Introduction Sub station Types of substation Design of a substation Design Considerations of Transmission Substation Equipment of A Transmission Substation Line Diagram Sub station Bus Schemes Substation Location The Functions of the substation Causes of faults Transformer in a substation Protection devices Conclusion

This project includes study of transmission lines, bus bars, circuit breakers, isolators, earth switches, various types of transformers such as power transformer, capacitor voltage transformer, current transformers, lightning arresters, wave traps and grounding system of substation.

Sub Station
‡ Substation is a subsidiary station of an electricity generation, transmission and distribution system where voltage is transformed from high to low or the reverse using transformers.

Types of Substation
‡ Transmission Substation
‡ A transmission substation connects two or more transmission lines. ‡ Distribution Substation ‡ A distribution substation transfers power from the transmission system to the distribution system of an area. ‡ Collector Substation ‡ The collector substation steps up voltage to a transmission voltage for the grid. The collector substation also provides power factor correction, metering and control of the wind farm. The collector system operates around 35 KV.

Design Considerations of Transmission Substation
‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Load density Level of High voltage Level of Low voltage Land availability Reliability requirements Load growth Voltage drop Cost and losses

Equipments of A Transmission Substation
‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Transformers Circuit breakers Disconnecting switches Station buses and insulators Reactors Grounding systems Lightning arrestors Line traps Protective relays Station batteries

‡Substation should be located at load centre ‡Sufficient land area ‡Grounding

Factors affecting selection of a substation
‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Safety, Reliability, Economy, Simplicity,

Substation Bus Schemes
‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Single bus scheme Double bus double breaker Double bus single breaker scheme Ring bus scheme

Substation Location
‡ Locate substation as much as closer to load centers ‡ Locate substation such that proper voltage regulation is obtained without taking extensive measures. ‡ Locate substation such that it provides access for incoming sub-transmission lines and out going primary feeders. ‡ Locate such that it allows future expansion of the substation it self.

Functions of the substation are
‡ To Change voltage from one level to another. ‡ To Switch transmission and distribution circuits into and out of the grid system. ‡ To Measure various parameters. ‡ To Connect communication signals to the circuits. ‡ To Eliminate lightning and other electrical surges from the system. ‡ To Connect electric generation plants to the system. ‡ To Make interconnections between the electric systems of more than one utility

Causes of Faults
‡Insulation and Conducting path failure. ‡ Over-voltages ‡ Puncturing or breaking of insulators. ‡ Tripping of Circuit Breaker ‡ Accumulation of foreign bodies.

Types of a Transformers
‡ Auto transformer ‡ Poly Phase transformers ‡ Instrument transformers

‡ Transformers used in substation
‡ Power Transformers ‡ Current Transformers ‡ Voltage Transformers

Various Protection devies
‡ ‡ ‡ Lightning Arresters Control and Relay Panel Circuit Breakers

various instruments
Conductor Systems

DC Battery and Charger Input Rating: Voltage: 415 V + 10 % Frequency: 50 Hz. 3 Phase Output Rating: Float: 220 V, 10 Amp Boost: 180 V, 30Amp Wave Trapper CONT..,

Isolators Insulators Bus Bar


we studied about the operation of different equipments in substation. It includes study of transmission lines Bus bars Various types of transformers Circuit breakers Isolators Earth switches Current transformers Voltage transformers Lightning arresters Wave traps Grounding system of substation



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