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MARCH 2016/1
1. Describe in detail the Aircraft Passenger Compartment Safety Equipments that is
MANDATORY for the operation of a commercial flight.
The Aircraft Passenger Compartment Safety Equipment that is mandatory for the
operation of a commercial flight includes the Cabin Attendant Station. The Cabin
Attendant Station provides a workstation and seats for the cabin attendants. It is located
near the front entry door which has accommodations for two attendants and includes
these items: stowage provisions, attendant panel, attendant handset, boarding light and
service unit. Regulation states that the seated attendant must be able to see the passengers
for which he/she is responsible and must face forwards or backwards. The compartment
below the attendants seat provide stowage for life vests and flashlights. An attendant
service unit is in the ceiling above the cabin attendant station and it consists of 2 oxygen
masks, oxygen generator, door latch actuator and test stop button. The seats are spring-
loaded to stowed positions. Then, the cushions are attached to the seat assembly with
hook and loop tape and these cushions are removable for use as flotation devices when
necessary, usually during emergency. The seat cushions, backrest and headrest assemblies
are made from fire retardant materials. If the seat pans remain down it will cause
obstructions to an emergency exit.


Next, passenger seats are
seat on an airliner in which
passengers are accommodated
for the duration of the journey.
Such seats are usually arranged
in rows running across the airplanes fuselage. The seats are attached to rails underneath
the floor which run along the aircraft fuselage. For passenger safety, airline seats are
equipped with seat belts. There is a fasten seat belt sign above each seat, which is lit up
when passengers are expected to remain seated with the seat belt fastened. This is during
taxiing, take-off and landing. At times, during turbulence, the Captain may also be
prompted to turn on this sign. Most seats also feature a pocket which may contain an in-
flight magazine and Safety Information & Instructions card.

Emergency exits
(over-wing and
slightly larger exits)
the clearance has to be increased, vertical separation between seats at these locations
must not reduce below 10 (25.5cm). To prevent head injury of passengers as they impact
their head on the seat in front under heavy braking, the row of seat after emergency exits
must be able to break forward. The passenger seats over-wing emergency exit points,
during emergency, passengers will climb over the seats to get out and if seats were to fold
a crush would hamper the evacuation, so these seat backs will not fold forward. In CS-25,
it specifies that aisle width which will depend on seat number. CS-25 in terms of EASA,
stands for Certifications Specifications for Large Aeroplanes. The maximum numbers of
seats abreast in a single aisle aircraft is 3. The minimum number and size of Cabin
Emergency Exits are specified in CS-25 and are related to the seating capacity of the
aircraft. Below are the relation between number of passenger seats and number of cabin
emergency exits required:
Number of Passenger Seats Number of Cabin Emergency Exits Required
1 - 19 1
20 - 79 2
80 - 139 3
140 - 179 4
>179 >5


The passenger seats
are equipped with floor
path lighting. Some seats
have emergency lights fitted low to the floor illuminating emergency escape routes. A
floor proximity emergency escape path marking provides emergency evacuation
guidance for passengers when all sources of illumination more than 1.22 m (4
feet) above the cabin aisle floor are totally obscured. In the dark of the night, the
floor proximity emergency escape path marking enables each passenger to:
(i) after leaving the passenger seat, visually identify the emergency escape
path along the cabin aisle floor to the first exits or pair of exits forward and aft of
the seat;
(ii) readily identify each exit from the emergency escape path by reference
only to markings and visual features not more than 1.22 m (4 feet) above the
cabin floor. Besides, the passenger seat cushions are covered with fire resistant material.

Furthermore, the
passenger seat belts
play an important role
in the safety aspects in the passenger compartment. The passenger seat belts consists of
two lap straps (but may have other straps also) with metal snap hooks fitted to one end of
each to attach to the seat structure. At the other end of one is quick release mechanism
and the other one has a snap-in fitting. One of the straps is adjustable for length. The seat
belts are made of nylon webbing, quick release connection at the seat end of the belt,
which should be inspected for correct engagement and looking. C.A.R Malaysia stated
that a safety belt/harness is required for all crew and passenger seats and special child
restraints for each child under 2 years of age. The seat belts (and seats and berths) have to
comply with the strength requirements (ANO and CS-25/23) of holding a person of 170
lbs (77.1kg) safely in various directions of aircraft movement with a safety factor of 1.33.
ANO in aviation terms stands for Air Navigation Order while CS-23 are for Certification
Specifications for Normal, Utility, Aerobatic, and Commuter Category Aeroplanes
For an example, the seat belts should be capable of holding a 170 lbs (77kg) person at a
9g forward acceleration of the body (similar scenario as it would happen in a crash
landing. As of new aircrafts, the front row seats are designed to withstand 16g. In order to
service the seat belts, the seat belts are checked on whether is the webbing intact, that no
stitching has come lose. When not in use, the seat belt should be properly stowed by
fastening the belts in the normal way, take up all the adjustment and lay them on the
seats. The cables and straps of forward release mechanisms should be inspected for kinds,
entanglement and fraying. Next, control lock mechanisms, pulleys, Bowden cables,
inertia reel assemblies etc should be examined for security, wear, freedom of movement,
corrosion, functioning and be correctly lubricated.


Besides that, the Lower Sidewall Panels are also mandatory in reference of the safety
equipment in the passenger compartment. They are also commonly known as Dado Panel.
It is a spring-closed panel which covers and protects the juncture of the aircrafts cabin
flooring and the fabric-covered interior wall. They will only open at 0.5 P.S.I.D in case of
rapid decompression of Cabin Pressure to minimize floor collapse and overall structural

In addition, aircraft
carpets also are
mandatory safety
equipment. This is
because aircraft carpets
are designed to meet the Manufacturers and Authorities safety requirements for flame,
smoke and toxicity. The aircraft carpets are usually flame-resistant.


Then, the oxygen mask is mandatory as the emergency equipment. Oxygen masks
have a life limit of 5 years. The oxygen mask should be hydrostatically test every 3 years.
As for the oxygen bottles, they can last for a maximum of 15 years or after 10,000 filling
cycles. Oxygen mask is to supply oxygen source when there is any emergency is the
cabin, which includes cabin depressurization or cabin on fire.


Furthermore, an aircraft operating over water beyond gliding distance from land, a
life vest for every person on board must be carried. Life vest of an approved pattern must
be equipped with a waterproof light and a whistle. The life vest are made special design
suitable for children which are under 3 years of age do not need to carry a whistle.
Stowage for life vests must be easily accessible and is usually stowed in a small valise in
a pocket under each passenger seat. Life vest when stored or in-use must be inspected and
tested as specified in the Aircraft Maintenance Manual.
Moving on, the
life raft is also one of
the mandatory
equipment. Items which are packed with the inflatable life-raft are a means of
maintaining buoyancy, eg: bellows, oral inflation, leak stoppers, sea anchor (prevent
drifting), lifelines (means of joining one life raft to another), paddles (or some other
means of propulsion on water), means of protecting survivor from the elements (wind,
salt, cold and heat), waterproof torch and survival radio beacon. The life raft is packed in
a stowage when required it is pushed away from the aircraft on a static line attached to a
solid part of the aircraft. The life raft is inflated by a lanyard which operates the valve on
a Carbon Dioxide bottle and inflate automatically. Lines and rope ladders on the raft are
to enable people to get inside without difficulties. The Air Navigation Order Schedule 4
in essence, requires that in addition to Life Jackets there must be Life-Rafts on board the
aircraft to accommodate all people on board. This applies to all aircraft which flies over
the sea beyond gliding distance from the shore and carrying more than 20 passengers.
Multi-engine aircraft are not required to carry life rafts if they are within 400 nautical
miles or 90 minutes flying time from an aerodrome.
Besides, survival pack is required as it is considered as an emergency furnishing.
Survival packs vary in size from but must be robust, portable and give easy access to its
contents for crew and passengers who may be shocked or injured. A typical survival pack
is approximately 24.5kg in weight and its dimensions are approximately 51 x 40 x 20 cm
and the contents vary according to the general terrain of operation. A static line with a
clip hook for attaching the pack to the life-raft, the cover is made of PVC coated nylon
and has 2 strong carrying handles. The ANO Schedule 4, Scale K requires that items for
the survival of passengers after they have been evacuated from the aircraft must be stored
in a separate container from the Life raft. In JAR, 25 paragraph 1415, it states that the
survival pack in which the above the equipment is kept must be attached to or stored
adjacent to the Life Raft.
Moreover, the ANO Schedule 4, Scale Y requires that if the aircrafts total seating
capacity exceeds 19 but does not exceed 149, 1 portable battery powered megaphone
must be provided for a member of the crew. The megaphone is provided so that
instructions can be clearly given to everyone in the passenger compartment. When the
aircraft passenger seating capacity exceeds 149 but is less than 200, then 2 megaphones
are required. If the passenger seating capacity exceeds 199, 3 megaphones or more must
be carried. Although, megaphones are not an approval item, but they must be serviced in
according with the manufacturers maintenance manual. Megaphones must be stowed
adequately so that they can withstand an inertia force of 9G without becoming loose.
Next, escape slides are required by Scale A of the 4 th Schedule of the ANO as
amplified by JAR 25, paragraph 809. The requirement for the escape slides are the speed
of deployment, reliability in winds and compact stowage and the equipment needed has
to be inflatable. Then, the equipments must not impede the access of exits and entrances.
They are required to be fitted to all aircraft where the sill any exit is more than 6 feet
(1.82m) above the ground in any undercarriage configuration. The escape must be
provided to allow all passengers to evacuate within 90 seconds. The inflate slide must:
inflate in 10 seconds; inflate in 25 knots wind and must be held stable by no more than 1
person; and be a double slide at type A exits. Each passenger and galley door serves as an
emergency exit, and is fitted with an escape slide. These slides are made to fit particular
door, so slides for the forward doors do not fit the aft door and vice versa. The escape
slides are housed in fibreglass valises, contains an air bottle and a pressure indicator for
bottle pressure indication. The slide pack is held on the door by a harness and a support
shelf. The slide pack contains an inflatable escape slide, inflation bottle and girt with a
girt bar attached. An Arm/Disarm lever labeled Engage/Detach connected to the
mode select mechanism locks the girt bar to the floor attachments. The indicator is red
lined for pressures below 2750 psi is the minimum safe pressure for operating at 70F.
When the slides are ARMED, a girt bar fits into brackets on the aircraft floor. Opening
the door will activate the slide. Escape slides are armed when the doors are closed prior to
taxiing by the Cabin Crew. The inflation system consists of a slide inflation pressre
bottle; which is activated by a lanyard. The bottle is packed with the slide inside the pack.
A pressure gauge on the bottle is visible through a viewing window in the slide cover.
The pressure should be within the green band. An indicator light above the door will
illuminate when the slide system is engaged or armed. When the slide is armed, a block is
mechanically moved outward to indicate that the slide is armed. The escape slides must
be disengaged before the door is opened normally. Opening the door using the external
handle with automatically disarm the slide to prevent inadvertent slide deployment.
Before the aircraft taxies, girt bar is fastened to brackets located on the floor of the
aircraft. It remains there throughout the flight. If an emergency evacuation is needed on
landing, and the door is opened, the escape slide will deploy in the usual way. For normal
door operation, the girt bar is snapped into spring loaded retaining clips at the bottom of
the door. Incorrect stowage of the girt bar could result in inadvertent deployment of the
slide. The slide inflation system incorporates an aspirator, a form of jet pump. As the
compressed gas from the inflation bottle rushes past the aspirator inlets, atmospheric air
is drawn in to speed up the inflation of the slide. When the rush of air ceases, the aspirator
flap valve closes, pressure relief valve prevents over inflation of the slide. Besides, a slide
is very similar to life raft in construction. Escape slides can be detached from the aircraft
and converted into life rafts capable of carrying a large number of people. To comply
with the requirements of the Air Navigation Order, the slide needs to be fitted with
additional equipments. This additional equipment must not impede the primary function
of the slide as a means of evacuation from the aircraft. Escape slides are fitted with their
own independent lighting system to facilitate during evacuation.

PICTURE 1.13 -
Lastly, the fire
extinguisher portable
systems are hand-operated fire extinguishers provided to combat any outbreaks of fire in
flight crew compartments and passenger cabins. For fire protection for aircraft interiors,
hand held portable fire extinguisher systems are provided. There are four types of
extinguishers are available to extinguish interior fire: water, carbon dioxide (CO2), dry
chemical and Halogenated Hydrocarbons. Firstly, water extinguishers are for used
primarily on non-electrical fires such as smoldering fabric. They are filled with regular
tap water and pressurized with CO2. It works by removing the heat (cooling). Water fire
extinguishers should not be used on electrical fires because of the danger of electrocution.
Secondly, Carbon Dioxide extinguishers contain Carbon Dioxide, a non-flammable gas,
highly pressurized. There is a long hinged tube with a non-metallic megaphone shaped
nozzle which permits the discharge of the CO2 gas close to the fire. Carbon Dioxide is
heavier than oxygen, so these extinguishers work by displacing or taking away oxygen
from the surrounding area. Carbon Dioxide is also very cold so it also works by cooling
the fuel. Thirdly, dry chemical extinguishers are filled with either foam or powder
(usually sodium bicarbonate or potassium bicarbonate and pressurized with nitrogen).
Sodium bicarbonate is effective because it decomposes at 158F and release Carbon
Dioxide (which smothers oxygen) once it decomposes. Dry chemical extinguishers
interrupt the chemical reaction of the fire by coating the fuel with a thin layer of power or
foam, separating the fuel from the surrounding oxygen. Extinguishment on any type of
fire should not be carried out in the cockpit as there will be interference with visibility
and the collection of non-conductive power on electric contacts of surrounding
equipments. Fourthly, liquid halon (FREON) is the only fire extinguishers that is non-
toxic and wont damage the aircraft. They are numbered according to their chemical
formulas with 5 digits number:
First digit - number of carbon atoms in the compound molecules
Second digit - the number of fluorine atoms
Third digit - the number of chlorine atoms
Fourth digit - the number of bromine atoms
Fifth digit - the number of iodine atoms
Halon works to extinguish fire by using a liquid that turns to gas when it is sprayed into a
fire. The gas displaces oxygen to rob the fire of oxygen and cause it go out. If Halon is
sprayed into the air, it disappears almost as soon as it has been sprayed, but is highly
effective in closed areas. A minimum number of hand held fire extinguishers must be
provided in the passenger cabin to be of the Halon 1211 type (BCF), water and BCF
extinguishers. They can be clearly identified with Water type in a red container and BCF
usually in a red container. The bottle itself has a full disc which is pushed out as the
trigger is depressed, giving indication of a partially of fully discharged bottle.


2. Detail the Aircraft Flight Compartment Safety Emergency Equipments available.

A flight compartment is defined as a space, usually enclosed, in the forward fuselage
of an airplane containing the flying controls, instrument panel, and seats for the pilot and
co-pilot or flight crew. The purpose of equipments in the flight compartment are to
provide safety and comfort to Captain, First Officer and Observers.
The Cockpit Door Surveillance System (CDSS) allows the pilot and co-pilot to view
video images of the area outside the Cockpit Door through a CDSS application. Special
wiring and hardware is required to access CDSS. This system provides real-time video
monitoring. The CDSS consists of a color display with integrated video computer, three
video cameras and a camera controller. The secured cockpit door opening is controlled by
a toggle switch, which is located on the central pedestal. These are the cockpit door
toggle switches mode: UNLOCK - this position is used to enable the cabin crew member
to open the door; NORM - all latches are locked, and EMERGENCY access is possible
for the cabin crew; LOCK - once the button has been moved to this position, the door is
locked, emergency access, the buzzer, and the keypad are inhibited for a pre-selected time
(5 - 20 minutes).
In the flight compartment, there are emergency equipments available in case of
emergency. These emergency equipments include flight crew oxygen, escape lanyard,
crash axe, smoke goggles, life vest, fire extinguisher and protective breathing equipment.
The crash axe is to shatter the flight deck glass in case of emergency for immediate
evacuation of the flight crews. Next, escape lanyards are used to escape from the cockpit
in case of emergency. Smoke googles are used during cabin on fire or presence of smoke
which will affect the visibility of the flight crews. During emergency, flight crew oxygen
will be used on demand to provide sufficient oxygen required by the flight crews.
Meanwhile, the fire extinguisher is to put any source of fire which happens in the flight
compartment. Additionally, the life vest will be used in case of the aircraft has crashed
into the sea which there is the presence of water; which the life vest will aid in the
floating of the flight crews.
There are several types of oxygen delivery system provided to the flight crew. Firstly,
a continuous flow system. This system delivers a continuous flow of oxygen from
the storage container. It is a very economical system in that it doesnt need
complicated masks or regulators to function. But it is also very wastefulthe flow
of oxygen is constant whether youre inhaling, exhaling, or pausing in between
breaths. This system is typically used at 28,000 feet and lower. Secondly, the
diluter demand system. The diluter demand system is designed to compensate
for the short-comings of the continuousflow system. It gives the user oxygen on-
demand (during inhalation) and stops the flow when the demand ceases (during
exhalation). This helps conserve oxygen. Additionally, the incoming oxygen is
diluted with cabin air and provides the proper percentage of oxygen, depending
on the altitude. This system is typically used at altitudes up to 40,000 feet. Thidly,
the pressure demand system. This system provides oxygen under positive
pressure. Positive pressure is a forceful oxygen flow that is intended to slightly
over-inflate the lungs. This will, in a sense, pressurize the lungs to a lower
altitude, thus allowing you to fly at altitudes above 40,000 feet, where 100%
oxygen without positive pressure will not suffice.
Next, there are also 4 types of oxygen masks and cannulas to work with the
oxygen delivery systems. When considering an oxygen mask, you must ensure
that the mask you are using is compatible with the delivery system you are using.
Firstly, the nasal cannulas. These are continuous-flow devices and offer the
advantage of personal comfort. They are restricted by federal aviation regulations
to 18,000 feet service altitude because of the risk of reducing oxygen-blood
saturation levels if one breathes through the mouth or talks too much. Secondly,
the oral-nasal re-breather. This type is the most common and least expensive. It
is also the simplest in operation; it has an external plastic bag that inflates every
time you exhale. The purpose of the bag is to store exhaled air, so it may be
mixed with 100% oxygen from the system. These masks supply adequate
oxygen to keep the user physiologically safe up to 25,000 feet. Thirdly, the quick-
don mask. These masks must demonstrate the ability to be donned with one
hand in 5 seconds or less, while accommodating prescription glasses. Quick-don
masks are typically suspended or stored to permit quick and unimpeded access
by cockpit crew. These masks are typically rated to altitudes up to 40,000 feet.
Fourthly the airline drop-down units (Dixie cup). The phase-sequential
continuous-flow mask looks similar to a general aviation rebreather. However,
both masks function differently, and the phase sequential mask allows the user to
go to higher altitudes. This mask uses a series of one-way ports that allow a
mixture of 100% oxygen and cabin air into the mask. Exhalation is vented to the
atmosphere; as a result, the bag does not inflate. This mask can be safely used
at emergency altitudes up to 40,000 feet.
Then, as per Authority Requirement, smoke hoods shall be provided for all members
of the flight crew. It is sufficient to protect the eyes, nose and mouth for not less than 15
minutes. The eye protection only is required for aircraft restricted to 25,000 ft and below
when the aicraft is capable of the descending to 10,000 ft within 4 minutes. Smoke hood
is a protective device similar to a gas mask. It is a transparent air tight bag seals around
the head of the wearer while an air filter held in the mouth connects to the outside
atmosphere and is used to breathe. Smoke hoods are to protect victims of fire from the
effects of smoke inhalation. High quality smoke hoods are generally constructed of heat
resistance material such as Kapton, which can withstand relatively high temperature. The
most important part is the filter that provides protection from the toxic by products of
combustion. The design utilize some from of activated charcoal filter and particulate filter
to screen out corrosive fumes like Ammonia and Chlorine, as well as acidic gases such
Hydrogen Chloride and Hydrogen Sulphide. An effective smoke hood is the ability to
convert deadly Carbon Monoxide to relatively harmless Carbon Dioxide through a
catalytic process. A typical smoke has a small life support park fitted to the hood
assembly which will provide at least 15 minutes supply of oxygen. The life support park
is activated by pulling a lanyard after the hood has been removed from its sealed stowage
case. The user must ensure that the Hood covers the head and that the life support park is
behind the head. The pulling of lanyard starts a chemical reaction which produces
oxygen. The venturi shall pump the oxygen with filtered re-circulated from the hood,
back into the hood. It ensure that oxygen is available for at least 15 minutes. When the
noise of the airflow stops, the oxygen generator has ceased operation and the hood must
be removed immediately. In some types of smoke hood, difficulty with the inhalation
indicates the end of the operating time. A seal is fitted around the handle of the case and a
is visible
through a
In ANO (Scale B), C.A.R Malaysia states that a safety belt/harness is required for all
crews. The captain or first officer seat operates the same, which the base has controls and
mechanisms for seat fore/aft position. A five-point harness has an inertia reel style of belt
and has the option to lock the inertia reel in position. The crew seat harness may vary in
design but it must conform to CAA/EASA regulations to restrain the pilot in all
foreseeable emergency situations. The harness consists of a shoulder harness assembly,
right and left hand abdominal belts, centre strap, release buckle, a harness reel and an
operator unit assembly. The straps of the crew seat harness are made of nylon webbing.


3. From the
Airworthiness point of
view, describe the
requirements you must
undertake when
carrying out
inspections and
maintenance work on
the Aircraft Galley
The galleys are the
kitchen area of the
aircraft. They are used to prepare food and drink for consumption of passengers and flight
crew during flight. The galleys ranger from simple food dispensers, which can store cold
meals, to the fully fitted galleys on large aircraft which incorporate ovens and
refrigerators.The number of galleys and their positions will depend on aircraft type and
passenger capacity.
The design of galley inserts shall comply with the intent of JAR 25X1499 (Domestic
Service and Appliances) and its associated Advisory Circular-Joint (ACJ) or equivalent
standard acceptable to the DCA which provides an equivalent level of safety.
Additionally, general requirements for all electrical equipment in respect of electrical and
magnetic interference, such as BCAR Chapter D6-13, or JAR 25-1353 apply.
Besides, galley equipment and its installation shall have adequate strength to comply
with the emergency alighting, flight and ground cases of the relevant JAR, BCAR, or
FAR requirements as applicable.
The requirements that maintenance personnel must undertake when carrying out
inspections and maintenance work includes on ensuring that the galley area is clean and
any spillages cleaned up. Any oil stain or residual of waste material are potential cause of
corrosion that may incur on the aircraft structure. Therefore, the galley area must be very
thoroughly cleaned to prevent any unwanted corrosion to occur.
Next, during intervals specified in the Maintenance Schedule, thorough checks must
be carried out in the galley area for signs of corrosion and damage. This can prevent any
unwanted galley equipment failure to happen during flight. With malfunction equipments,
meals for the passenger and flight crews are unable to be prepared.
Moving on, The design of all galley equipment shall minimize the risk of personal
injury to the user as required by the relevant JAR, BCAR, or FAR requirements as
applicable. Hence, the lids of hot liquid (over 45C) containers must be fitted securely.
This is to prevent the spillage of these hot liquids from injuring the cabin crew in case of
any vigorous movements of the aircraft maneuvering. The use of open hot-plates and
open cooking utensils as frying pans is not permitted.
Furthermore, the maintenance personnels are to ensure the serviceability of all door
hinges, catches and restraints. The local attachment factor of 1.33 applies, in addition to
the relevant prescribed acceleration forces, to door hinges, catches and restraint means
which form part of the equipment structure, and to structure adjacent to the restraint
means provided by the galley and similar stowage. must be of strength compatible with
the placarded contents weight, unless use of the box is restricted to stowage in completely
enclosed galleys, or similar compartments. This also applies to the doors of catering
trolleys, but in their case the total structure of the trolley must also be shown to be in
compliance with the strength requirements, taking into account the means of retention of
the trolley in the aircraft.
Besides, maintenance personnels must also ensure the galley and trolley placards are
clear and readable. Trolleys shall carry the following placarded instructions :-
(a) that they must be stored and secured during taxi, take-off, turbulent weather and
(b) either
(i) that when removed from their stowage they must not be left unattended, or
(ii) (for trolleys to be used in aircraft subject to paragraph 5.9 of this Notice)
that when removed from their stowage, they must not be left unattended unless
secured to an attachment point. (c) that the gross weight of the unit, or the
combined gross weight of the unit and any other galley insert when stowed
together, must not exceed the placarded maximum content weight of the
compartment where stowed.

maintenance personnel
must ensure that the
waste containers are
closed properly as they
can contain any possible
of fire starting. This
includes the waste
containers on catering
trolleys. Where catering
trolleys have the facility for the collection of waste, they shall be designed and
constructed to provide a standard of fire containment acceptable to the DCA.
Demonstrated compliance with JAR 25.853(d), BCAR or FAR as applicable will be
accepted by the DCA as meeting the fire containment requirement.
For another thing, the catering trolley restraints serviceability should also be
ensured. Where the basis of type certification of the aircraft requires the provision of
means of trolley restraint in the passenger cabin capable of withstanding the loads
associated with the flight cases, the trolleys shall be provided with attachment means
compatible with the anchorage points provided in the aircraft. Such a method of restraint
should be engineered so that it can be used by one person and so that its use will be likely
to occur by virtue of its simplicity of operation.
Moving on, the trolleys must also embody a brake system if they are to be removed
from stowage in flight in the absence of evidence justifying an equivalent minimum
breaking force then the braking mechanism must be qualified by loading the trolley to its
maximum loaded weight and ensuring that the breaking mechanism holds the trolley on
an incline plane of 7.5..
Another than that, the installation of all galley equipment shall be such that the size,
weight, and means of restraint are compatible with the stowage facility provided, and that
under design loads the item will not deform in such a manner so as to free itself from the
means of restraint.
Account must be taken of the individual and total electrical power demand of galley
equipment and an electrical load analysis must be included in design documentation.

4. With an aid of a diagram, explain the FULL operation of the Liquid Flush Toilet
The number and type of toilets fitted in an aircraft cabin varies according to the size
and type of the aircraft. One of the types of toilet is the Liquid Flush Toilet. Liquid Flush
Toilets are commonly found in Passenger Aircraft. Each toilet is completely self-
contained, its waste collection tank being mounted directly below the toilet bowl. Each
toilet unit is installed above the toilet compartment floor level. A liquid flush toilet
consists of:
a) A seat
b) Cover and surround
c) Toilet bowl
d) Tank top and flushing system
e) Waste tank and outlet bowl


Liquid flush toilets are the most common type of toilet in passenger aircraft. It
is self contained, the waste collection tank is mounted directly below the toilet bowl. The
toilet bowl is made of stainless steel or fiber-glass laminate. It can be filled up to 20
gallons of water and filled with pre-charged of strong disinfectant chemical, Raquasan.
The dyed and deodorant in the toilet bowl can be used for up to 100 times.
Liquid flush toilet is an electrically powered flushing unit. It collects the waste
material in the toilet where it is disinfected, deodorized, dyed and the liquids separated
from the waste. These liquids are then used for flushing purposes. The toilet waste tank is
made from stainless steel and has a capacity of 20 gallons.
Moving on, this toilet is initially charged with a minimum of 5 gallons of
concentrated solution containing disinfectant, deodorant and dye. This will last for
approximately 100 times of usage of the toilet, after which the toilet should be emptied,
cleansed and recharged.
For another thing, the toilet flushing is initiated by pushing the toilet flush button.
This action energizes an electrical timer which begins a 10 seconds cycle. The timer
completes a circuit to energise a motor which will simultaneously drive a pump and a
mechanical self cleaning filter. The pump will draw liquid through a rotating filter and
pumps it through a toilet bowl flush ring into the bowl with a swirling action. This action
carries the deposits into the waste tank and cleanses the bowl. At the end of the 10 second
cycle, the timer opens the circuit and re-arms itself for the next cycle. On the next
operation, the motor will reverse its direction to prevent the rotating filter becoming
entangled with non-decomposable waste materials.
Furthermore, the toilet bowl is made of stainless steel. The lower part of the bowl is
closed by a hinged separator which is spring loaded to the closed position. A reversible
three phase 115V AC motor is fitted on top of the waste tank. This motor drives both
rotating filter and the impeller, where it is used to pump the flushing fluid into the flush
ring. The rotating filter consists of a stack of flat wheel shaped discs, each disc is
separated by the spacer. The thickness of the spacer holding the discs apart determines the
degree of filtration.
In addition, a stationary knife blade is mounted beside the disc stack, the blade
extending into the slots created by the spacers. When the filter is rotated, all the waste is
combined through the slots by the cleaner blades. This type of filter will break down the
waste particles to a size for 300 microns.
Moreover, the drain valve is situated in the tank and is operated from the external
service point by a control cable. This allows unrestricted flow of waste through its drain
tube to the drain connection on the external servicing panel. A perforated tube called a
flush line is fitted around the top of the waste tank on the inside. This is to clean the sides
of tank when the chemical is replenished through the ground flush line, after the tank is


5. Reference
1. EASA Certifications Specifications for Large Aeroplane (CS -25):
2. SkyBary - Floor Path Illumination
3. EASA Certifications Specifications and Guidance Material for Additional
Airworthiness Specifications for Operations (CS-26)
4. The Air Navigation Order (Isle Of Man) (Amendment) Order 2016
5. Certification Specifications for Normal, Utility, Aerobatic, and Commuter
Category Aeroplanes (CS-23)
6. ATA 25 - Equipments and Furnishing
7. FAA - Cabin Safety Index
8. FAA - Joint Aviation Requirements (JAR)
9. FAA - Flight Oxygen System Equipments
10. DCAM - Galley Equipments (AN 47)
11. JAR 25X1499 - Domestic Services and Appliances