator who thinks in terms of systems


recognizes the importance of the current social
scene for the goals and procedures used in the
schools and helps to relate the school program
to the ever-changing needs of the society within
which it operates.