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# TRANSFORMATIONS OF

FUNCTIONS
1.1 Prerequisite Skills + Translations p. 1
1.2 Reflections p. 17
1.3 Stretches p. 27
1.4 Combining Transformations p. 47
1.5 Inverse of a Relation p. 65
Chapter Review Practice p. 81

## Part A – Prerequisite Skills Review of Two Familiar Functions

In this units we’ll take some known and new functions and apply various transformations. And that means, if
you’re eager with anticipation, to alter the function’s equation or graph.
However before we get into all of that – over the next few pages (and 6 warm-ups), we’ll brush up on some key
concepts we’ll need in this first unit and throughout this course. Starting with – some functions from Math 20!

Exploration #1

## 1 Complete the table of values on the right,

and plot the points to sketch the graph. 3 (– 3) 2 = 9 (– 3, 9 )
2
2 State the domain and range of the function.
1
0
Domain Range
1
3 On the same grid, sketch the graph
2
of . Add 3 to all y-coordinates,
verify on your graphing calc. 3

## The Absolute Value Function – the Graph of

4 Complete the table of values on the right,
and plot the points to sketch the graph.
3 |–3\ = 3 (– 3, 3)
5 State the domain and range of the function.
2
1
Domain Range
0
6 On the same grid, sketch the graph
1
of .
2
Explain how the graph compares to .
3

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1.1 Prerequisite Skills and Translations

## Toggle between the

two graphs using
Match the the arrow buttons
window to
the given grid
Also confirm
Confirm points using: points using table

## To graph , you’ll need Match the window

again…. Try changing the
to find the abs( function. constant term, how does
that change things?
Key in “MATH” then choose the
first option from the “NUM” menu

## Over the next two warm-ups, we’ll preview three

Preview of a Few New Functions
functions we’ll see much of later in the course.

Warm-up
The Cubic Function – The Graph of
Exploration #2
1 Complete the table of values on the left and
3
plot the points to sketch the graph of the
2 (–2) = –8 function. Use your graphing calculator to confirm.
1
0 2 State the function’s domain and range.
1
2 Domain Range

(– 2, – 8)

## 3 Complete the table of values on the left and

0 0 =0 plot the points to sketch the graph of the
1 function. Use your graphing calculator to confirm.
4
4 State the function’s domain and range.
9
1
Domain Range

5 Compare this table of values with that of . 6 On the same grid, sketch the graph of .
What do you notice? State the domain and range of this new function.

Domain Range

Page |2
Chapter 1 – Transformations

## Exploration #3 The Rational Function – The Graph of

1 Complete the (partial) table of values

on the left. The points are already
plotted on the graph. 5 1 /–5 = –0.2
4 1 /–4 = –0.25
2 Graph / on your graphing
calculator, using the window shown. 1
: 5, 5, 1 : 5, 5, 1 0
min max scl 0.2

## 3 With the help of you calculator, sketch 0.25

the graph by connecting the plotted
points in a smooth curve.

4 Fill in the blanks: The graph of has a vertical asymptote at _______ and a

horizontal asymptote at _______. The domain of the function is ___________ and the range is ___________.
Can’t divide by zero

## Domain: ∈ℝ Domain: ∈ℝ Domain: ∈ℝ

Range: ∈ℝ Range: | !, ∈ℝ Range: ∈ℝ

Horizontal
Asymptote
at \$ 0

Vertical
Asymptote
at # 0

## Domain: ∈ℝ Domain: !, ∈ℝ Domain: " !, ∈ ℝ

Range: | !, ∈ℝ Range: | !, ∈ ℝ Range: | " !, ∈ ℝ

## Interval Notation of Domain and Range

You are likely familiar with the formats above, set notation. In this course we also use interval notation:
So, Domain: ∈ℝ can be written in interval notation: ∞, ∞ Read as: “from ∞ to ∞”
Rounded brackets, do not include endpoints
And, Range: | !, ∈ ℝ can be written: ! , ∞ Read as: “from 0 to ∞, including 0”
Square bracket, endpoint is included
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1.1 Prerequisite Skills and Translations

## Exploration #4 Domain and Range Fundamentals

The concept of domain and range is highly important in this course. In this next warm-up, we’ll look at how to
determine the domain and range from a graph, and how to determine the domain from the equation of a function.

## Determining Domain and Range from the graph of a function

For domain, we consider all input, or values. For range, we consider all output, or values.
% %

Range
4, 2 Domain 4, 2
# #

5, 3 5, 3

## Domain is: | , ∈ℝ Set notation Range is: | , ∈ℝ Set notation

or, alternatively: ,∞ Interval notation or, alternatively: ,∞ Interval notation

## Determining Domain from the equation of a function

But what of these
Given the equation of a function, we need to exclude any non-
“restrictions”?
permissible values. (That is, we need to state any restrictions)

## Which is actually easier than might sound! Because in this course,

there are only three restrictions we need to consider. Ready? Just
remember that we can’t:

## Divide by Zero For example, what is the domain of….

&
%

We do not need to graph on our calculators, or even consider what the graph might look like.
Simply think …. For what value(s) # would the denominator (“bottom”) be zero?
Domain is given by: # 3"0 Set the denominator not equal to zero, and isolate #
| " , ∈ℝ This domain is not suitable for interval notation, but if
we chose to, it would be: ∞, ⋃ ,∞
“Union” (think –
“combined with”)
Square Root Negatives For example, what is the domain of….
Note that this is not in the curriculum
'
Again, we need not concern ourselves with the graph! (And like ( # above, we won’t even get to the
graphs until unit 7) Instead, think …. For what value(s) # would we be square-rooting negatives?
Domain is given by: 4# 3 0 Set what’s under the root sign greater than or equal to
zero, and isolate #
4# 3
| / , ∈ℝ In interval notation: ⁄ ,∞

## Take the Logarithm* of 0 or Negatives

*Let’s pin this for now – we’ll come back in unit 3!

Page |4
Chapter 1 – Transformations

Before we continue our warm-ups and into transformations, let’s do some practice with domain and range.

## Class Example 1.11 Obtaining Domain and Range from a Graph

Given the graphs below, state the domain (D) and range (R) for each function, in both set and interval notation
(a) (b) (c)

D: D: D:
Set Notation Interval Notation Set Interval Set Interval

R: R: R:
Set Notation Interval Notation Set Interval Set Interval

## (d) (e) (f)

Horizontal
1.5, 5
Asymptote

D: D: D:
Set Interval Set Set Interval

R: R: R:
Set Interval Set Set Interval

## Visit math30-1edge.com for solutions

Class Example 1.12 Obtaining Domain from a function equation to all warm-ups and class examples

## Without graphing, determine the domain of each function below.

(a) % & Provide in Set and (b) * Set and Interval (c)
Interval notation notation

## (d) ' (e) % (f) %

& + ,

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1.1 Prerequisite Skills and Translations

## In Math 20, we saw how a quadratic function could be expressed

\$ 0 # 1 2 3, where the coordinates of the vertex are 1, 3 .
In Math 30, the vertex form equation is - . /
Where the coordinates of the vertex are ℎ, 5 .
We also saw how while . and / affect the position of the graph, - affects the
parabola shape (how wide / narrow) and the orientation. (opens up / down) ℎ, 5

0 2 - 1
0 1
0 4 2 0
4  For example, consider the graph of - ,
for different values of -.
The center function is where 0 1, that is,
When 0 6 1, such as with , the graph is
vertically stretched by a factor of 2. (The graph is narrower)
And when 0 7 0 7 1, such as with , the graph
is vertically stretched by a factor of 1/4. (graph is wider)

## Finally, recall that And when - 7 !, the

when - 6 !, the graph opens down.
graph opens up.

## Exploration #5 Vertex Form of a Quadratic Function – The Graph of - . /

Group 1
1 Each of the graphs in group 1 represent a quadratic function
in the form - . /, where 0 1 and ℎ, 5 ∈ 8   
Determine an equation for each graph.

##  ________________  ________________  ________________

Group 2
2 Each of the graphs in group 1 represent a quadratic function in the
form - . /, where 0 1 or 0 1, and ℎ, 5 ∈ 8
Determine an equation for each graph.   

##  ________________  ________________  ________________

Page |6
Chapter 1 – Transformations

5

## On the previous page, we saw how the parameters 0, ℎ, and 5 \$ #2

affected the graph of - . /.
We can think of the vertex as having shifted, or translated, from:
 0, 0 on the graph of \$ # 2 to ℎ, 5 ℎ, 5 / vertically
 ℎ, 5 on the graph of \$ 0 # ℎ 2 5 0, 0
. units horizontally
A transformation of a function alters the location, shape or orientation of graph.
A horizontal or vertical translation is a “shift”, or change to the graph position.
(Think of picking up and moving a graph left / right and up / down)

## Exploration #6 Exploring the Effect of ., / in % . /

1 Complete each table of values below and plot the points to sketch the second function, \$2 , on the same grid
as \$9 # 2 . Verify your graph of \$2 using your graphing calculator. (Match your window to the grid below)

i \$9 #2 (– 2, 8 ) ii \$9 #2
\$9 #2 \$9 #2
\$2 #2 4 \$2 # 4 2

=
2 2
2 (-2) = 4 4+4 = 8 6 –6+4 = -2 (-2) = 4 (– 6, 4 )
1 5
0 4
1 3
2 2

2 For each case, describe how the graph of can be obtained by horizontally or vertically translating the
graph of .
i \$9 #2 ii \$9 #2
\$2 #2 4 \$2 # 4 2

3 For each case above, describe which coordinate (# or \$) is affected, and how. Complete a mapping rule for
each.
i #, \$ → ii #, \$ →

4 Graph each of the following pairs of functions in your graphing calculator. Then, describe how the graph of
can be obtained by horizontally or vertically translating the graph of , and provide a mapping rule.
i \$9 # ii \$9 #
\$2 # 3 \$2 # 5

iii \$9 #
\$2 # 3 1

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1.1 Prerequisite Skills and Translations

A function % , transformed to % . /, is % . /

##  Horizontally translated . units: RIGHT if ℎ 6 0 LEFT if ℎ 7 0 . units

 Vertically translated / units: UP if 5 6 0 DOWN if 5 7 0
/ units
A mapping rule describes the effect on each point on the original function
%
to the transformed function. Here, it’s: #, \$ → # ℎ, \$ 5
Note that the direction of the horizontal
translation is the opposite of the sign

For each pair of functions below, \$ < # is obtained by horizontally and vertically translating
Worked
Example the graph of \$ ( # . Determine an equation for \$ < # , (i) in terms of ( # and (ii) in terms
of #, for (b) and (c) only. Then, (iii) provide a mapping rule from ( # → < # .
(a) \$ ( # (b) (c)
( # #2 '

' ( # #
'

4, 0

3, 2

## Solution: (a) \$ ( # horizontally translates (b) ' % (c) ' %

2 units left, then vertically i - Equation in terms of ( i - Equation in terms of (
translates 3 units down
' '
' % ii - Equation in terms of # ii - Equation in terms of #
ii - Equation in terms of (
, → , , → ,
, → ,
iii - Mapping Rule iii - Mapping Rule iii - Mapping Rule

Class Example 1.13 Determining the Horizontal / Vertical Translation from a graph

For each pair of functions below, \$ < # is obtained by horizontally and / or vertically translating the graph
of \$ ( # . Provide the indicated equations / mapping rule below.

## (a) ' (c) (b)

' % '

%
%

i i i
Equation of < # in Equation of < # in Equation of < # in
terms of ( # terms of ( # terms of ( #

ii ii ii
Mapping rule of Equation of < # in Equation of < # in
\$ ( # →\$ < # terms of # terms of #
iii iii
Mapping rule of Mapping rule of
\$ ( # →\$ < # \$ ( # →\$ < #

Chapter 1 – Transformations

Class Example 1.14 Determining the Horizontal / Vertical Translation from the equation

## For each pair of functions below,

i - Describe how the graph of function  can be obtained by transforming the graph of function .
ii – Provide a mapping rule for each.
iii – State the domain or range as prompted below

## (a)  \$ ( # (b)  \$ #2 (c)  ( # # 2

2
 \$ ( # 7 1  \$ # 6 4  \$ ( # 4 1

## i Description of transformations i Description of transformations i Description of transformations

from  to : from  to : from  to :

## Class Example 1.15 Sketching a graph using translations

Given each basic graph below, use transformations to sketch the indicated function on the same grid, and
provide a mapping rule. Be sure to carefully transform each point indicated ( ).
Indicate the domain and range of each sketched function. (Use either set or interval notation)

## Range: Range: Range:

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1.1 Practice Questions

1. Given the graphs below, state the domain (D) and range (R) for each function, in the notations specified.
Vertical Asymptote Vertical Asymptote
(a) (b) (c)
Horizontal
Asymptote

D:
D: D:
Set Interval
Set Interval Set
R:
R: R:
Set Interval
Set Interval Set

5
(d) , 17 (e) (f)
4

D: D: D:
Set Interval Set Interval Set

R: R: R:
Set Interval Set Interval Set

(g) (h)

D: D:
Set Interval

R: R:
Set Interval

Page |10
Chapter 1 – Transformations

2. Without graphing, state the domain and / or the range (as indicated) for each of the following functions.
(a) \$ 2 (b) ℎ # (c) \$
# 3 4 # 11 9 6 9# 3

D: D: D:

R: R: R:

1 # 3
(d) ( # (e) 1 # #? 12# 2 # 4 (f) \$
# 3 #2 # 6

D: D: D:

8
(g) < # (h) ( # 6 (i) \$ 5# 1 11
#2 7

D:

D: R: D:

#2 4
(j) \$ 5 2# 9 (k) \$ 6# 5 (l) < #
#2 3# 4

D:

R: D: D:

#
(m) \$ (n) \$ 3A 1
#2 # 5

D: D:

## Answers to Practice Questions on the previous page

1. (a) D: #| 3 ≤ # ≤ 6 , # ∈ ℝ or 3 ,6 (b) D: #|# 6 2, # ∈ ℝ or 2,∞ (c) D: #|# " 2, # ∈ ℝ
R: \$| 1 ≤ \$ ≤ 3 , \$ ∈ ℝ or 1,3 R: \$ ∈ ℝ or ∞, ∞ R: \$|\$ " 1, \$ ∈ ℝ
(d) D: # ∈ ℝ or ∞ ,∞ (e) D: #|# 4, # ∈ ℝ or 4,∞ (f) D: 4, 2, 0, 2, 6, 7
R: \$|\$ ≤ 17 , \$ ∈ ℝ or ∞, 17 R: \$|\$ ≤ 5, \$ ∈ ℝ or ∞, 5 R: 3, 1, 5, 6
(g) D: # ∈ ℝ or ∞ ,∞ (h) D: # ≤ 4, # ∈ ℝ or ∞,4
R: \$ ∈ ℝ or ∞ ,∞ R: \$|\$ 2, \$ ∈ ℝ or 2,∞

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1.1 Prerequisite Skills and Translations

3. For each pair of functions below, \$ < # is obtained by horizontally and / or vertically translating the graph
of \$ ( # . Provide the indicated equations / mapping rule below.

## (a) (b) (c) %

%

'
% '
'

i i
i Equation of < # in Equation of < # in
terms of ( # terms of ( #
Equation of < # in
terms of ( # ii
ii
Equation of < # in
iii Equation of < # in
terms of #
terms of #
Mapping rule of
\$ ( # →\$ < # iii iii
Mapping rule of Mapping rule of
\$ ( # →\$ < # \$ ( # →\$ < #

4. The graphs of each function below can be obtained by horizontally and / or vertically translating one of the
basic graphs. Determine an equation for each function, in terms of #. Then, indicate the domain and
range for each, in either set or interval notation.
Vertical Asymptote '
(a) (b) (c) /

Horizontal
Asymptote

i i i
Equation of ( # Equation of < # Equation of 5 #

ii ii ii
Domain Range Domain Range Domain Range

## Answers to Practice Questions on the previous page

2
2. (a) D: # ∈ ℝ or ∞ ,∞ (b) D: #|# 11 , # ∈ ℝ or 11 , ∞ (c) D: #|# ≤ 2/3 , # ∈ ℝ or ∞,
?
R: \$|\$ 4 , \$ ∈ ℝ or 4,∞ R: \$|\$ 9 , \$ ∈ ℝ or 9, ∞ R: \$|\$ 3 , \$ ∈ ℝ or 3 , ∞
(d) D: #|# " 3 ,# ∈ ℝ (e) D: # ∈ ℝ (f) D: #|# " 3, 2, # ∈ ℝ (g) D: # ∈ ℝ (h) D: # ∈ ℝ R: 6
(i) D: #|# 1/5, # ∈ ℝ (j) D: # ∈ ℝ R: \$|\$ 9, \$ ∈ ℝ (k) D: # ∈ ℝ (l) D: #|# " 1, 4, # ∈ ℝ
(m) D: # ∈ ℝ (n) D: # ∈ ℝ

Page |12
Chapter 1 – Transformations

5. The graphs of each function below can be obtained by horizontally and / or vertically translating one of the
basic function graphs. Sketch each indicated function by plotting a minimum of 4 points. Then, indicate
the domain and range of each sketched function, using either set or interval notation.

(a) (b)
( # # 4 3 1
< # 1
# 4

Domain
Domain

Range
Range

(c) (d)
2
ℎ # # 5 1 \$ #? 2

Domain Domain

Range Range

## 6. For each pair of functions below,

i - Describe how the graph of function  can be obtained by transforming the graph of function .
ii – Provide a mapping rule.
iii – State the domain or range where prompted below
(a)  \$ 1/# (b)  \$ ( # (c)  ( # # 1 2 2
1
 \$ 7  \$ ( # 7 1  \$ ( # 3 2
# 11

## i Description of transformations i Description of transformations i Description of transformations

from  to  from  to  from  to 

## iii Domain of function  iii Range of function 

3. (a) i < # ( # 2 4 (b) i < # ( # 3 ii < # # 3 (c) i < # ( # 4 ii < # # 4
ii #, \$ → # 2 ,\$ 4 iii #, \$ → # 3,\$ iii #, \$ → # , \$ 4

4. (a) i ( # #2 1 1
(b) i < # (c) i 5 # # 1 5
# 4
ii D: # ∈ ℝ R: 1, ∞ ii D: #|# " 4, # ∈ ℝ R: \$|\$ " 0, \$ ∈ ℝ ii D: #|# 1,# ∈ ℝ
R: \$|\$ 5,\$ ∈ ℝ

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1.1 Prerequisite Skills and Translations

7. Given each graph of the function \$ ( # , sketch the graph of the indicated function on the same grid.
(a) \$ ( # 5 (b) \$ ( # 2 4 (c) \$ ( # 5 6

8. Given each mapping rule for \$ ( # to a transformed function, state an equation for the transformed
function, in terms of ( # .
(a) #, \$ → # 1, \$ 2 (b) #, \$ → # 5, \$

## 9. The function \$ ( # is transformed to \$ 4 ( # 2 . The point B 11, 5 is on the graph of \$ ( # .

(a) Describe the transformations from \$ ( # (b) Determine the new coordinates of the
to \$ 4 ( # 2 . point B after the transformation.

10. A function ( # # 2 is transformed to \$ < # and \$ ℎ # by applying vertical translations, with the
effect described below. Determine the value and direction of the translation, and state an equation for the
transformed function, in terms of ( # and in terms of #.
(a) Determine the vertical translation applied if (b) Determine the vertical translation applied
\$ < # passes through 3, 13 . if \$ ℎ # passes through 4, 1 .

i i
Translation Translation
ii ii
Equation of < # in terms of ( # Equation in terms of ( #
iii iii
Equation of < # in terms of # Equation in terms of #

## Answers to Practice Questions on the previous page

5. (a) (b) (c) (d)
Vertical
Asymptote

Horizontal
Asymptote

## D: 4 , ∞ R: 3 , ∞ D: #|# " 4, # ∈ ℝ R: \$|\$ " 1, \$ ∈ ℝ D: ∞, ∞ R: 1,∞ D: # ∈ ℝ R: \$ ∈ ℝ

6. (a) i Horiz. translation 11 units right, (b) i Horiz. translation 7 units left, (c) i Horiz. translation 3 units left,
vert. translation 7 units down vert. translation 1 unit down vert. translation 2 units down
ii #, \$ → # 11, \$ 7 ii #, \$ → # 7, \$ 1 ii #, \$ → # 3, \$ 2
iii D: #|# " 11, # ∈ ℝ iii R: \$|\$ 0, \$ ∈ℝ

Page |14
Chapter 1 – Transformations
11. A function ( # # is transformed to \$ < # and \$ ℎ # by applying horizontal translations, with the
effect described below. Determine the value and direction of the translation, and state an equation for the
transformed function, in terms of ( # and in terms of #.
(a) Determine the horizontal translation applied (b) Determine the horizontal translation
if \$ < # passes through 7, 2 . applied if \$ ℎ # passes through 5, 5 .

i Translation: i Translation:

## iii Equation in terms of # iii Equation in terms of #

12. A function ( # # 2 ? 1 is transformed to \$ < # by applying vertical translation, so that the graph
of < # passes through the point 0, 2 . Determine the value and direction of the translation, and state an
equation for the transformed function, in terms of ( # and in terms of #.
i Translation: ii Equation in terms of ( # : iii Equation in terms of #

## 13. A function ( # # 1 4 is transformed to \$ < # by applying horizontal translation 5 units to the

left, and a vertical translation so that the graph of < # passes through the point 5, 15 . Determine the
value and direction of the vertical translation, and state an equation for the transformed function, in terms
of ( # and in terms of #.
i Translation: ii Equation in terms of ( # : iii Equation in terms of #

1
14. A function < # is transformed to \$ 5 # by horizontally translating the graph 7 unit left and
#
vertically translating 1 unit up, so the transformed graph passes through a point B 9, D .
Determine the value of D.

Step-by-step solutions, along with videos and additional practice exams, can be found at math30-1edge.com
7. (a) % & (b) (c) 8. (a) \$ ( # 1 2
(b) \$ ( # 5

## 9. (a) Horiz translation 2

\ right, vertical
translation 4 down.
(b) P becomes 9, 1
% % & C
10. (a) i vertical translation 4 units up (b) i vertical translation 15 units down
2
ii < # ( # 4 iii < # # 4 ii ℎ # ( # 15 iii ℎ # #2 15

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1.1 Prerequisite Skills and Translations

## 15. The graph of a function \$ ( # , shown on the right, is transformed to

create a function < # 9 ( # 5 .
The point on the graph of \$ < # that corresponds to point P is in:
 Exam
Style
C. Quadrant III E 3, 12

Vertical
Asymptote \$ < #
16. The function \$ < # , shown on the right, is transformed &
to 5 # 5 < # 6 .
State the domain and range of \$ 5 #

## 17. The graph of a function \$ ( # , shown on the right, has a vertex at

\$ ( #
4, 1 and an equation that can be written in the form \$ # ℎ 2 5.
A new function \$ < # is defined < # 5 ( # 9 .
Determine each of the following:
i
Domain of < # 4,1

ii
Range of < #

iii
Equation of < # in terms of #

## 18. The function \$ ( # , shown on the right, is transformed to \$ < #

by applying a horizontal translation.
If the graph of \$ < # passes through the point 2, 5 , an equation
for \$ < # , in terms of ( # , is:
%
Exam A. \$ ( # 4
 Style
B. \$ ( # 4
C. \$ ( # 3
E
D. \$ ( # 3

11. (a) i horizontal translation 3 units right (b) i horizontal translation 30 units left
ii < # ( # 3 iii < # # 3 ii < # ( # 30 iii < # # 30
?
12. i vertical translation 5 units down ii < # ( # 5 iii < # # 2 6
13. i vertical translation 8 units up ii < # ( # 5 8 iii < # # 4 12 14. D 1/2
2 18. D
15. C 16. D: # 6 1, # ∈ ℝ R: \$ ∈ ℝ 17. i #∈ℝ ii \$ 4,\$ ∈ ℝ iii \$ # 5 4

Page |16