You are on page 1of 34

.

1332-50

1
1.1

1.2 SI (International System Units)


1 9.806
1.3

2
2.1
(Deterioration)
( )
(Drying Shrinkage)

(Autogeneous Shrinkage)
(Chemical Shrinkage)
(Capillary Tension)
(Physical Shrinkage due to Self-desiccation)
(Durability)
(Carbonation Depth)


(Maintenance-Free)

. 1332-50



(Binder)


(Service Life)

2.2
= /
B

=
C0
=
Cld

=
Cldo


=
Cllim

=
Cmin
= /
Cls
Da
= (Apparent Chloride Diffusion
Coefficient) /
= (Apparent Chloride Diffusion Coefficient)
Dk
/
= (Apparent Chloride Diffusion Coefficient)
Do
/
=
f c'
= 28
f c' ( 28 )
= /
k
= ( 2 2
kr
. 2135-2545 ... 1014-46)
. 1332-50

l
RH
S

=
=
=
=

tc

t0

t0c

tr

ts

ti

Ti
V
V/S

w
wa

w/b

=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=

Xc

(Crack Spacing)



20C

20C


( 0 1 )
20C
Ti
ti

. 1332-50

'as ( t )

'as ( t,t0 )

'as

'
cs
( t,t0 )

'ds ( t,t0 )

'ds

'sh

t
x10-6
t0 t
x10-6
x10-6
t0 t x10-6
t0 t x10-6
x10-6
x10-6

3
3.1
3.1.1


()
()
()

3.1.2

()
()
()
()

. 1332-50

3.1.3

()

()
()
3.1.4

()

()


1)

()

2)




. 1332-50

3)
(Standard
Accelerated Test)

4)






5)



6)

7)
(
) /
/
(Standard Sulfate Expansion or Weight Loss
Test)
. 1332-50

8)

9)

10)

(Specified Accelerated Degradation Test)
3.2


(Maintenance-Free Service Life) 25



1
1

( 3.2)

1.
)

) /

. 1332-50

1 ()

( 3.2)

2.
)

) /

3.
)

)

4.

5.
)

6. (
)
)

7. (

)
8.
( 100%)
9.

10.

11.

. 1332-50





( 9)
4
4.1



(4.1-)

Cmin = C0

2 ( )
( 4.1)
( w/b )

( f c' ) 28
w/b > 0.65 f c' < 20 MPa
1.2
0.45 w/b 0.65 20 MPa
w/b

< 0.45

f c'

f c'

40 MPa

> 40 MPa

1.0
0.9*

(*) 20 .
1.0

. 1332-50

3 ( C0 )
( 4.1)

()
75
1)

2)
50
16 .
40
16 .
3)

40
- 40 .
20
- 36 .

40
-

40
-
() ()
1)

40
- 40 .
20
- 36 .

50
- 40 .
40
- 19 . 36 .
30
- 16 .

. 1332-50

10

3 () ( C0 )
( 4.1)

2)

- 40 .
30
- 36 .
15

-
25
-
30
100
()
4 ( C0 )

( 4.1)

()
50

65

() ()
40

50

Cmin
Cmin
5.1 5.2

. 1332-50

11

4.2

3.2


1) ..... 0.50
2)
0.50
3)
.. 0.45

5.1 5.2

4.3






5

. 1332-50

12

5
( 4.3)

0.005 C
0.004 C

0.004 C

0.0035 C

(C) 100 . 100 .

4.4
(Chloride Ions)


(
) (CaCl2)

()
6

. 1332-50

13

6
( 4.4)

()
0.06
()
0.15
(Sea-Retaining
Walls)
()
1.00

()
0.30
ASTM C 1218/C 1218M
: Standard Test Method for Water-Soluble Chloride in Mortar and Concrete
5
5.1


-




i ( Cld + Cldo ) < Cllim

Cllim

(5.1-)

0.4
1.0
15 1.1
15

. 1332-50

14

( Cld )

C ld =

C ls 1 - erf


2 Datr
100
B

(5.1-)

( Cls ) 7

-
13.0

7
( 5.1)

(.)

100
250
500
1000
9.0
4.5
3.0
2.0
1.5

(Apparent Chloride Diffusion Coefficient,



Da = c Dk +(w/l) (w/wa )2 D0

Da )

(5.1-)

200 .2 /
c
1.3 1.1

(Apparent Chloride Diffusion Coefficient)


( Dk ) 1

Do

. 1332-50

15


(.2/2/

(
))

0.6000
0.5000

0.4000
0.3000

0.2000
0.1000

0.0000
0.40

0.50

0.60

1 (Apparent Chloride Diffusion Coefficient)



( 5.1)

(1)

28-42
6
(2)

5.2




. 1332-50

16



C i Xc

1.0
15 1.1
15

X c = 1 2 k tr

(5.2-)

( Xc )
(5.2-)

1.0 0.95

( 2 ) 8
1

8
( 5.2)

0.65

0.85

1.00
2

. 1332-50

17

CO 2 Concentration (ppm)

CO2 ( ppm)

1000
800

600

400
200

0
60

70

80

humidity
(%)
Relative
(%)

90

100

2
( 5.2)
( k )
(5.2-)

k = 17.5 k r (w/b)3

( kr ) 3 (
2 2 . 2135-2545 ... 1014-46)

3.00
2.50
2.00
1.50

22

22

1.00
0.50
0

10

20

30

40

50

(%)
(%)

3
( 5.2)

. 1332-50

18



0.65
50
( k )
(5.2-)
0.65
50
6
6.1

()
(Ultimate Drying Shrinkage Strain) 9
10
1
9 (Ultimate Shrinkage Strain)
( 6.1)
x10-6
*

3 4 7
28
3
1

400
350
230
200
120

730
620
380
260
130
*

9 55 MPa (
70 MPa )
160-180 ./.. 350-400 ./..
150 . 9
. 1332-50

19

20 C 65 40
50
10 (Ultimate Shrinkage Strain)
( 1)
( 6.1)
x10-6
*

3 4 7
28
3
1

340
290
180
160
120

620
520
310
210
120
*





(6.1-)
55 MPa ( 70 MPa
)

'
cs
( t,t0 ) = 1 exp 0.108 ( t t0 )

0.56

V / S
RH
+ 380 loge W 50 loge
100


10

'sh = 500 + 780 1 exp

(6.1-)

'
sh

(6.1-)

45% RH 80%
130 ./.. W 230 ./..
100 . V / S 300 .

. 1332-50

20


(6.1-) 20C
20C t0
t (6.1-)
(6.1-)
t0c

i =1

tc = ti exp 13.65

4000

273 + Ti / T0

(6.1-)

T0
1C

20C ( 0-40C)
0.40-0.65
1
( 55 MPa )
(6.1-)
80 MPa
(6.1-) (6.1-)
' t,t = ' t,t + ' t,t
cs
( 0 ) ds ( 0 ) as ( 0 )

'ds ( t,t0 ) =

'ds ( t t0 )
+ ( t t0 )

4W V / S
100 + 0.7t0

(6.1-)
(6.1-)
(6.1-)

'ds
'
ds =
1 + t0

(6.1-)

'ds

(6.1-)

c (1 RH / 100 )W

500
1 + 150 exp '

f c ( 28 )

. 1332-50

21

= 104 15 exp 0.007 fc' ( 28) + 0.25W

(6.1-)

130 ./.. W 230 ./..


100 . V / S 300 .
40% RH 90%
f c' ( 28 ) 80 MPa
c
11 1
15 3
1 t0 98 , t0 = 98 t0 > 98
Stiffness
9 10
1
6.2

t0 11
11 t0
( 6.2)
x10-6
28
t0 ()
()
1
3
7
100
230
110
50
80
160
80
40
60
150
90
50

11
(1) 28
(2) 40%
(3) 1
. 1332-50

22

'as (t,t0 ) (6.2-) (6.2-)

'as ( t,t0 ) = 'as ( t ) 'as ( t0 )

(6.2-)

'as ( t ) = b 'as 1 exp a ( t ts )

(6.2-)

1 1
( 'as ) (6.2-)
b

(6.2-)

'as = 3070 exp {7.2 (W / C )}

a b 12
12 a b (6.2-)
( 6.2)
W /C

0.20
0.23
0.30
0.40
> 0.50

1.2
1.5
0.6
0.1
0.03

0.4
0.4
0.5
0.7
0.8

(6.1-)
7



2 /

. 1332-50

23

7.1
13
14
13
( 7.1)
(SO42-)

(ppm)
(% )

150
0.1

150 1500
0.1 0.2

1500 10000
0.2 2.0

10000
2.0
14
( 7.1)

2 5 1
0.50

5 1
0.45
1 5
0.40

1
5 ()
4

. 1332-50

24

,%

,
(% )

50
45

w/b=0.40
w/b = 0.40

w/b = 0.45
w/b=0.45
w/b = 0.50
w/b=0.50

40
35

w/b = 0.55

w/b=0.55

30
25
20
15
2

8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24

CaO
,
% )
CaO
, (
%

4 1
( 7.1)
7.2
15

16
15
( 7.2)
(ppm)

300

300 1000

1000 3000

3000

. 1332-50

25

16
( 7.2)

1 2 5
0.50

5
0.45

5
0.40

(1)

(2) 0.35

8
48 (.. 2540)
.. 2522
17
17 ( C0 )
( 8)

()
40
1) 300
40
2)
300
40
3) 300
20
4) 115

. 1332-50

26

17 () ( C0 )
( 8)

()
75
1)
2)
115
- 200 (unrestrained)
65
- 300 (unrestrained)
50
- 200 (restrained)
45
- 300 (restrained)
40
3) 115
4) 115
40
- (unrestrained)
20
- (restrained)

1.
( 2) .. 2550
2. 48 (.. 2540) .. 2522

1

50
20 . 600
ppm 70%

3 ( C0 ) = 20 . [ ()
16 .]
. 1332-50

27


Cmin = C0
2 = 1.0 w/b 0.45-0.65
28 20-40 MPa

Cmin = C0 = 1.0 x 20 = 20 .
(5.2-)
Cmin i X c
( i ) = 1.1
15

Xc

Cmin

20
1.1
18.18

Xc
Xc

------------(1)

X c = 1 2 k tr
(5.2-)
( 1 ) = 1.0 []
( 2 ) = 1.0 ( 2
600 ppm 70%
8 2 = 1.0)
( k ) (5.2-)
k = 17.5 k r (w/b)3
1 1
3
kr = 1.0

k = 17.5 1.0 (w/b)3 = 17.5(w/b)3


X c = 1.0 1.0 17.5(w/b)3 50 = 123.74(w/b)3
------------(2)
(1) = (2)
18.18 = 123.74(w/b)3

w/b = (18.18/123.74)1/3 = 0.53


( w/b 2 )
2 2 20
kr = 1.5
3

k = 17.5 1.5 (w/b)3 = 26.25(w/b)3


X c = 1.0 1.0 26.25(w/b)3 50 = 185.62(w/b)3
------------(3)
(1) = (3)
18.18 = 185.62(w/b)3
w/b = (18.18/185.62)1/3 = 0.46

. 1332-50

28

( w/b 2 )

1
0.53 2 20
0.46 20 .
2

20 Girder (Jetty)

4
( C0 ) = 65 . [ ()]

Cmin = C0
2 = 1.0 w/b 0.45-0.65
28 20-40 MPa

Cmin = C0 = 1.0 x 65 = 65 .
(5.1-)
i ( Cld + Cldo ) < Cllim
( Cllim ) = 0.4 %

( i ) = 1.1
15

Cldo = 0
() ( Cld )
Cld <

Cllim

0.4
1.1
< 0.364

Cld <
Cld

(5.1-)

C ls 1 - erf

C ld =

------------(1)

Cmin


2 Datr
100
B

. 1332-50

29

- 7
( B ) = 350 ./.3

1 - erf

Cls

= 13.0 ./.3

Cmin C ld B 0.364 350


=
= 0.098

=
2 D t C ls 100
13
100

a
r

Cmin
erf
= 1 0.098 = 0.902
2 D t
a
r

Cmin = 1.17
2 Datr


Cmin
6.5

Da =
= 0.621
=
2 1.17 t 2 1.17 20
r

Da = 0.6212 = 0.386

------------(2)

(5.1-)
Da = c Dk +(w/l) (w/wa )2 D0
5
( wa ) = 0.0035 x 65
= 0.23 .
( w ) = 0.23 .
( wa ) ()
( l ) = 300 . (
)
( D0 ) = 200 .2/
( c ) = 1.3
2
Da = (1.3 x Dk ) + [(0.23 / 300)(0.23 / 0.23) (200)]
Da = 1.3 Dk + 0.153
------------(2)
(2) = (3)
0.386 = 1.3 Dk + 0.153
Dk = (0.386 0.153) / 1.3 = 0.179

1 Dk w/b
Dk = 0.179 w/b = 0.465

20
. 1332-50

30

1 0.465
65 .
3
7, 30 60
1 0.3

t ( 'as (t ) )
(6.2-)

'as ( t ) = b 'as 1 exp a ( t ts )

30C t
(6.1-)

(7 )

i =1

= ti exp 13.65

= 7 exp 13.65

4000

273 + Ti / T0

4000
273 + 30

= 11
t

i =1

(30 ) = ti exp 13.65 2734000


+T / T

= 30 exp 13.65

4000
273 + 30

= 47
t

i =1

(60 ) = ti exp 13.65 2734000


+T / T

= 60 exp 13.65

4000
273 + 30

= 94
( ts ) 1
= 0.3
( 'as ) (6.2-)
'as = 3070 exp {7.2 (W / C )}
= 3070 exp (-7.2 x 0.3)
= 354
1 b = 1
12 = 0.3 a = 0.6 b = 0.5
. 1332-50

31

7 ( 'as ( 7 ) )

'as ( 7 ) = 1 354 1 exp 0.6 (11 1)

0.5

} = 301

30 ( 'as (30) )

'as ( 30) = 1 354 1 exp 0.6 ( 47 1)

0.5

} = 348

60 ( 'as ( 60) )

'as ( 60 ) = 1 354 1 exp 0.6 ( 94 1)

0.5

} = 353

4
30 60 0.65
(.. 180 ./..)
75% 7
( V / S ) = 150 .

28 55 MPa (6.1-)

'
cs
( t,t0 ) = 1 exp 0.108 ( t t0 )

0.56

'
sh

30C t t0
(6.1-)

t0

(7 )

i =1

= ti exp 13.65

= 7 exp 13.65

4000

273 + Ti / T0

4000
273 + 30

= 11
t

(30 )

i =1

= ti exp 13.65

= 30 exp 13.65

4000

273 + Ti / T0

4000
273 + 30

= 47
t

i =1

(60 ) = ti exp 13.65 2734000


+T / T

= 60 exp 13.65

4000
273 + 30

= 94
( RH ) = 75%
. 1332-50

32

( W ) = 180 ./..
( V / S ) = 150 .
( 'sh ) (6.1-)

V / S
RH
+ 380 loge W 50 loge
100


10

'sh = 500 + 780 1 exp

'sh

75
150
= 500 + 780 1 exp
+ 380 log e (180 ) 50 log e

100
10

= 235
30 ( 7 ) ( cs' ( 30,7 ) )

'
cs
( 30,7 ) = 1 exp 0.108 ( 47 11)

0.56

} 235 = 130

60 ( 7 ) ( cs' ( 60,7 ) )

'
cs
( 60,7 ) = 1 exp 0.108 ( 94 11)

0.56

} 235 = 170

. 1332-50

33