You are on page 1of 12

INDEX

Sr.
No.

Particulars

Page
Signature Remarks
No.

1.

Introduction

2.

Definition

3.

Advantages

4.

Types of Teaching Theories

1.

FORMAL THEORY

Meutic Theory

ii

Communicative Theory

2.

1 | Page

iii Molding Theory

iv Mutual Inquiry Theory

DESCRIPTIVE THEORY

i.

Theories of Instruction
1

Gagnes hierarchical theory


of Instruction.

Atkinsons Decision Theoretic


Analysis
for
optimizing
learning.

Bruners Cognitive
Developmental Theory of
Instruction.

Prescriptive theories of teaching

3
ii.
3

NORMATIVE THEORY

Cognitive theory

ii

Theory of Teacher behavior

iii Psychological Theory

iv General Theory

10

Conclusion

10

References

10

THEORIES OF TEACHING :2 | Page

Introduction:THEORIES OF TEACHING are the general methodology of


teaching,reflecting how teachers behave, why do they behave,
when they perform and with effect it works.
When applied in classroom it results in efficiency of teachinglearning process and also that of teachers.(i.e. .They can
develop teaching skills and knowledge competencies.)
Definition:
A theory of teaching is a set of inter-related constructs,
definitions, prepositions which present a systematic view of
teaching by specifying relations among variables with the
purpose of explaining and predicting- Kerlinger
Burner (1964) defines the theory of teaching as the explanation
of general methodology of teaching
A theory of teaching must answer the questions of
the teaching for efficient learning i.e.the need for a
theory of teaching.
A teaching theory has the following advantages:
1) Teaching theory explains the relationship between teaching
and learning and identifies common factors.
2) Teaching theory gives the knowledge about the assumptions
of teaching activities which provide guideline for organizing
teaching. The instructional designs can be developed with
the help of theory of teaching.
3) Provides the scientific basis for planning, organizing, leading
and evaluation the teaching.
4) The classroom teaching problems may be studied
scientifically through the knowledge of teaching theory.
5) The pupil-teachers can develop teaching skills and
competency by employing the knowledge given by theory of
teaching.
6) Teaching objectives may be successfully achieved by the use
of teaching theory.
3 | Page

7) The effective teachers enable produced with the use of


teaching theory.
N.L. Gage suggests that theories of teaching may be used
to increase the understanding, prediction and control of
teaching.

TYPES OF TEACHING THEORIES

1. Formal Theories :A formal theory is syntactic in nature and is only


meaningful when given a semantic component by applying it to
some content (i.e. facts and relationships) .
to formalize a broad range of common sense inferences
related to human psychology, and on theories of human
memory and emotions.
The set of concepts surrounding the idea of a goal turned
out to be among the most important areas of common
sense psychology.Goals are central not just in our work but
in psychology.

4 | Page

Formal Theories can be well explained by learning what


are the theories concerned in it.

5 | Page

iii. Molding theory :The human personality is formed, shaped and molded by their
ENV. Here st.behaviour is molded by Trs teaching styles impact
on them.
Implication :Good Teachers know well that they are shaping the future of the
students and so does they themselves are of that strong
influence and good etiquettes that if they are been followed it
will have an indirect good impact and at times direct too.
iv. Mutual Inquiry theory
This theory states that true knowledge is gained through inquiry
and self desire of discovery to know.
Implication :-

6 | Page

This theory implies that a Teachers has a model in his mind to


use in specific situation and st. themselves selects a one so as to
learn through mutual inquiry.

2. Descriptive Theories :A descriptive theories are based upon certain propositions


and certain observations stating the relationship between the
outcome of education and the condition and characteristics of
learners.
Descriptive Theories can be well explained by learning what are
the theories concerned in it.
i. Theories of Instructions
1. Gagnes hierarchical theory of Instruction.
2. Atkinsons
learning.

Decision

Theoretic

Analysis

for

optimizing

3. Bruners Cognitive Developmental Theory of Instruction.


1. Gagnes hierarchical theory of Instruction
Learning event Corresponding instructional events
Reception
Expectancy
learners of the
Retrieval
Selective Perception

Gaining attention
Information

Stimulation recall or prior learning


Presenting the stimulus

Semantic encoding Providing learning guidance

7 | Page

Responding
performance

Eliciting

Reinforcement

Providing feedback

Retrieval

Assessing performance

Generalization
transfer

Enhancing retention and

2. Atkinsons Decision-theoretic Analysis for Optimizing Learning.


Atkinson Proposed four characteristics
1. Model of the learning process should be involved
2. It should involve specified instructional actions
3. The instructional objectives should be specified in
behavioral terms.
4. Each instructional objective can be measured by Burner
advocates that a theory of instruction is designing
measurement scale or questions.

3.Bruners Cognitive Developmental Theory of Instruction.


Bruner has specified four features
1) Predisposition to learn - A theory of instruction must be
concerned with the experiences and context that will tend
to make the child willing and able to learn when he enters
the school
2) Structure of knowledge - A theory of instruction should
specify the ways in which body of knowledge should be
structured so that it can be most readily grasped by the
learner.
8 | Page

3) Sequence of instruction A theory of instruction should


specify the most effective sequences to present the
material
4) Reinforcement A theory of instruction should specify the
nature and pacing of rewards, moving from extrinsic
rewards of intrinsic one.
ii.Prescriptive theory of Teaching
E. Stones and Morries have attempted to explain the nature of
teaching with the help of three types of related variables:
1) The first phase includes the teacher in the analysis of the
teaching problems and teaching tests before teaching takes
place.
2) In the second Phase decision are made about the
interrelationship of the variables deemed appropriate to
teaching objectives
3) The third phase concerns with evaluating the effectiveness
and workability of phase two .
3.NORMATIVE THEORY OF TEACHING:Learning theories been formulated and experimented on
controlled situations with less generalizability and teaching
theories concerned with human behaviour needs
generalization .More rigorous experiment cannot be performed
on human .Thus we need normative theories where a standard
norms are based on humans i.e , teacher and students
i.The cognitive theory of teaching
1. Types of teachers activity Adviser, counselor, motivator,
demonstrator, curriculum planner and evaluator.
2. Types of educational objectives Cognitive, Affective and
Psychomotor.

9 | Page

3. Types of learning theories Psychological theories of


learning, philosophical theories of learning
4. Types of components of learning - drive, cue, response and
reward.
ii.Theory of Teacher behavior :D.G. Ryan has tried to explain the concept of teacherbehaviour and formulated a theory of teacher-behaviour.
Teacher behavior consists of those acts that the teacher
performs typically in the classroom in order to inducelearning. -M. Meux and B.O. Smith

10 | P a g e

iv.General Theory of Teaching


S.C.T. Clarke has formulated a general theory of teaching.It
assumes that teaching is process which is designed and
performed to produce change in behavior of students.

Conclusion:Teaching theory is prescriptive. Teachers and pupils are the major variables of
teaching theory. It is narrow and specific. It is based upon learning theory,
learning conditions and learning components. While learning theory are
formulated by conducting experiments on animals teaching theory is developed
by dealing with human subjects in normal situations. It is concerned with
effective learning and development of pupils.

References:11 | P a g e

1.
Sharma. R.K. Technological foundation of education,
Theories of teaching.
2. Mangal. S.K. Advanced Educational Psychology, Nature and
theories of learning. PHI learning Private Limited.Pg.235 236.
3.
http://www.slideshare.net/competents2011/teachingtheories?related=1

12 | P a g e