You are on page 1of 18

# OPERATIONS on

FUNCTIONS
Dividing Functions p. 297
5.2 Composite Function p. 315

## 5.1 Adding, Subtracting, Multiplying and Dividing Functions

Functions – in our first four chapters we got in-depth on so many types of functions and their graphs!

(up to degree 5)

These along with functions we studied in prior Linear Quadratic Absolute Value
courses: (these were reviewed in chapter 1)

(polynomial (polynomial
degree 1) degree 2)

In this chapter we’ll apply various types of operations on these functions as well as other functions that could be
defined as just a set of ordered pairs, a graph, or a table. It will be a good review of were we’ve been so far,
while tying together some of the core function concepts studied earlier. Let’s get started….

Combining Functions

## 1 Use the graph of the three functions on the

right to complete the table below

## 2 Examine the table to determine

the relationship between the
4 –9 7 –2 values in each column.
3
2 3 State an equation for ℎ in terms
1 of and .
0
1 4 State an equation for in 6 Add the function equations for
terms of ℎ and . and to show that ℎ is the sum.
2
3
5 Determine a slope-intercept
4 form equation for ℎ .
5

Page |297
5.1 Adding, Subtracting, Multiplying, and Dividing Functions

## Two functions and can be combined as follows:

Sum of Functions can also be written

## Quotient of Functions can also be written

We can similarly combine functions and given their graphs, by adding / subtracting / multiplying / or
dividing all corresponding function values. (That is, the -coordinates)

## Worked The graphs of 2 6 and 3 ; 4 are shown

Example on the right.
(a) Sketch the graph of ℎ on the same grid
(b) State the simplified equation for ℎ , in terms of
(c) State the domain of the ℎ .
(d) State a simplified equation for !
; 4
and " Do not sketch

on each graph.

## Also at 5, the Keep moving right … 3

value of is . is the last point, beyond
that is undefined.
 When 5, the value (that is,
the y-coordinate) of is . Finished Graph!

So the value of ℎ at 5
 Next…. 3 3
is 5 5 ….
%

## Continue right to the next point …  When 4, the value of

is and the value of is 7
So the value of ℎ at 4
is 4 4 …. #

## (b) Subtract the functions: ℎ 2 6 3 …. simplifies to: ; 3

Include the same domain restriction as

(c) The domain of is & ∈ ℝ), while the domain of is & | 3, ∈ ℝ). So the graph of ℎ ,
which is based on the graphs of both and , similarly has a domain restriction. (For any greater
than 3, there are no values of , so our combined graph stops there)

## (d) ! 2 6 3 " 2 6 3  " 6 2 . 18 6

simplifies to: simplifies to:
, # ; 3 - ; 3 Remember the domain restriction!

Chapter 5 – Operations on Functions

## Given the graphs of the functions 1 and 5 ,

(a) Sketch the graph of ℎ , on the same grid. 0

! 2 do not graph

## Visit math30-1edge.com for solutions

to all warm-ups and class examples
(e) Determine a simplified equation, in terms of , for
" ⋅ do not graph

## DOMAIN of Combined Functions

The domain of a combined function must contain any restriction pertaining to either original function.

Example 1: Example 2:
. 5
4 2

## The domain of f(x) The domain of any*

is {x R} combined function
The domain of g(x) of f and g is:
is {x|x<5, x ∈ R} {x|x<5, x R}

## The domain of f(x) The domain of any*

is {x|x>–3, x ∈ R} combined function *For any combined function involving adding,
of f and g is: subtracting, or multiplying two functions
The domain of g(x)
{x|x>–3, x R}
is {x ∈ R}

*For or , we must also consider restrictions where the function in the denominator is zero.

## So for the functions given by the graph in example 1…..

f(x)
The domain of must also exclude –1, as g(–1) is 0
g(x)
{x|x>–3, x = –1, x R}

g(x) is zero at
And the domain of must also exclude –2, as g(–2) is 0
f(x) is zero at
{x|x>–3, x = –2, x R}
5.1 Adding, Subtracting, Multiplying, and Dividing Functions

## Worked The graphs of 3 and 2 are shown on

Example the right
(a) Sketch the graph of ! ⋅ on the same grid
(b) State the simplified equation for ! , in terms of
(c) State the domain of the ! .
(d) State an equation, and the domain, for ℎ
Do not sketch

## (a) We graph ! by multiplying

, ⋅
all corresponding function values.
(That is, the -coordinates)
End here:
… So the value of at
We will stick with -coordinates between
is , or
5 and 5, as beyond that, the function
values become too large.
Start here:
… The -coord. on the graph of ! is At 4, the At 0, the value
obtained by multiplying the value of is of is
corresponding -cords. on and . And the value
This process is shown for 4 and 0. of is
Then here:
In your solutions you’d do this for ALL points Also at 4, the … So the value of , is
that fit on the grid! ( 3, 2, 1, etc) value of is , or

## (b) Multiply the functions: ! 3 2 …. simplifies  ,

(c) The domain of and are both & ∈ ℝ). As there is no restriction, the domain of ! is also & ∈ ℝ).
Restrict value of that would
(d) Divide the functions: , Domain of ! is also 1 , ∈ ℝ). make the denominator 0

## Class Example 5.12 Combining Functions given their Graphs

2
Given , 5 4 and ℎ 3 1, state the domain of each combined function.

(c) (d) ℎ
(a) ℎ (b) ⋅

Chapter 5 – Operations on Functions

## Given the graphs of the functions and ,

(a) Sketch the graph of ℎ ⋅ , on the same grid.

both and .

0

## (d) State the domain of the three functions , , and ℎ.

(e) State the range of the three functions , , and ℎ. (f) State an equation, for !
Do not graph. State any domain restrictions.

## When to Include a domain restriction with a function equation

When a restriction on the domain is not implied by the equation itself, we must include it every time
we state the equation.
2
For example, the function above has an equation 3. But if we just left it at that, it
.
would incorrectly imply that the domain was & ∈ ℝ|
Now it’s clear that f(x) is
2 not a line, it cuts off!
So, we must include the restriction immediately afterward: 3; 8
.

## 3 Written like this, we are not required to state any domain

Another example: Consider the function . restriction – we can obtain them by factoring the denominator
9
3 1
But if we simplify …. 3 3 3
Now we have an issue! Someone looking at this function, not knowing that it came from simplifying
(canceling terms), might incorrectly assume that the only restriction is 1 .
So, we include restrictions anytime we write an 1
; 1 ±3
equation where something has been canceled 3

5.1 Adding, Subtracting, Multiplying, and Dividing Functions

## Worked The graphs of and are shown on the right.

Example is a linear function with a restricted domain.

same grid.

## (b) Given that the equation 2 . 1, and

1, determine a simplified equation for the
combined function ℎ .
Be sure to include any domain restrictions.

## We first note that g(x) has a restricted

domain, the graph starts at –2 Finally…
At 2 the value of is # and the value of is
So we start there / where both So at 0 the value of ℎ is # 6
functions are defined ….
At 3 the value of is % and the value of is
(Follow the notes counterclockwise So at 0 the value of ℎ is % 6 5
around the graph)
And then next we see that….
Start here At 1 the value of is and the value of is
At 2 the value of is 5 So at 0 the value of ℎ is 6
Keep it going! Next we see that….
At 0 the value of is and the value of is
So at 0 the value of ℎ is 6
… and at 2 the value of is
Next point moving right is at –1
So then… At 1 the value of is % … and the value of is %
At 2 the value of ℎ is 5 6 5 So the value of ℎ is % 6 %
Plot a point there …. we’re on our way! (zero divided by zero means Point of discontinuity … which we will
leave for now and determine the -coord. later)

## (a) Finished Must include the domain

Graph  (b) , ; 7
restriction in the equation

Simplify by factoring
, ; 7 the numerator:

, ; 7 , 1
And now we must also include the new restriction from
the canceled factor (can’t divide by zero)

(c) ; 7 ; 7
Graph has a point
of discontinuity at
1 2
; 7 2, 1 1, .

Chapter 5 – Operations on Functions

## The graphs of and are shown on the right.

- is a degree two function with a restricted domain.
Its equation can be written in the form 8 " 9 ;
where 8 1 and " and 9 are zeros.
- is a linear function with an equation " :.

## (c) Determine a simplified equation for ℎ .

*Be sure to include any domain restrictions.

(d) Use the equation to determine the range of , and the graphs to state the range of , and ℎ .

(e) Determine an equation for the following combined functions. (Do not graph)
Be sure to include any domain restrictions.

i ii iii

5.1 Adding, Subtracting, Multiplying, and Dividing Functions

## Graphing functions with restricted domains / graphing combined functions

 The previous example included a function with a restricted domain. You might ask – can I make a graph like
that on my graphing calculator? And the answer is yes, yes you can. Here’s the steps:

To graph 4 1 ; 2
Neat! Graph
- Put brackets around both the function and the restriction: “stops” at –2

## - In between, we put a divided sign

- Key in to access the sign
- GRAPH your resulting, domain restricted function!

 Next up – graphing combined functions. In the previous example, we also had 1, and wished
to graph the combined function ℎ .
Y1 
To graph (with its restricted domain), , and ℎ all together:

## Use the arrow up /

Combined
down keys to toggle
function Y3 
between graphs
Y2
To enter “;2 ”, “;. ” key in then

then select #1 function Notice that the graph of the combined function, ;< , “stops” at 2 just
like the graph of ;2 . (Your calc knows the rules of combining functions!)

## > That is: VARS … Y-VARs … FUNCTION

You can also compare the
Here we are dividing ;2 and ;. , however function values in TABLE:
we can perform any operation!

## Exploring Composite Functions Using DESMOS (free online graphing tool)

Here’s how you can graph these same functions using Click on “tools” to

5.1 Practice Questions

## 1. The graphs of and are shown on the right.

(a) On the same grid, sketch the graph of ℎ

## (b) Determine a slope-intercept form equation for and .

*Include any domain restrictions.

## (c) Determine a simplified equation for ℎ .

*Include any domain restrictions.

## (d) Use the graphs to state the range of , , and ℎ .

(e) Determine an equation for the following combined functions. (Do not graph – include domain restrictions)
i ii iii ⋅

## * When to include a domain restriction when stating a function equation:

Sometimes when we state the equation of a function, we are under no obligation to include a domain restriction, even if there
is one! For example, has a restricted domain, but we don’t need to include it when writing the equation
because it can be “seen”. (By examining the function and seeing its radical nature, the restriction 7 8 is implied)
But consider from example 5.14. When stating that equation, 4 1 ; 2 we are obligated to
include the domain restriction of 2, because that restriction is arbitrary, it is not evident in the equation.
1
This is similar to when we cancel terms. If we express a function .
, we need not include “ 1 ±1” after.
1
1 1
But if simplify this to … we must include “ 1 ±1”
1 1 1
(As there is no indication from the function equation that
1 is a non-permissible value, only 1 1 can be “seen”)
The bottom line
Always include a domain restriction whenever it cannot be seen in the function equation. Note that as you continue through
your practice - you will not always be reminded of this! So with that, here are few more reminders to tide you over:
Be sure to include any domain restrictions that cannot be “seen” in the function equation!
Be sure to include any domain restrictions that cannot be “seen” in the function equation!
Be sure to include any domain restrictions that cannot be “seen” in the function equation!

5.1 Adding, Subtracting, Multiplying, and Dividing Functions

## 2. The graphs of . 5 4 and are shown on the right.

(a) On the same grid, sketch the graph of ℎ

## (d) Use the graphs to state the range of and ℎ .

(e) Determine an equation for the following functions. (Do not graph – state the domain for ii and iii)

i ii iii

## (f) Compare the simplified equations of ℎ and ! .

Describe the relationship between these two functions using transformations terminology.

## (g) Determine the range of ℎ if the domain of is restricted to =0, 5?.

1. (a) ; 4
(b)
Graph of h(x) stops (c) ; 4 Domain is restricted by g(x).
corresponding 0- where g(x) stops
coordinates (d) : ∈ℝ : & | 7 2, ∈ ℝ) h: & | 6, ∈ ℝ)
Follow this process: Refer to the graphs for the range
ℎ 4 is (e) i 0 ; 4 (f) = 2, 6?
6 ii 0 ; 4
6
iii 0 % ; 4
%

Chapter 5 – Operations on Functions

## 3. The graphs of and are shown on the right.

(a) On the same grid, sketch the graph of ℎ ⋅

## (c) Determine a simplified equation for ℎ and state the domain

and range.

(d) Determine an equation for the following combined functions. (Do not graph)
i ii iii

## (e) Determine the range of ℎ ⋅ if the domain of is restricted to = 1, 5?.

2. (a) (b)
Simplifies:
(c) ℎ . \$
3 5 4
Subtract all
corresponding (d) : | 7 2.25, ∈ℝ h: & | 2, ∈ ℝ)
0-coordinates 5
(e) i 0 \$ ii 0 D: & | 1 3, ∈ ℝ)
ℎ 2 is % iii 0 D: & | 1 1, 1 4, ∈ ℝ)
2 Factor f(x) to determine domain (or … refer to graph / where is f(x) zero)
2
(f) Functions are vertical reflections (about the -axis) of each other
(g) Range will be = \$, ?

5.1 Adding, Subtracting, Multiplying, and Dividing Functions

## (c) Determine an equation for the following combined functions.

Do not graph. Include any domain restrictions. (obviously)
i ii

iii

## (e) Determine the domain and range of if the domain of is restricted

to & | 7 1, ∈ ℝ)

3. (a) (b) and 5

(c) 5 D: ∈ℝ R: | 9, ∈ℝ
Multiply all
corresponding (d) i 0 (constant function) ii 0 iii 0
5
0-coordinates Note: for iii – domain is not essential, as we did not cancel any terms.
However if you did express it – you’d have & | 1 5, ∈ ℝ)
ℎ 2 is \$ (e) Range would be =%, #?
2
2
\$

Chapter 5 – Operations on Functions

## 5. The graphs of and are shown, where is a radical function.

(a) State the domain of the following combined
functions. Do not graph.
i ii ⋅

iii iv

## (b) State the range of the following combined functions.

A graph is not required but may be helpful!

i ii

## (c) State the -intercept of

. 3 . 2 8
4. (a) 3 2 8 Factor to
(b) ℎ ℎ
Graph has 2 simplify: 2
PD at x=2 3 . 2 8 3 4 2
Divide all ℎ ℎ
2 2
corresponding
0-coordinates ; 12

(c) i 0 % ii 0
ℎ 3 is 5 6 5
4
3 iii 0 ; 1 , 12
3 3
5
(d) D: | 1 2, ∈ℝ R: & | 1 10, ∈ ℝ)

## (e) D: | 7 1, 1 2, ∈ℝ R: & | 7 1, 1 10, ∈ ℝ)

5.1 Adding, Subtracting, Multiplying, and Dividing Functions

6
6. Given , EF . 8 and ℎ 5 2 , state the (i) domain and (ii) -intercept of
3
each of the following combined functions. Try answering without using graphing technology!

(a) ℎ (b) ⋅ (c) (d)

(e) ℎ (f) (g)

7. Refer to the functions described above in question 6. Determine the -intercepts of the following combined
functions: ℎ
(a) (b)

5. (a) i | 5, ∈ℝ ii | 5, ∈ℝ
For reference …
iii | 5, 13, ∈ℝ iv | 5, 10, ∈ℝ the combined
(b) i graph:
| 7 3, ∈ℝ ii | 3, ∈ℝ

(c) 0, 3

Chapter 5 – Operations on Functions

## 8. The graphs of and are shown, where is a radical function.

(a) State the domain of the following combined
functions. Do not graph.
i ⋅

ii

iii

(b) State the range and -intercept of the following combined functions.
A graph is not required, but may be helpful!
i ⋅ ii
Range: Range:

y-intercept: y-intercept:

9. NR If 2 15 4 and is
 Exam
Style given by the graph on the right, then
the value of ⋅ 6 is _____.

6. (a) i | 1 3, ∈ℝ ii 0, 7 (b) i | < 8, 1 3, ∈ℝ ii 0, 6
(c) i | < 8, 1 5/2 , ∈ ℝ ii 0, 3/5 (d) i | <8, 17, ∈ℝ ii 0, 5/3
(e) i | < 8, ∈ℝ ii 0, 2 (f) i | 1 3, 1 5/2, ∈ ℝ ii 0, 2/5
(g) i | 1 3, ∈ℝ ii 0, 5/2
7. (a) 7, 0 (b) 5/2, 0

5.1 Adding, Subtracting, Multiplying, and Dividing Functions

10. Given 3, 4, and ℎ , state the (i) domain and (ii) -intercept of each
5
combined function. Try answering without using graphing technology!
ℎ ℎ
(a) ⋅ (b) ℎ (c) (d)

(e) (f) ℎ

11. Given EF 1 , 2 .
8, and ℎ . , state the (i) domain and (ii) -intercept
1
of each combined function. Try answering without using graphing technology!
ℎ ℎ
(a) ⋅ (b) ℎ (c) (d)

(e) (f) ℎ

8. (a) i | 5, ∈ℝ ii | 5, 13, ∈ℝ iii | 5, ∈ℝ

For
reference …
(b) i R: | 7 4, ∈ℝ y-int: 0, 9 ii R: | 70, ∈ℝ y-int: 0, 6

9.

Chapter 5 – Operations on Functions

## 12. Given the graphs of and shown on the

right, the range of ⋅ is:

A. | 7 6, ∈ℝ
 Exam
Style
B. | 12, ∈ℝ
C. | 6, ∈ℝ
D. | 7 12, ∈ℝ

## 13. Given the graphs of and shown on the right, the

range of is:

A. = 6, 5?
 Exam
Style
B. = 7, 5?
C. = 6, 8?
D. = 7, 8?

10. (a) i | 7 4, ∈ℝ ii 0, 6 (b) i | 1 5, ∈ℝ ii 0, 3
(c) i | 1 5, 13, ∈ℝ ii 0, 0 (d) i | J 4, ∈ℝ ii 0, 0
(e) i | 7 4, 13, ∈ℝ ii 0, 2/3 (f) i | 7 4, ∈ℝ ii 0, 2

## 11. (a) i | J 1, ∈ℝ ii 0, 0 (b) i | J 1, ∈ℝ ii 0, 0

(c) i | J 1, 10, ∈ℝ ii 0, 5 (d) i | 1 ±2 , ∈ℝ ii 0, 0
(e) i | 1 0, ∈ℝ ii undefined (f) i ∈ℝ ii 0, 8

5.1 Adding, Subtracting, Multiplying, and Dividing Functions

14. Two functions are given as < 49 and 7. A student is asked to provide an
expression which represents the combined function , including any restriction on the domain
from any canceled factor. The student provides the correct answer as:

A. 7 ; 1 0, ±7
 Exam
Style
B. 7 ; 17
1
C. ; 1 0, ±7
7
1
D. ; 17
7

15. The graph below shows a function and the table describes a function .

0
3 8
2 undefined
1 4
0 2
1 0
2 2
3 4

Style

## 16. The graph of ℎ , shown on the right, is obtained by ℎ

combining the graphs of and .

A. ℎ
B. ℎ
C. ℎ
D. ℎ ⋅